Marketing and market queens [Elektronische Ressource] : a study of tomato farmers in the upper east region of Ghana / vorgelegt von Awo Martha Adimabuno
213 Pages
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Marketing and market queens [Elektronische Ressource] : a study of tomato farmers in the upper east region of Ghana / vorgelegt von Awo Martha Adimabuno

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Marketing and market queens: a case of tomato farmers in the Upper East Region of Ghana Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Philosophischen Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn vorgelegt von Awo Martha Adimabuno aus Navrongo, Ghana Bonn 2010 Gedruckt mit Genehmigung der Philosophischen Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn Zusammensetzung der Prüfungskommission: Prof. Dr. Conrad Schetter (Vorsitzender) Prof. Dr. Solvay Gerke (Betreuerin und Gutachterin) Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers (Gutachter) Prof. Dr. Werner Gephart (weiteres prüfungsberechtigtes Mitglied) Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 26.10.2010 Marketing and market queens: a case of tomato farmers in the Upper East Region of Ghana Dedication This thesis is dedicated to my late mother Sarah Ayeribire, who has been a mentor and a friend, nurtured me to know that higher heights can be achieved one step at a time. To my late father Mr Abraham Atopurige, whose best gift of enrolling me in school has brought me this far. My brother Malex Alebikiya, has played the role of a father and a brother to perfection. Throughout my life, you have actively supported me in my ambition to realize my potential.

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Published 01 January 2010
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Marketing and market queens:
a case of tomato farmers in the Upper East Region of
Ghana




Inaugural-Dissertation
zur
Erlangung der Doktorwürde
der
Philosophischen Fakultät
der
Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität
zu Bonn


vorgelegt von

Awo Martha Adimabuno

aus
Navrongo, Ghana


Bonn 2010

Gedruckt mit Genehmigung der Philosophischen Fakultät
der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn























Zusammensetzung der Prüfungskommission:
Prof. Dr. Conrad Schetter
(Vorsitzender)
Prof. Dr. Solvay Gerke
(Betreuerin und Gutachterin)
Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers
(Gutachter)
Prof. Dr. Werner Gephart
(weiteres prüfungsberechtigtes Mitglied)



Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 26.10.2010














Marketing and market queens:
a case of tomato farmers in the Upper East Region of
Ghana


Dedication
This thesis is dedicated to my late mother Sarah Ayeribire, who has been a mentor and a
friend, nurtured me to know that higher heights can be achieved one step at a time. To my
late father Mr Abraham Atopurige, whose best gift of enrolling me in school has brought
me this far. My brother Malex Alebikiya, has played the role of a father and a brother to
perfection. Throughout my life, you have actively supported me in my ambition to realize
my potential. You took over the responsibility from father, never questioning the
consequences, but for you, I would not have realized this dream of contributing to
academic knowledge.

Table of contents
List of Figures ...................................................................................................................... i
List of Tables ....................... i
List of Maps ......................... i
List of Photographs .............................................................................................................. i
List of Abbreviations .......... ii

Abstract .............................................................................................................................. iv
Deutsche Kurzzusammenfassung ...................... vi
Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................... xiv

1 Introduction ............. 1

2 The Ghanaian economy and the study area in a broader perspective ..................... 8
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 8
2.2 Economic crisis and policy implementation ........................... 8
2.2.1 Economic adjustment: the performance of the agricultural sector .............. 11
2.2.2 The changes in the food sector following SAP ........................................... 15
2.3 The effect of agricultural policies and market interference on inputs and outputs 16
2.3.1 The destabilisation of the tomato sub-sector ............... 18
2.3.2 An overview of ECOWAS trade policies .................................................... 21
2.4 The research area................................................................................................... 23
2.4.1 The Upper East Region ................ 23
2.4.2 A Study of the Kassena Nankane District and Communities ...................... 26
2.4.3 Social Organisation in the KND .................................................................. 28
2.4.4 The Local Economy ..................................................... 30
2.5 The Impact of Environmental and Climatic Changes ........... 33
2.6 Irrigation, Tomato Production and Marketing: Historical Perspectives ............... 35
2.7 Players Involved in the Tomato Market Sector..................................................... 38
2.8 Conclusion ............................................................................ 39

3 The Discourse in Agricultural Risks, Traders’ Dilemma and Power Relations ... 40
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 40
3.2 Risks and Risk Factors in Agriculture .. 40

3.2.1 Risks Management Strategies ...................................................................... 43
3.2.2 Reasons for the Absence of Insurance Companies in Rural Societies ........ 45
3.2.3 Risks Related to Tomato Production and Trade .......... 47
3.3 The Traders’ Dilemma .......................................................................................... 49
3.3.1 Solutions to the Traders’ Dilemma .............................. 51
3.4 Power: an important tool in rural markets............................. 53
3.4.1 The power of market associations ............................................................... 55
3.4.2 Power asymmetry within market Associations ........................................... 56
3.5 Conceptual framework .......................................................... 58
3.5.1 Conceptualisation of the study within a theoretical perspective ................. 58
3.6 Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 61

4 Tomato Marketing in Ghana, the Dilemma, Risks and Power Structures ............ 62
4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 62
4.2 The structure of the food market in Ghana ........................................................... 62
4.2.1 The making of a market queen .... 65
4.2.2 The strength of the association of tomato women ....................................... 67
4.3 The weakness of the farmers’ cooperative ............................................................ 69
4.4 Identification of the market players and their functions ....... 71
4.5 Tomato marketing at the district level .................................. 80
4.5.1 The marketing structure and power dynamics ............. 82
4.6 Risks experienced within the tomato sector .......................................................... 86
4.6.1 Risk management strategies adopted to combat local factors ..................... 93
4.7 Market players and the traders’ dilemma in the tomato sector ............................. 96
4.8 Economic and socio-cultural factors that contribute to survival of the sector .... 100
4.8.1 Cost analysis of tomato production and trade ........................................... 100
4.9 The importance of Social-capital in tomato production ...... 107
4.9.1 The socio-cultural values that support production .... 110
4.10 Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 112

5 Regional trade policies and trends at the national level ...... 114
5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 114
5.2 Cross border trade at a regional level .. 114
5.2.1 The tomato sector in Burkina Faso ............................................................ 115
5.3 Tomato marketing between Ghana and Burkina Faso ........................................ 120

5.3.1 Conflicting reasons why traders prefer Burkina Faso tomatoes ................ 125
5.4 Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 129

6 Global policies: the state of the domestic processing sector ............................... 130
6.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 130
6.2 Brief overview of the dynamics in the processing sector ... 130
6.3 The new tomato factory and International Investment; conflicting interests ...... 132
6.3.1 Revamp of the Pwalugu tomato factory .................................................... 134
6.3.2 An effort to ban tomato imports and emerging problems in the new factory
139
6.4 Local agro-processing methods practiced ........................................................... 142
6.5 Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 145

7 Tomato farming: economic and social implications ........... 147
7.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 147
7.2 How global trade shaped the internal processes of production ........................... 147
7.2.1 Traders position and the market 150
7.2.2 Social dimensions of the risks associated with tomato traders .................. 152
7.3 Internal politics: the manipulative power of government and foreign investment
............................................................................................................................. 153
7.3.1 Aspects of dilemma and risks in foreign investment ................................. 155
7.3.2 Influence of power: a case at the local level .............. 156
7.4 Local investment and marketing strategies: the Influence on society................. 158
7.5 Analysing the significance of socio-economic factors that support production . 160
7.6 Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 162

8 Conclusions and Recommendations ... 164

....................................................................................................................... 170 References

Appendix ......................... 186



List of Figures
Figure 2.1 Economic sectors ............................................................................................. 14
Figure 2.2 Tomato paste imported into Ghana ................................. 20
Figure 2.3 Major exporters of tomato paste to Ghana ...................... 20
Figure 2.4 Shallow groundwater irrigation in the KND ................................................... 38
Figure 3.1 Framework of theoretical concepts . 59
Figure 4.1 the food market chain in Ghana ....................................... 64
Figure 4.2 Players involved in the tomato market chain .................. 72
Figure 4.3 the powerful position of Interpreters ............................... 77
Figure 4.4 Interaction among market players ................................... 79
Figure 4.5 Traders Costs and benefits (GH cedis per 54 kg crates) 106
Figure 5.1 Tomatoes imports from Burkina Faso ........................................................... 126


List of Tables
Table 4.1 Costs of production, incorporating the value of family labour ....................... 103
Table 4.2 Costs of production (Assumes family labour is free) ..................................... 104
Table 5.1 Popular tomato production areas in BF .......................................................... 120
Table 5.2 Tomato varieties and brix (°Bx) level ............................. 128


List of Maps
Map 2.1 Upper East Region and Kasena Nankane District .............................................. 27
Map 5.1 Trade routes from Ghana to production centres in Burkina Faso ..................... 122


List of Photographs
Photograph 4.1 Accra tomato queen mother (Julia Naa Mensah) .................................... 67
Photograph 4.2 Harvesters and sorters on a tomato farm ................. 74
Photograph 4.3 Basins of tomatoes brought to district market and roadside trade ........... 81
Photograph 4.4 Tomato Irrigation through wells and dugouts ......... 87
Photograph 4.5 Tomato truck accident on the way to Accra ............................................ 89
Photograph 4.6 Farmers moulding blocks from tomato proceeds .. 112
Photograph 5.1 Solar dried tomatoes and mangoes in BF .............. 119
Photograph 5.2 a leader negotiating prices with farmers in BF ...... 124
Photograph 6.1 Brands of tomato paste in KCM market ................................................ 131
Photograph 6.2 NSTC processing plants and TFL in Ghana .......... 141
Photograph 6.3 Dried tomato and milling machine ........................ 144
Photograph 7.1 Retailers struggle in a moving truck to get tomatoes to sell .................. 151
Photograph 7.2‘Obaapa’ tomato paste and textile ......................................................... 159

i
List of Abbreviations
ALADI Latin American Integration Association
AMA Metropolitan Authorities
ASEAN Association of South-East Asian Nations Market
CACM Central American Common Market
CEPS Customs Excise and Preventive Service
CMB Cocoa marketing Board
CSIR Center for Scientific and Industrial Research
DA District Assembly
DDT Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane’
ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
ERP Economic Recover Program
EU European Union
FORIG Forestry Research Institute of Ghana
FTZ Free Trade Zone
GAPTO Ghana, Agricultural Producers Tomato Organization
GDP Gross Domestic Products
GNA Ghana News agency
ICOUR Irrigation Company of Upper Region
IMF International Monetary Fund
INERA Institut de l'environnement et des Recherches Agricoles
ISSER Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research
KCM Kumasi Central Market
KND Kassena Nnankane District
KNE Kassena Nnankane East
KNW Kassena Nnankane West
MD Managing Director
MoTI Ministry of Trade and Industry
MOU Memorandum of understanding
NGO Non Governmental Organization
NSTC Northern Star Tomato Factory
PVL Prairie Volta Limited
ii
SAPs Structural Adjustments programs
SARI Savannah Agricultural Research Institute
SSA Sub-Saharan Africa
SWAPO Sirigu Women’s Organization of Pottery and Art
TFL Trusty Foods Company Limited
TNC Trans-National Corporations
TYLCV Tomato Yellow Leave Curl Virus
UER Upper East Region
UN United Nations
UNWFP United Nations World Food Program
VAT Value Added Tax
WB World Bank
WHO World Health Organization
iii