Musical settings of psalm 51 in Germany c. 1600 - 1750 in the perspectives of reformational music aesthetics [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Billy Kristanto

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Ruprecht – Karls – Universität Heidelberg Philosophische Fakultät Musikwissenschaftliches Seminar Prof. Dr. Silke Leopold Dissertation on the topic Musical Settings of Psalm 51 in Germany c. 1600-1750 in the Perspectives of Reformational Music Aesthetics Presented by Billy Kristanto Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Silke Leopold Second Examiner: PD Dr. Michael Heymel Third Examiner: Prof. Dr. Dorothea Redepenning 2 Acknowledgments This present study could not have been written without various supports by numerous institutions and individuals, which I owe debt of thanks here. The following libraries and their staff have made the access to their musical and archival collections possible for me: Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg; Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main; Bibliothek der Hochschule für Kirchenmusik, Dresden; Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart; Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich; Staatsbibliothek Berlin; and Loeb Music Library of Harvard University, Cambridge. I would also like to thank Joachim Steinheuer, Dorothea Redepenning and the Doktorkolloquium of the Musikwissenschaftliches Seminar, Heidelberg, for helpful feedback, discussion, various suggestions as well as constructive criticism.

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Ruprecht – Karls – Universität
Heidelberg


Philosophische Fakultät
Musikwissenschaftliches Seminar
Prof. Dr. Silke Leopold


Dissertation on the topic

Musical Settings of Psalm 51 in Germany c. 1600-1750 in
the Perspectives of Reformational Music Aesthetics




Presented by
Billy Kristanto


Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Silke Leopold
Second Examiner: PD Dr. Michael Heymel
Third Examiner: Prof. Dr. Dorothea Redepenning

























2 Acknowledgments

This present study could not have been written without various supports by
numerous institutions and individuals, which I owe debt of thanks here.
The following libraries and their staff have made the access to their
musical and archival collections possible for me: Universitätsbibliothek
Heidelberg; Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt am Main; Bibliothek
der Hochschule für Kirchenmusik, Dresden; Württembergische
Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart; Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Munich;
Staatsbibliothek Berlin; and Loeb Music Library of Harvard University,
Cambridge.
I would also like to thank Joachim Steinheuer, Dorothea Redepenning and
the Doktorkolloquium of the Musikwissenschaftliches Seminar, Heidelberg,
for helpful feedback, discussion, various suggestions as well as constructive
criticism. Special gratitude is due to both my supervisors, Silke Leopold and
Michael Heymel for their patient, encouraging, and critical trust in the gradual
making of this work. Enormous thanks are also due to Stephen Tong and the
congregation of the Reformed Evangelical Church of Indonesia for supporting
and patiently waiting for my return without being discouraged. Many thanks
are owed to Ferdinan Widjaya, Landobasa YMAL Tobing, Stevanus
Darmawan, Shirleen Gunawan, Lily Rachmawati, and Lisman Komaladi for
proof-reading the manuscript, giving helpful advice on my modest English.
Finally, a profound debt of thanks I owe to my wife and daughters for
passing with me through the valley of Baca and for making it a place of
springs.




Billy Kristanto
Heidelberg, July 2009



3 CONTENTS



Acknowledgments 3


Chapter 1: Introduction 8

1.1. The way to the topic 8

1.2. Topic – object of the study 10
1.2.1. Description of the topic: Musical Settings of Psalm 51
in Germany c. 1600-1750 in the perspectives of
reformational music aesthetics 10
1.2.2. Methods and expected result 11
1.2.3. The selected composers 13

1.3. Luther’s music aesthetics 16
1.3.1. Luther’s source on music 16
1.3.2. Luther’s understanding of the word 19
1.3.3. Music and the verbal nature (Mündlichkeit) of the word 20
1.3.4. Music as language of the gospel and faith 21
1.3.5. Luther on psalm singing 23
1.3.6. Luther’s aesthetics in the context of history of aesthetics 26

1.4. Calvin’s music aesthetics 29
1.4.1. Calvin’s source on music 29
1.4.2. Music and understanding 31
1.4.3. Calvin and the music aesthetics of his contemporaries 31
1.4.4. Ambivalent view on music 33
1.4.5. Calvin on psalm singing 36

4 1.5. The continuation of reformational music aesthetics
in Germany 41
1.5.1. Theological writings and commentaries 41
1.5.2. Sermons 46
1.5.3. Theological polemic writings 51
1.5.4. Music treatises 56
1.5.5. Prefaces to music printings and hymnbooks 59
1.5.6. Literary testimonials 63


Chapter 2: Psalm 51 66

2.1. Methodological questions 66

2.2. The genesis of the text – Psalm 51 in the editions of
Luther’s life time 68

2.3. The text versions 80

2.4. The structure of the Psalm texts in contemporary
printings in relation with the structure of
the musical compositions 83

2.5. Psalm 51 in different commentaries and
theological writings 92

2.6. Certain correspondences between the theological- and
the musical commentaries of Psalm 51 104






5 Chapter 3: Examinations on the individual composers,
their compositions, and its contexts 107

3.1. Michael Praetorius (1571-1621) 107
3.1.1. Praetorius’ understanding of church music and Psalm
in his Syntagma Musicum 107
3.1.2. Musae Sioniae V; music analysis of Gott, sei mir genädig
nach deiner Güte 110

3.2. Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672) 122
3.2.1. Schütz’s music aesthetics 122
3.2.2. Becker Psalter and Kleine Geistliche Konzerte.
Music analysis of Erbarm dich mein, o Herre Gott and
Schaffe in mir, Gott, ein reines Herz 125

3.3. Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630) 137
3.3.1. Schein’s music aesthetics 137
3.3.2. Cymbalum Sionium (1615), Opella nova (1618), and
Cantional (1627). Music analysis of
Erbarm dich mein, o Herre Gott 139

3.4. Samuel Scheidt (1587-1653) 149
3.4.1. Scheidt’s music aesthetics 149
3.4.2. Geistlicher Concerten Ander Theil (1634).
Music analysis of Miserere mei Deus and
Erbarm dich mein, o Herre Gott 150

3.5. Andreas Hammerschmidt (1611/12-1675) 161
3.5.1. Hammerschmidt’s music aesthetics 161
3.5.2. Musicalische Andachten Ander Theill (Freiberg 1641).
Music analysis of Schaffe in mir, Gott and
Erbarm dich mein, o Herre Gott 164


6 3.6. Christoph Bernhard (1627-1692) 174
3.6.1. Bernhard’s music aesthetics 174
3.6.2. Geistlicher Harmonien (1665). Music analysis of
Schaffe in mir, Gott, ein reines Herz 177

3.7. Johann Kuhnau (1660-1722) 183
3.7.1. Kuhnau’s music aesthetics 185
3.7.2. Music analysis of Gott sei mir gnädig (1705) 190

3.8. Georg Philipp Telemann (1681-1767) 196
3.8.1. Telemann’s music aesthetics 197
3.8.2. Music analysis of Gott sei mir gnädig
(anonym, Leipzig ca. 1700) and
Gott sei mir gnädig TWVW 681 (Frankfurt 1720) 201

3.9. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) 218
3.9.1. Bach’s understanding of church music 220
3.9.2. Music analysis of Tilge, Höchster, meine Sünden
(Leipzig 1747) 223

3.10. Conclusion 236


Select Bibliography 246
Primary Sources 246
Secondary Sources 250
Bible- and Psalter Editions 257

Music Scores 259
Manuscript Sources and Music Editions 259




7 Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1. The way to the topic
How does one come to the topic “The musical settings of Psalm 51 in
Germany c. 1600-1750 in the perspectives of reformational music aesthetics”?
Decisive was my personal quest for a theological justification for the
centrality of music in my own religious orientation. Years of practice and
experiences in church music, the occupation with- and the musical
performance of Psalm settings in vocal and instrumental setting aroused my
interest to deal more intensively with them. After my previous study of music
majoring in harpsichord and theology, my interest arose in the studies of
musicology, more to integrate both disciplines, to study the sources more
precisely to get to know pieces unknown to me, to examine these and to
understand them within the perspectives of reformational music aesthetics.
Both in the German and English-speaking world, some comprehensive
studies on the musical settings of Psalm 51 have been published in the last
1forty years. In addition, some lengthy systematic treatments on the relation
between music and theology have been produced within long scholarly and
musical tradition. As examples of publications of such studies, we can name
some in a chronological order:
Oskar Söhngen, Theologie der Musik, Kassel 1967,
Winfried Kurzschenkel, Die theologische Bestimmung der Musik, Trier 1971,
Charles Garside, The origins of Calvin’s theology of music, Philadelphia 1979
(=Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 69,4).
Joyce L. Irwin, Neither Voice nor Heart Alone: German Lutheran Theology of
Music in the Age of the Baroque, New York, etc: Peter Lang, 1993
(=American University Studies, Series VII, Vol. 132).
However, most of the last publications concentrate more on the studies of
the relation between theology (in this case Christianity) and music aesthetics

1 See, for example, Peter Kolb Danner, The Miserere mihi and the English Reformation, Diss.
Stanford University 1967; Sylvia L. Ross, A Comparison of Six Miserere Settings from the
Eighteenth-Century Venetian Conservatories, Diss. University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign 1972; Patrick Macey, Josquin’s Miserere mei Deus: Context, Structure, and
Influence, Diss. University of California at Berkeley 1985; Magda Marx-Weber, Liturgie und
Andacht. Studien zur geistlichen Musik, Paderborn, etc: Schöningh, 1999 (=Beiträge zur
Geschichte der Kirchenmusik, Vol. 7).
8 without concrete historical studies of church music with its development of
musical forms. What we have here is thus a separation of music aesthetical
ideas from the musical compositions caused by the specification of interest.
Far from trying to offer a comprehensive view on this subject (that will be
beyond my capacity), this present study tries to examine concrete musical
works (in this case some musical settings of Psalm 51 in Germany) with all
their musicological questions and insights and to bring them under the light of
reformational theology of music.


























9 1.2. Topic – object of the study

1.2.1. Description of the topic: Musical Settings of Psalm 51 in Germany
c. 1600-1750 in the perspectives of reformational music aesthetics
There are certain difficulties that arise from the choice of the topic in this
study. One might ask, “Why should we relate the reformational music
aesthetics with musical settings of Psalm 51 and not with other works?” At
least two reasons can be offered in answering that legitimate methodological
question. First, in the writings of the Reformers, the understanding of music
cannot be separated from the understanding of psalm singing. Thus, the
understanding of psalm singing has played a very important role in shaping
the music aesthetics in the reformational thoughts. Second, the choice of
Psalm 51 is encouraged by the thought that this number had had a long
tradition in the history of music, both in the context of a larger cycle of the
seven penitential psalms and as an independent setting. Psalm 51 is one of the
most frequent set psalm texts that can be found in Catholic, Lutheran, as well
as in Calvinistic contexts.
The polyphonic psalm composition cannot be categorized as a musical
genre because it defines itself alone after the psalm text. Within this category
are all musical genres and forms, which stand in relation to the biblical
psalms, to its texts (literal setting, translation, paraphrase, Versifizierung, free
rendering/rendition, textless programmatic contents exegesis) and in the
2narrower meaning to its liturgical melodies. This study is thus not meant to
examine a particular genre, but as the development of the German psalm
composition took place in the contexts of the different genres, it rather tries to
represent a general history in this particular composition, which shows the
treatment of the Psalm texts.
The chronological limits of this study hardly need any special defense.
The Baroque era is demarcated as beginning in 1580 and extending to 1730
(applying to Italy) or in 1600 to 1750 (applying to northern countries) by
3
musicologists. On the side of ‘history’ of Psalm 51 settings in Germany, the

2
Ludwig Finscher, Art. “Psalm“, in: MGG2, Sachteil 7, Kassel 1997, col. 1876.
3 Joyce L. Irwin, Neither Voice nor Heart Alone: German Lutheran Theology of Music in the
Age of the Baroque, New York, etc: Peter Lang, 1993 (=American University Studies, Series
VII, Vol. 132), p. x.
10