Modernization criteria assessment for water resources planning [Elektronische Ressource] : Klamath irrigation project, US / von Beau J. Freeman
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Modernization criteria assessment for water resources planning [Elektronische Ressource] : Klamath irrigation project, US / von Beau J. Freeman

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Heft 166 Beau James Freeman Modernization Criteria Assessment for Water Resources Planning; Klamath Irrigation Project, U.S. Modernization Criteria Assessment for Water Resources Planning; Klamath Irrigation Project, U.S. Von der Fakultät Bau- und Umweltingenieurwissenschaften der Universität Stuttgart zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Abhandlung Vorgelegt von Beau James Freeman aus San Luis Obispo, California, USA Hauptberichter: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dr.-Ing. András Bárdossy Mitberichter: Priv.-Doz. Dr.-Ing. Walter Marx Prof. Dr. oec. Werner Doppler Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 10 July 2008 Institut für Wasserbau der Universität Stuttgart 2008 Heft 166 Modernization Criteria Assessment for Water Resources Planning; Klamath Irrigation Project, U.S. von Dr.-Ing. Beau J. Freeman Eigenverlag des Instituts für Wasserbau der Universität Stuttgart D93 Modernization Criteria Assessment for Water Resources Planning; Klamath Irrigation Project, U.S. Titelaufnahme der Deutschen Bibliothek Freeman, Beau: Modernization Criteria Assessment for Water Resources Planning; Klamath Irrigation Project, U.S. / von Beau Freeman. Institut für Wasserbau, Universität Stuttgart.

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Heft 166 Beau James Freeman



Modernization Criteria Assessment
for Water Resources Planning;
Klamath Irrigation Project, U.S.




Modernization Criteria Assessment for Water Resources
Planning; Klamath Irrigation Project, U.S.





Von der Fakultät Bau- und Umweltingenieurwissenschaften der
Universität Stuttgart zur Erlangung der Würde eines
Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Abhandlung



Vorgelegt von
Beau James Freeman
aus San Luis Obispo, California, USA




Hauptberichter: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dr.-Ing. András Bárdossy
Mitberichter: Priv.-Doz. Dr.-Ing. Walter Marx
Prof. Dr. oec. Werner Doppler

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 10 July 2008












Institut für Wasserbau der Universität Stuttgart
2008





Heft 166 Modernization Criteria
Assessment for Water
Resources Planning; Klamath
Irrigation Project, U.S.


von
Dr.-Ing.
Beau J. Freeman













Eigenverlag des Instituts für Wasserbau der Universität Stuttgart D93 Modernization Criteria Assessment for Water Resources Planning;
Klamath Irrigation Project, U.S.























Titelaufnahme der Deutschen Bibliothek


Freeman, Beau:
Modernization Criteria Assessment for Water Resources Planning; Klamath
Irrigation Project, U.S. / von Beau Freeman. Institut für
Wasserbau, Universität Stuttgart. Stuttgart: Inst. für Wasserbau, 2008

(Mitteilungen / Institut für Wasserbau, Universität Stuttgart: H. 166)
Zugl.: Stuttgart, Univ., Diss., 2008)
ISBN 3-933761-70-0
NE: Institut für Wasserbau <Stuttgart>: Mitteilungen


Gegen Vervielfältigung und Übersetzung bestehen keine Einwände, es wird lediglich
um Quellenangabe gebeten.




Herausgegeben 2008 vom Eigenverlag des Instituts für Wasserbau
Druck: druckcooperative, KarlsruheAbstract
Agricultural irrigation is the largest consumer of diverted surface water and groundwater
resources in the world, with major regions becoming critically water deficit. Agriculture in the
western United States (US) and elsewhere has reached the point where the demands from
irrigators, domestic users, and various commercial interests for allocated quantities and
qualities are beyond acceptable levels for environmental needs in many river basins. Despite
decades of investment in irrigation projects by governments, foreign lending agencies, and
development banks in numerous countries, irrigation performance remains unsatisfactorily low
and in many places progress is being reversed due to water logging, salinization, over-drafting
of aquifers, environmental degradation, and infrastructure deterioration. Maintaining current
irrigation practices will lead to worsening environmental and economic consequences.

To restore healthy ecosystems and sustain irrigated agriculture, irrigation modernization should
be promoted as a key component of basin-level water management to effectively balance
competing water needs. Improvements in the technical and economic efficiency of irrigation
water use through modernization increase the quantity and quality of freshwater available in a
river basin. Significant public and private investments in modernization will be required to
facilitate the precise control and monitoring of reallocated flows at different levels of irrigation
systems, especially on a real-time basis, and thus provide excellent water delivery service to
water districts, end-users, and other commercial and environmental stakeholders. This doctoral
study investigates a specific problem that many irrigation professionals and water resources
planners will face in the future: how to effectively analyze and make an assessment of irrigation
modernization project-alternatives.

Selecting the best modernization strategy to pursue from potential project-alternatives in water
resources planning is a complex decision-making process. Irrigation modernization alternatives
and their impacts involve a variety of diverse stakeholders in the selection of preferred
engineering solutions based on subjectively defined criteria (quantitative and qualitative). As
a consequence, technical feasibility, environmental, social/community, institutional, political,
and economic factors have to be properly assessed as part of water resources planning.

This research introduces a strategic decision analysis methodology for the definition, evaluation,
ranking, and selection of appropriate modernization strategies in an engineering case study of
the Klamath Irrigation Project (89,000 ha). In 2001 a combination of events occurred there
that led to one of the most prominent conflicts over water supplies in the U.S. Due to stricter
flow requirements put in place to protect fish species and a critical drought, irrigation water
was unexpectedly withheld from the majority of farms in the Project, resulting in major
economic losses, calling the basis for environmental restrictions into question, and generating
intense political controversy.

The composite programming approach is applied to develop a project ranking index based on
standardized indicators – effective for analyzing the trade-offs associated with balancing
technical and water conservation considerations with eco-system health, economics, and risk.
This modernization criteria assessment requires defining the management objectives according
to the nature of the internal processes and agro-hydrological features of the system, selection
of alternative engineering solutions, selection of appropriate decision criteria relevant to the
specific water-related problems, and the assignment of desirable and critical threshold values
pertinent to each criterion. Input data consist of hydrologic, agronomic, engineering, economic,
and political/policy information.
Table of Contents
Abstract............................................................................................................................. vi
Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................... xi
Zusammenfassung........................................................................................................... xii
1 Introduction.................................................................................................................1
1.1 Modernization Criteria Assessment Framework for Water Resources Planning.......1
1.2 The Need for Modern Engineering and Public Choices in Water Management........2
1.2.1 Engineering Solutions for Meeting New Water Demands ....................................... 2
1.2.2 Guiding Principles of Modern Design...................................................................... 3
1.3 Motivating Forces for Irrigation Districts to Modernize............................................4
1.3.1 Conflicts over Water Resources: Tradeoffs between Agricultural Irrigation
and Environmental Water Demands 7
1.4 Defining Research Benchmarks and Indicators .........................................................7
1.5 Research Methods......................................................................................................8
1.5.1 Ranking Water Management Alternatives ............................................................... 9
1.6 About this Report .....................................................................................................11
2 Klamath Irrigation Project......................................................................................12
2.1 Description of the Case Study Area – Klamath River Basin ...................................12
2.1.1 Summary of Historical Operations......................................................................... 14
2.1.2 Competing Demands for Water.............................................................................. 16
2.1.2.1 Project-Level Water Management Strategies....................................... 17
2.1.2.2 Technical and Institutional Considerations .......................................... 18
2.1.2.3 U.S. Bureau of Reclamation................................................................. 19
Water Rights..................................................................................................20
2.1.2.4 Operations Planning Process................................................................ 21
NRCS Inflow Forecast for Upper Klamath Lake ..........................................21
Water Year Type ...........................................................................................22
2.1.2.5 The Endangered Species Act 25
Biological Opinions by the USFWS and NMFS............................................25
Final 2001 Biological Assessment by the USBR...........................................26
2.1.2.6 Operational Criteria.............................................................................. 26
Upper Klamath Lake Levels..........................................................................27
Klamath River Flows below Iron Gate Dam.................................................27
2.1.2.7 Irrigation Districts – Organization, Functions, and Programs.............. 28
2.1.3 Sources of Water Resources Conflicts in the Klamath River Basin....................... 30
2.2 Rapid Appraisal Process (RAP) ...............................................................................30
2.2.1 A Knowledge-Based Toolkit................................................................................... 30
2.2.2 Irrigation Systems and Internal Processes.............................................................. 32
2.2.2.1 Water Delivery Service ........................................................................ 32
Flexibility in Water Supply ...........................................................................34
Index of Flexibility ........................................................................................35
2.2.3 RAP Evaluation of the Klamath Irrigation District ................................................ 36
i 3 Conceptualizing Limitations on Resources Availability for Water
Conservation .............................................................................................................39
3.1 Irrigation Water Balance Indicators and Benchmarks .............................................41
3.1.1 Uncertainty and Quality of Measurements and Data.............................................. 42
3.2 Boundary Conditions and Spatio-Temporal Constraints .........................................44
3.3 Land Use Areas ........................................................................................................44
3.3.1 GIS Spatial Analysis Categories ............................................................................ 44
3.3.2 Soil Resources ........................................................................................................ 47
3.3.3 Annual Land Use.................................................................................................... 48
3.3.3.1 Assessing the Impact of the 2001 Drought .......................................... 49
3.3.4 Irrigated Crop Area................................................................................................. 53
3.3.5 Wildlife Refuge Land Use...................................................................................... 55
3.4 Climate Conditions & Natural Resources in the Upper Klamath River Basin ........56
3.4.1 Agricultural Weather Station Networks ................................................................. 57
3.4.2 Precipitation............................................................................................................ 59
3.4.3 Temperature 63
3.4.4 Solar Radiation ....................................................................................................... 64
3.4.5 Wind Speed 66
3.5 Surface Water Resources .........................................................................................67
3.5.1 Upper Klamath Lake and Surface Water Resources .............................................. 67
3.5.2 Irrigation Water Diversions.................................................................................... 67
3.6 Consumptive Use in the Klamath Irrigation Project ................................................69
3.6.1 Crop Irrigation Water Requirements ...................................................................... 69
3.6.1.1 Crop Consumptive Use and Growth Modeling.................................... 69
3.6.1.2 Reference Evapotranspiration .............................................................. 72
Penman-Monteith Method.............................................................................72
SWAP, CROPWAT, WOFOST – Agro-Hydrological Field-Scale Models....74
FAO-56 Penman-Monteith Standard Reference Equation............................75
3.6.1.3 Evapotranspiration of Irrigation Water from Agricultural Fields ........ 77
Crop Water Use Modeling with FAO-56 Procedures...................................78
ET Model Input Parameters..........................................................................80
Planting Dates and Localized Irrigation Schedules......................................80
Crop Coefficients ..........................................................................................83
Reduction in ET due to Bare Spots and Reduced Vigor................................87
3.6.1.4 FAO-56 Crop Water Model Results..................................................... 87
3.6.2 Evapotranspiration from Refuge Wetlands ............................................................ 89
3.6.3 ration from Canals and Drains........................................................... 90
3.6.4 Evaporation from Urban Areas .............................................................................. 91
3.6.5 rom Undeveloped Areas ................................................................... 91
3.6.6 rom Reservoirs, Lakes, Rivers, and Streams .................................... 92
3.7 Change in Storage of Reservoirs, Lakes and Refuges .............................................92
3.7.1 Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge Units.................................................... 93
3.7.2 Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge (Tule Lake Sumps) ...................................... 94
3.8 Reservoirs and Lakes ...............................................................................................95
3.8.1 Clear Lake .............................................................................................................. 95
3.8.2 Gerber Reservoir .................................................................................................... 95
3.8.3 Wilson Reservoir 96
3.8.4 Nuss Lake and Spring Lake.................................................................................... 96
3.9 Groundwater Resources...........................................................................................97
3.9.1 Change in Root Zone Moisture Storage ................................................................. 98
3.9.2 Change in Groundwater Storage ............................................................................ 99
3.9.2.1 Groundwater Elevations....................................................................... 99
3.9.2.2 Annual Change in Groundwater Storage Volume.............................. 100
ii 3.10 Water Balance Results ...........................................................................................101
3.10.1 Klamath Irrigation Project.................................................................................... 101
3.10.2 Subregional Water Balances................................................................................. 104
3.11 Priorities for Reducing Hydrologic Uncertainty – Relative Importance (RI) of
Water Balance Volumes.........................................................................................105
3.12 Availability of Irrigation Water for Conservation..................................................107
3.12.1 Reducing the Evapotranspiration of Irrigation Water (ET ) - Agricultural iw
Fields.................................................................................................................. 107
3.12.2 Irrigation Performance Indicators......................................................................... 109
3.12.2.1 Project-Level Irrigation Efficiency (IE) and Irrigation Sagacity (IS) 109
3.13 Impact of Agricultural Water Conservation on Water Availability.......................111
4 The Multi-Criteria Model in a Technical Modernization Project Context .........113
4.1 Modernization Criteria Assessment and Project Ranking: A Strategic
Approach ................................................................................................................113
4.1.1 Decision Analysis in Water Resources Planning ................................................. 114
4.1.2 Compromise and Composite Programming ......................................................... 115
4.1.3 Decision-Making Context .................................................................................... 116
4.2 Strategic Scenarios for Coping with Growing Ecological Demands for Water.....117
4.2.1 Selection of Alternative Modernization Strategies............................................... 118
4.3 Multi-Criteria Analysis Framework.......................................................................118
4.3.1 Selection of Evaluation Objectives ...................................................................... 119
4.3.2 Key Indicators, Benchmarks, and Reference Values............................................ 120
4.3.3 Definition of Modernization Indicators................................................................ 123
4.3.3.1 Water Conservation Availability........................................................ 124
4.3.3.2 Technical Feasibility .......................................................................... 126
4.3.3.3 Environmental Enhancement ............................................................. 130
4.3.3.4 Uncertainty/Risk ................................................................................ 131
4.3.3.5 Economic............................................................................................ 133
4.3.3.6 Legal/Fairness .................................................................................... 135
4.3.3.7 Regulatory Compliance...................................................................... 137
4.3.4 Formulating the Stakeholder’s Preference Structure............................................ 139
4.3.4.1 Assigning Weight Sets ....................................................................... 139
4.3.4.2 Assigning Compensation Factors....................................................... 140
4.3.5 Summary of Indicator Attributes.......................................................................... 143
4.4 Modernization plan assessment..............................................................................143
5 Assessing Future Modernization Alternatives: Application to Engineering
Case Studies in the Klamath Irrigation Project...................................................145
5.1 A Water Bank Program for Additional Environmental Water Supplies................145
5.1.1 Determining the Required Size of the Water Bank .............................................. 147
5.1.2 Potential Future Benefits ...................................................................................... 148
5.1.3 Management Concepts ......................................................................................... 149
5.1.4 Water Bank Benchmarking and Transformation Results (Level 3) ..................... 151
5.2 Integrated Drain Water Recirculation and Disposal...............................................152
5.2.1 Potential Future Benefits 152
5.2.2 Background .......................................................................................................... 153
5.2.3 Conceptual Design Features for Modernization................................................... 155
5.2.3.1 Advanced Canal Automation Techniques.......................................... 155
5.2.4 Water Quality Analysis (Salinity) ........................................................................ 156
5.2.5 Impact on the Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge .................................... 157
iii 5.2.6 Recirculation Project Cost Summary ................................................................... 160
5.2.6.1 Comparison of Pumping Costs With and Without the Recirculation
Project-Alternative........................................................................... 160
5.2.7 Tule Lake Sump Recirculation Evaluation Results (Level 3) .............................. 161
5.3 A Project-Scale Plan for System Improvements ....................................................162
5.3.1 Summary of System Improvements ..................................................................... 162
5.3.2 General Survey of the Plan’s Components........................................................... 163
5.3.2.1 Integrated Information Management Systems ................................... 164
5.3.2.2 Improved Real-Time Control of Water Volumes and Flow Rates..... 165
5.3.2.3 Changing Land Use............................................................................ 166
5.3.2.4 Improved On-Farm Irrigation Efficiency........................................... 166
5.3.2.5 Upgraded Pumping Plants.................................................................. 167
5.3.2.6 Off-Season Storage 167
5.3.2.7 Groundwater Substitution 167
5.3.3 Technical Scope of System-Level Modernization Projects.................................. 168
5.3.4 Assessing the Indicator Results for System-Level Modernization (Level 3) ....... 168
5.4 Results....................................................................................................................170
5.4.1 Final Modernization Criteria Assessment Results................................................ 170
5.4.2 Discussion of the Case Study Results................................................................... 173
6 Summary and Conclusions ....................................................................................175
6.1 Water, the Environment and Modern Irrigation Design ........................................175
6.2 An Engineering Case Study of the Klamath Irrigation Project..............................176
6.3 The Way Forward...................................................................................................178
7 References................................................................................................................180


Appendix 1: Hydrological Datasets
Appendix 2: Monthly Water Balance Volumes
Appendix 3: Subregional Water Balance Tables
Appendix 4: Modernization Project Assessment Indicators – Benchmarking and
Transformation
iv