Handbook of Epidemiology

Handbook of Epidemiology

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English

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When I was learning epidemiology nearly 50 years ago, there was barely one suitable textbook and a handful of specialized monographs to guide me. Information and ideas in journals were pretty sparse too. That all began to change about 25 years ago and soon we had a plethora of books to consider when deciding on something to recommend to students at every level from beginners to advanced postgraduates. This one is different from all the others. There has never been a single source of detailed descriptive accounts and informed discussions of all the essential aspects of practical epidemiology, written by experts and intended as a desk reference for mature epidemiologists who are in practice, probably already specializing in a particular ?eld, but in need of current information and ideas about every aspect of the state of the art and science. Without a work like this, it is dif?cult to stay abreast of the times. A comprehensive current overview like this where each chapter is written by acknowledged experts chosen from a rich international pool of talent and expertise makes the task considerably easier.

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Published 26 July 2007
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EAN13 9783540265771
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Index
Aalen model, 719, 720 Abortion spontaneous, 1051, 1052 Acceptability of the test, 1279 Acceptable daily intake (ADI), 955 Access, 1494 Acheson report, 909 ACMV,seeCase missing values, available (ACMV) Activism, 1320 Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), 1548, 1558 Adduct, 1112 adenocarcinoma of the vagina, 50 ADI,seeacceptable daily intake (ADI) Adjacency matrix, 877 Adjusted life years lost disability, 164 quality, 164 Adjustment, 110 for energy intake, 1027 for nonresponse, 967 Adverse drug reaction, 1226 underreporting of, 1231 Advocacy, 1320 Affectedsibpair method, 1160 Affordability, 1606 Age, 185–187 Alcohol drinking, 618, 1419, 1420 American College of Cardiology, 1392 American Heart Association, 1392 Analysis, 541–546 ageperiodcohort, 201, 203 association, 1143, 1161–1164 categorical, 937 complete case,seeComplete case analysis costbenefit, 1500 costeffectiveness, 1500
costutility, 1500 deltabeta, 686, 687 doseresponse,seeDoseresponse, analysis linkage, 1143, 1156–1161 meta,seeMetaanalysis multivariate,seeMultivariate analysis risk, 954 segregation, 1141, 1151–1155 sensitivity,seeSensitivity, analysis statistical, 490, 491 survival,seeSurvival, analysis uncertainty,seeUncertainty analysis Analytical study, 18, 19, 29–32 Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical coding system, 1256 Androgen endogenous, 1426 Anomalies congenital, 1079 Approach Finkelstein’s,seeFinkelstein’s approach highrisk, 1392 KaplanMeier,seeKaplanMeier, approach lifetable, 712 populationwide, 1392 Appropriateness, 1511 ARI,seeAcute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Arrhythmia, 1364 Asbestos, 47, 1422 Assessment causality, 1230 performance, 1515–1518 Assigned share, 138 Association, 77, 1388 confounded measure of, 78 measure of, 77 spurious, 1161
1620
Index
structured, 1162 study − −family based, 1162 Atherosclerosis, 1364, 1365, 1370–1378 pathology of, 1371 Atherosclerotic plaque, 1364 Autocorrelation spatial, 873, 877 Autonomy, 1600, 1601 Autopsy oral, 1560 Available case method, 780 Average shifted histogram, 871
Ba Vi research project, 1562 Back disorders, 1444 Bahadur model, 800 Barker, 1089 Baseline, 607 Bayes theorem, 1182 Bayesian thinking, 1176 Bayesianism, 54, 55 Beneficence, 1600–1602 Benzene, 1423 Berkson bias, 309, 733, 735, 736, 740, 743, 745, 749, 930 Bias, 57, 133, 346, 349, 359, 361, 363, 366, 373, 478, 479, 847, 848, 1131, 1132, 1184, 1284 ascertainment, 1152 Berkson,seeBerkson bias channeling, 1226 cross level,seeBias, ecological detection, 57 diagnostic, 80, 81 ecological, 183 immortal time, 1248 information, 81–85, 382, 383 interviewer, 457 length, 1284, 1285 media, 1231 nonresponse, 967 overdiagnosis, 1278, 1284, 1286 publication, 15, 837, 838, 1123 recall, 82, 457, 722 selection, 80, 81, 291, 308–310, 381–383, 1284, 1286 − −due to nonresponse,seeBias, non response selfselection, 80 Bioethics, 1608 Biological interpretation, 1123 Biomarker, 30, 923, 1008
Bioterrorism, 1333, 1342 Biparietal diameter, 1075 Birth cohort, 186 Birth weight, 1072–1074 optimal, 1074 Bismarcktype system, 1496 Black box, 312 Black report, 909 Blinding, 1185 Bloemfontein Vitamin A Trial, 1563 Blood cholesterol high, 1366 Blood pressure high, 1366 Bone mineral density measurement, 1462 Bootstrapping, 874 Bordetella pertussis, 1332 British Doctors’ Study, 974 British India, 1565
Caesarean section, 1096 Calibration, 519 Cancer, 31, 1406 breast, 618 endometrial, 57 incidence, 1559 laryngeal, 618, 619 lung, 296, 615 Candidate gene, 1142 Capacity to benefit, 1492 Capitation riskadjusted, 1503–1506 weighted, 1502 Carcinoma, 1406 Case confirmed, 1341 probable, 1341 suspected, 1338, 1341 Case definition, 1341, 1351 Case fatality, 161, 162, 1366 of myocardial infarction, 243 Case management, 34 Case missing values available (ACMV), 812, 816, 821 complete (CCMV), 813, 816, 821 neighboring (NCMV), 813, 816, 821 Case register, 1338 Casebase study,seeCasecohort study Casecohort design, 718 sampling,seeCasecohort, study study, 295, 323–326
Casecontrol approach − −in geographical epidemiology, 865, 866 data, 93, 387 − −matched, 135 design − −nested, 718, 719 study, 12, 13, 18, 19, 82, 288–313, 323, 363, 377, 568, 718, 923–926, 1287, 1369, 1481, 1563 − −nested, 93, 291, 292, 327–329, 923, 1244– 1246 − −populationbased, 93 Casecrossover design, 1080, 1246, 1247 study, 329–334 Casedeletion, 810, 811 Casemix, 1514, 1515 Caseonly design, 338–341 study, 322 Caseparenttriad design, 1056, 1057 Casereferent study,seeCasecontrol, study Casespecular study, 336–338 Casetimecontrol design, 1247, 1248 study, 334–336 Catalyst, 51 Categorization, 599 CATI,seeInterview, computerassisted telephone (CATI) Causal complement, 47, 48 Causal criteria, 57, 58 Causal factor, 374 Causal inference, 45–58 Causal mechanism, 47 Causal rate difference, 70 Causal relationship identification of, 29–32 proof of, 14 Causality, 19, 128, 346 reverse, 919 Causation, 45–58 multifactorial, 1389 probability of, 138 Cause, 346 fundamental, 1390 necessary, 46, 49 sufficient, 45–48, 385, 390 − −minimally, 47 Cause of death, 700 CCMV,seeCase missing values, complete (CCMV)
Index
1621
CDD,seeControl of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD) Censoring, 697, 711, 716, 721–724 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1398 Certification, 512–514, 535 Cervix visual inspection, 1432 CHC,seeCommunal health centre (CHC) CHD,seeCoronary heart disease (CHD) Childhood cancer, 871 Childhood leukemia, 867, 880, 886, 887 Chloropleth map, 871, 872 Cholera, 953 Chromosome aberration, 1070 Chronic heart failure, 1365 Chronic inflammatory conditions, 1429 Classical error model, 750 Clinical practice, 1171 performance, 1512 Clinical trials premarketing, 1226 Clustering, 207–219, 879–883 Knox’s test for, 880, 881 spacetime, 880–882 spatial, 882 Coalition building, 1320 Cochrane Collaboration, 1214 Coding incremental, 664 Cohort, 1560 closed, 75 data, 387 design, 92 incident, 1244 multipurpose, 1234 open, 296 prevalent, 1244 study, 13, 14, 18, 19, 254–282, 568, 699–708, 718, 920–923, 927, 1369, 1481, 1563 − −birth, 908 − −concurrent, 19, 256–258 − −concurrent historical, 254 − −design, 1288 − −historical, 19, 920 − −in uranium miners, 959 − −multipurpose, 14 − −nonconcurrent, 256–258 − −nonconcurrent historical, 254, 256 − −prospective,seeCohort, study, concurrent − −validity of, 257 Cohort study, 291, 292
1622
Index
Collapsibility, 375 Collinearity, 1024 Communal health centre (CHC), 1547, 1557 Community efficacy, 1320 intervention − −study,seeIntervention study, community based organizing, 1306 organizing theory, 1308 Comparability, 373, 381 Comparability of groups, 322 Comparison external, 262–264 internal, 921, 930 international, 1497 urbanrural, 199 Complete case analysis, 780, 784, 790 Component cause, 45–47, 49, 385 constellation of, 47 Computerized square dance design, 1051 Concealment, 1185 Conditional autoregression, 870 Conditional logistic regression,seeRegression, logistic, conditional Confidence interval, 22, 131, 1190–1192 sample size, 562 − −mean, 578–580 − −mean difference, 582–584 − −width, 563 Confidentiality, 1601 Conflict of interest, 1595–1598 Confounding, 78, 79, 92, 256, 258, 274–277, 293, 299, 301, 346, 357, 372–383, 391, 489, 490, 601, 602, 612, 848, 922, 923, 930–933, 1014 by indication, 1226 Congenital anomaly, 303 Conjecture, 53 Consistency check, 530 internal, 414 Consumer choice theory, 1523 Consumer preference, 1523 Contagion, 10 Continuity correction, 567 Contraceptive oral, 1427 Control group,seeReference group Control groups multiple, 308 Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases (CDD), 1548, 1551, 1558
Controls, 721 friend, 306 historical, 11 hospital, 288 hospital based, 306, 307 in geographical epidemiology, 869 matched, 288 neighborhood, 306 Coronary artery, 1364 Coronary heart disease (CHD), 1364 Corrective actions, 538 Correlation coefficient, 179 − −intraclass (ICC), 1489 serial, 783, 784, 788, 797 study,seeEcological study working, 801 Cost direct, 433, 1501 indirect, 1501 intangible, 1501 opportunity, 1501 Cost per year and life saved, 1291 Costcontainment, 1602 Counterfactual, 72, 336, 372, 385, 386, 391 Covariable continuous, 597–622 Cox model, 717 Cox model, 108, 647, 715–718, 720 proportional hazard, 269 stratified, 716 Crosssectional study, 18, 19, 722, 919, 920, 1481, 1482, 1560, 1563 study design, 173 Crosssectional data, 94 Cured, 711
DALE,seeDisabilityadjusted life expectancy (DALE) DALY,seeDisabilityadjusted life year (DALY) Danish National Birth Cohort, 1098 Data, 1555 areal, 865–867 audits, 530, 531 cleaning, 22 clustered binary, 800 collection, 509 − −computerassisted, 529 − −forms and instruments, 514–516 − −webbased, 529
current status, 722 dictionary, 531 doublycensored, 723 entry, 528–530 − −double, 528 − −electronic, 528–530 intercalcensored, 723 intervalcensored, 722 longitudinal, 769 − −Gaussian, 783 management, 418–421, 492, 493, 523, 526– 532, 537, 538 − −system, 523, 526, 527 missing,seeMissing, data panel count, 723 primary, 20 problems, 27, 28 quality, 20, 21, 505 recording, 527, 528 secondary, 20, 21 sources of, 1098, 1099, 1482–1486 − −demographic, 1568 validation, 749 validation study, 745 Database administrative, 1485, 1486 administrative health, 1235 automated, 1609 familycancer, 244 Datascope, 506–509 DDD,seeDefined daily dose (DDD) DDS,seeDemographic Surveillance System (DDS) Decay exponential, 784 Gaussian, 784 Decision aids, 1214 Decision making shared, 1207 Decision rule standardized, 1551 Declaration of Helsinki, 35, 1593 Deduction, 54 Defined daily dose (DDD), 1255 Degenerative change, 1446 Degree of certainty, 1086 Delivery complications, 1095–1097 Delta method, 819 Demand, 1491 Demographic Surveillance System (DDS), 1562 Demonstration projects, 1370 Depletion of susceptibles, 1226
Index
1623
Depression, 905 DES,seeDiethylstilbestrol (DES) Descriptive study, 18 Detectable preclinical phase, 1269 Determinants, 1378–1387 social, 1379 Deviance, 703, 867, 868, 874, 875 test, 683–686 Diagnosis, 1175–1184 early, 1268 posteriori, 1560 Diaries, 445 Diet, 1001, 1002 methods to assess, 1000 variation in, 1000 Dietary carcinogens, 1415 factors, 1414–1418 imbalance, 1379 intake, 1002 pattern, 1002 reference, 1032 Diethylstilbestrol (DES), 50 Dioxin, 616, 617 direct scaling technique, 1523 Disabilityadjusted life expectancy (DALE), 1524 Disabilityadjusted life year (DALY), 1377, 1522, 1524 Discounting, 1502 Disease acute respiratory, 1550 atlas, 196 cardiovascular, 31, 1364–1399 − −global burden of, 1371 − −guidelines to adress, 1397 complex, 1141, 1153 infectious, 32 ischemic heart, 1364 notifiable, 1340 occupational,seeOccupational disease reportable, 1336, 1350 Distribution exponential, 698, 699 Poisson, 874 posterior, 804 Dose, 439 Doseresponse analysis, 605, 606, 935, 937, 938 relation, 936 Drift, 206
1624
Index
Dropout, 770, 771, 774, 777, 779, 786, 788, 789, 794–796, 809, 813 Drug cancer chemotherapy, 1428 development, 1600 during pregnancy, 243 essential, 1548 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID), 1428 utilization study, 1254–1257 Dual reading, 1277 Duration of employment, 921 Dysentery, 1558 amoebic, 1551 bacterial, 1551
EAR,seeEstimated Average Requirement (EAR) EBV,seeEpsteinBarr virus (EBV) Ecological fallacy, 18, 176, 238, 867, 962 Ecological study, 17–19, 176–185, 376, 962, 1287, 1563 Economic evaluation, 1499, 1500 EdmonstonZagreb vaccine, 1552 Effect, 69, 77, 78 absolute, 70 additive joint, 383 biological dependence of, 372, 383 cohort, 702 contextual, 180, 900 design, 567, 591 doserate − −inverse, 974 estimate, 375, 385 healthy hire, 934 healthy migrant, 212 healthy pregnancy, 1083 healthy worker, 270, 705, 931, 933–935 healthy worker survivor, 934 heterogeneity, 383 joint, 389–391 longterm, 969 measure, 387 − −modification, 372, 383–386, 391, 392 − −variation, 383 measure modification, 72 modification,seeInteraction modifier, 92 nonresponse, 920 random, 783 relative, 70 shortterm, 969
strength of the, 48 treatment, 1186 variation, 383 Effectiveness, 1294–1296, 1511 idirect indicator of, 1289 Efficacy, 1511 community,seeCommunity, efficacy vaccine, 294 Efficiency, 774, 1525, 1526 allocative, 1525 productive, 1525 technical, 1525 Embolus, 1365 Emigration, 62, 67 Endoflife care, 1393 Endpoint combined, 1188 composite, 1186, 1192, 1193 EPI,seeExtended Programme on Immunization (EPI) Epicondylitis, 1455 Epidemic, 9, 1331, 1332, 1338, 1343, 1344, 1346, 1347 curve, 1352 Epidemiological design, 465–499 Epidemiological determinism, 1607 Epidemiological practice, 35 Epidemiological reasoning, 17 Epidemiological transition, 1371 Epidemiological triangle, 3, 4 Epidemiologist, 1171 clinical, 1185 Epidemiology, 10, 1268 at the basis, 1550, 1557 classical, 1185 clinical, 1170–1214 definition of, 3–5 descriptive, 7, 10, 29 descriptive cancer, 1407 environmental, 952–990 experimental, 7, 1306, 1558 explanatory, 7 exposure oriented, 7, 29–31 genetic, 14, 338–341, 1140–1165, 1563 geographical, 11, 861–888 history of, 9–15 local, 1550 molecular, 14, 1112–1137 nutritional, 352, 353, 1000–1038 observational, 7, 9, 10, 1562–1564 observational study, 18, 19, 254, 1173, 1480 occupational, 193, 918–942
outcome oriented, 7, 31, 32 related disciplines, 5, 6 reproductive, 1045–1100 social, 12 EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), 1420 Equipment maintenance and calibration of, 535, 537 Error, 1005 Berkson,seeBerkson bias classical, 733, 736, 743 data, 509 differential, 731, 732, 735 measurement, 291, 311, 312, 454–459, 507, 520, 730–760 − −classical, 746 − −nondifferential, 732 model − −characteristics of, 985 nondifferential, 731, 732, 743 random, 454 residual, 541 source of, 507, 508 sources of, 1000 systematic, 454, 1172, 1184 type I, 564 type II, 564 Errorcorrecting procedure, 1555 ESL,seeExpected significance level (ESL) Estimate, 1557 annual percentage change, 201 empirical Bayes, 792, 873 KaplanMeier,seeKaplanMeier, estimate MantelHaenszel,seeMantelHaenszel estimate maximum likelihood, 801 precision of, 563 Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), 1032 Estimating density, 869 Estimation, 77 density, 871 maximum likelihood − −nonparametric, 803 nonparametric function, 869, 870 Estimator KaplanMeier,seeKaplanMeier, estimator method of moments, 738 odds ratio,seeOdds ratio, estimator of a summary effect, 838–840 penalized, 391 precicion, 783 semiparametric, 103
Index
1625
shrinkage, 391 Stein,seeStein estimator Estrogen, 57 endogenous, 1426 Ethical aspects, 35, 36 Ethical Issues in biomarker research, 1135, 1136 Ethical issues, 254, 280, 281 Ethical reasoning, 1609 Ethnic group, 188–190 Etiology, 9 European Atherosclerosis Society, 1392 European Quality of Life Scale, 1520 European Society of Cardiology, 1392 European Society of Hypertension, 1392 Evaluation, 1268, 1292, 1294–1296, 1313 formative, 1310 process, 1313 program, 1292, 1329, 1358, 1359 summative, 1313 Exchangeability, 373, 375, 381 Exclusion, 478, 479, 1194 Expectationmaximizationalgorithm, 769, 794 Expected significance level (ESL), 875 Experimental study, 14, 18 Expert’s assessment, 924, 925, 928 Exposure, 70, 254, 256, 274–277, 438–440, 446, 921–923, 1000, 1174, 1175 assessment, 438–460, 482, 918, 926–930, 954, 969–976 − −errors in, 982, 984–988 − −misclassification in, 984 − −quantitative, 928 − −retrospective, 449 − −semi quantitative, 927 average, 926 classification, 447–449 continuous timeweighting, 976 control, 939 cumulative, 440, 926, 935, 972 data, 256 determinants, 447 duration of, 440 ecological assessment, 450, 451 environmental, 240 intensity of, 440 lagged, 440 level of, 921–923 − −average, 929 − −permissible, 939 longterm, 969 mechanical, 1463
1626
Index
modeling of − −deterministic, 926–928 − −statistical, 926–928 multiple, 451–453 opportunity, 304 outcome − −assessment, 955 pattern, 969 peak, 440, 936 relevant, 1003 shortterm, 969 surrogate, 439 timeweighted average, 972 Exposure groups, 448 Exposure records, 445 Extended Programme on Immunization (EPI), 1549, 1552
Fagan Nomogram, 1181, 1182 Falsificationism, 53 Familial aggregation, 1429 Family planning, 1561 Fecundity, 1052 Feeling thermometer, 1210 Fetal death, 1065 Fetal grow th, 1072–1074 Fetal origins of adult diseases, 1097, 1098 Fiberyear, 974 Field data, 401 measure, 411 work, 401–435 Financial barriers, 1494 Financing, 1495 Finkelstein’s approach, 975 First occurrence, 60 FLIC score, 770 Fluoridation, 78 Followup, 1186 Followup study, 18 Food, 1001, 1002 frequency questionnaire (FFQ), 1005, 1006 intake, 1002 pattern, 1002 record, 1006 Forms posting, 531, 532 FQQ,seeFood, frequency questionnaire (FFQ) Fraction attributable, 73–76, 127, 264 etiologic, 24, 75, 127 excess, 75 impact, 76
population attributable,seeRisk, attributable, population (PAR) preventable, 76, 127 prevented, 127 rate, 74 Fractional polynomial, 606, 611 Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, 1380 Framingham Heart Study, 740, 749, 751, 1369 Frequentist, 861 Function exposuredisease, 977–979 likelihood,seeLikelihood, function link,seeLink function relative risk (RRF),seeRisk, relative, function (RFF) risk, 606,seeRisk, function, 609, 610 survival,seeSurvival, function Functional Living Index: Cancer,seeFLIC score Fund raising, 491 Funnel plot, 837
Gaussian quadrature, 804 adaptive, 804, 807 GEE,seeGeneralized estimating equation (GEE) Gene highrisk cancer, 1429 lowpenetrance, 1431 major, 1141, 1142 Generalized estimating equation (GEE), 118, 679, 769, 800, 801, 820 weighted, 805–809 Generalized estimating equation(GEE), 802 Generalized estimating equations (GEE), 1508 Genetic influence, 1454 Genome scan, 1142 Genomic control, 1162 Genotype, 1130, 1143, 1144 Geographic Information System (GIS), 1334, 1344 Gestalt method, 1175 Gestational age, 1074–1078 Gestational diabetes, 1088–1090 GIS,seeGeographic Information System (GIS) Global Burden of Disease Study, 1378 Global Forum for Health Research, 1398 Globalization, 1381 Goodness of fit, 703, 874 GRADE, 1201 Grouper, 1505 Grow th hormone, 1427
Guidelines, 1196–1201 ethics, 1593 evidencebased, 1199
Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 778 Hazard baseline, 715 causespecific, 709, 712 function, 696, 699, 719 − −cumulative, 696, 711 identification, 954 occupational,seeOccupational hazard proportional, 112, 701, 712, 715, 748, 758 ratio, 108, 1188 Health behavior, 896, 897 care − −primary, 1547 − −secondary, 1547 communicationbehavior change theory, 1306 data, 232 information system (HIS), 1552–1559, 1577 − −integrated, 1554 insurance, 1554 insurance coverage, 1496 maintenance organization (HMO), 303 management, 1554 Management Information System, 1554 needs assessment, 1492 outcome assessment, 487 population, 1390 profile, 1202, 1203 program − −reproductive, 1561 promotion, 1393 − −communitybased, 1306 public,seePublic health reproductive, 1045, 1548 services research, 1475 services research (HSR), 34 social determinants of, 894–896 social inequalities in, 895 statistics, 7 strategy − −global, 1549 subjective, 907 yearbook, 1549 Health outcome assessment, 1459–1462 Health services research, 35 Healthrelated quality of life (HRQL), 1519 Healthcare intervention, 1173
Index
1627
Heart attack,seeMyocardial infarction Helicobacter pylori, 1420 Hemorrhage, 1365 Hepatitis A, 1330 Hepatitis B, 1329, 1330, 1342, 1346, 1420 Hepatitis C, 1330, 1331, 1420 Heterogeneity, 840–843, 845, 848, 849 in geographical data, 874–878 Highthroughput technologies, 1112 Hip injury, 1454 HIS,seeHealth, information system (HIS) History natural, 1269 HIV,seeHuman Immunodeficiency virus I (HIV) HMO,seeHealth, maintenance organization (HMO) Hospital ranking, 1516, 1517 Host resistance, 897 HRQL,seeHealthrelated quality of life (HRQL) HSR,seeHealth, services research (HSR) HTLV,seeHuman Tcell leukemia/lymphoma virus I (HTLV) Human Herpes virus 8 (HHV8), 1420 Human Immunodeficiency virus I (HIV), 1420 Human Papilloma virus (HPV), 1420 Human Tcell leukemia/lymphoma virus I (HTLV), 1420 Hygiene, 33 environmental, 11, 12, 16 Hypertension, 1090–1095, 1364, 1365, 1370–1378, 1561 gestational, 1091 Hypothesis testing, 24
ICD,seeInternational Classification of Diseases (ICD) Iceberg problem, 1559 ICHA,seeInternational Classification for Health Accounts (ICHA) ID fields,seeIdentifiers Identifiability, 790 Identifiers, 526 Identitybydescent, 1143, 1160 Ignorability, 769, 787–790 Imaging, 1460–1462 Immigration, 62, 67 Immunization, 1552 Immunostimulation, 1429 Immunosuppression, 1429 Immunosuppressive agents, 1428 Imputation, 769, 780–783
1628
Index
conditional mean, 782 hot deck, 781 mean, 781 − −conditional, 781 multiple, 779, 814 unconditional mean, 782 Incidence, 91, 160, 161, 290, 293, 1364 cumulative, 65, 258 cumulative sampling, 323 density, 63, 259 density sampling, 323 disease, 259 odds, 66 of acute myocardial infarction, 242 proportion, 58, 65, 66 time, 58, 59 Inclusion, 1194 INDEPTH, 1562 India, 1565 systems of medicine, 1575 Indicator, 1555 baseline, 1559 Induction, 53 period, 50, 51 Inductivist, 51 Industrialization, 1381 Industrysponsoring, 1598 Inequality social in health, 242 Infant mortality, 1067 Infertility, 1052, 1057–1062 Influence global, 811 local, 809–812 Influenza, 1330, 1331, 1339, 1346 Informed consent, 280, 1281, 1592 Inheritance mode of, 1144, 1145, 1151, 1156, 1159 Inspection oral, 1431 Institutional Review Board, 424 Instrument generic, 1202 specific, 1202–1204 Integrated Management, 1549 Integrity, 245 scientific, 1595–1598 Intention to treat, 1186 Interaction, 48, 49, 113, 302, 372, 383–391 bioligical, 391 biological, 48, 385, 660 geneenvironment, 312, 339, 989
statistical, 302, 391, 655, 656, 660 Intermediate, 374 International Atherosclerosis Project, 1375 International Classification for Health Accounts (ICHA), 1498 International Classification of Dieseases (ICD), 1079 International Statistical Institute (ISI), 1559 INTERSALT, 1368 Interval case, 1285 Intervention, 1000, 1174, 1175 Intervention study, 14, 18, 19, 98 communitybased, 18, 1370, 1563 Interview, 408–411 computerassisted telephone (CATI), 410, 411, 1484 conducting, 409 − −guidelines for, 409 quality − −monitoring of, 409 Interviewers finding, 408 training, 408, 409 Intrauterine Grow th Retardation (IUGR), 1073 Investigation nonresponse, 966 ISI,seeInternational Statistical Institute (ISI) IUGR,seeIntrauterine Grow th Retardation (IUGR)
JEM,seeJobexposure matrix (JEM) Jobexposure matrix (JEM), 194, 276, 456, 918, 924, 925, 928, 929 Jobspecific module, 918, 928, 929 Justice, 1600, 1602
KaplanMeier approach, 712 curve, 721 estimate, 102, 697, 706, 710, 713 estimator, 696, 697, 710 Kappa, 414
Laboratory methods, 1130 Last observation carried forward, 780–782, 784 Lateentry, 697, 721 Latency, 440 Latent period, 50, 51 Lead time, 1284 Leprosy, 1563 Lesion preclinical, 1431 Lexis diagram, 166, 704, 707