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Nanoscopic studies of conjugated polymer blends by (electric) scanning probe microscopy [Elektronische Ressource] / Ling Sun

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Nanoscopic Studies of Conjugated Polymer Blends by (Electric) Scanning Probe Microscopy Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades “Doktor der Naturwissenschaften” im Promotionsfach Chemie am Fachbereich Chemie, Pharmazie und Geowissenschaften der Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz Ling Sun (M.Sc.) geboren in Liaoning, V. R. China Mainz, 2010 Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 28. 06. 2010 Table of Contents Table of Contents Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 1 Introduction ................. 3 Motivation .................... 9 Outline ......................... 11 Chapter 1 Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques ............................................... 13 1.1 Scanning tunneling microscopy ..................................................... 13 1.2 Atomic force microscopy ................................ 13 1.2.1 Introduction ............................................ 14 1.2.2 Imaging modes ....................................... 14 1.3 Conductive atomic force microscopy ............................................ 16 1.3.1 Contact mode c-AFM ............................................................................................ 16 1.3.2 Scanning conductive torsion mode microscopy ..................... 17 1.4 Kelvin probe force microscopy ...................... 19 1.4.

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Published 01 January 2010
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Nanoscopic Studies of Conjugated Polymer Blends
by (Electric) Scanning Probe Microscopy



Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Grades
“Doktor der Naturwissenschaften”
im Promotionsfach Chemie

am Fachbereich Chemie, Pharmazie und Geowissenschaften
der Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz


Ling Sun (M.Sc.)
geboren in Liaoning, V. R. China


Mainz, 2010







Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 28. 06. 2010





Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Abstract ........................................................................................................................ 1
Introduction ................. 3
Motivation .................... 9
Outline ......................... 11

Chapter 1 Scanning Probe Microscopy Techniques ............................................... 13
1.1 Scanning tunneling microscopy ..................................................... 13
1.2 Atomic force microscopy ................................ 13
1.2.1 Introduction ............................................ 14
1.2.2 Imaging modes ....................................... 14
1.3 Conductive atomic force microscopy ............................................ 16
1.3.1 Contact mode c-AFM ............................................................................................ 16
1.3.2 Scanning conductive torsion mode microscopy ..................... 17
1.4 Kelvin probe force microscopy ...................... 19
1.4.1 Basic principles of KPFM ................................................................ 19
1.4.2 Detection of V ................................... 22 CPD
1.4.3 Detection of F ..................................................................... 24 2 ω

Chapter 2 Materials and Sample Preparations ...................... 25
2.1 Materials .......................................................................................................................... 25
2.1.1 Gold nanoparticles ................................. 25
2.1.2 PPy:PSS ................. 26
2.1.3 Ag core-shell particles ........................................................................................... 27
2.1.4 Au bulk particles .................................... 28
2.2 Sample preparations ....................................................................... 28
2.2.1 Individual AuNPs and Au clusters ......... 28
2.2.2 HOPG substrate and HOPG sample ...................................... 31
2.2.3 Thick PPy:PSS films .............................................................................................. 31
2.2.4 Thin PPy:PSS films ............................... 31
2.2.5 Thin PSSH films .................................... 32
2.2.6 Design of electrode array ....................................................................................... 32
2.2.7 Two geometries of electrode array ......... 33
2.2.8 Pt electrodes for contact resistance test .................................................................. 35

Chapter 3 Nanoelectronic Properties of a Model System ...... 37
3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 37
3.2 Experimental ................... 37
3.2.1 Phase measurement ................................................................................................ 37
3.2.2 KPFM measurement .............................. 38
I Table of Contents
3.2.3 SCTMM measurement ........................................................................................... 39
3.3 KPFM and SCTMM studies on Au/PS model system .................. 40
3.3.1 Phase analysis of individual AuNPs ....................................................................... 40
3.3.2 KPFM analysis of individual AuNPs ..... 42
3.3.3 SCTMM analysis of individual AuNPs .. 47
3.3.4 KPFM and SCTMM analyses of Au clusters ......................................................... 52
3.3.5. Influence of SCTMM measurement on KPFM measurement ............................... 56
3.5. KPFM and SCTMM studies on PPy:PSS films ........................... 57
3.6 Summary and Conclusions ............................................................................................. 59

Chapter 4 Nanoscopic Topography and Dielectric Constants of PPy:PSS Films
upon Humidity ........................................................................................................... 61
4.1 Introduction ..................... 61
4.2 Experimental ................... 61
4.2.1 Dielectric constant characterization by KPFM ...................... 61
4.2.2 KPFM measurement in controlled humidity .......................................................... 62
4.2.3 Types of samples .................................................................... 63
4.3 Thick PPy:PSS films ....................................... 64
4.3.1 Influence of humidity on unannealed PPy:PSS ...................................................... 64
4.3.2 Influence of humidity on annealed PPy:PSS .......................... 66
4.4 Thin PPy:PSS films ......................................................................................................... 68
4.4.1 Influence of RH on the topography of unannealed PPy:PSS . 68
4.4.2 Influence of RH on dielectric constants of unannealed PPy:PSS ........................... 71
4.4.3 Influence of RH on annealed PPy:PSS................................................................... 75
4.5 Reference tests ................................................. 77
4.5.1 Influence of RH on freshly cleaved HOPG ............................ 77
4.5.2 Influence of RH on unannealed thin PSSH films ................................................... 78
4.6 Summary and conclusions .............................................................. 80

Chapter 5 Nanoscopic Conductivity Measurement of Single Particles ................ 81
5.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 81
5.2 Experimental ................... 81
5.2.1 Macroscopic four-point probe method ................................................................... 81
5.2.2 Microscopic four-point probe measurement .......................... 82
5.2.3 EDX measurement on Ag core-shell particles ....................................................... 82
5.3 Results and discussion ..................................................................... 83
5.3.1 Conductivity measurement of Ag core-shell particles ............ 83
5.3.2 Conductivity measurement of Au bulk particles .................................................... 87
5.3.3 Conductivity measurement of FIB deposited Pt electrodes ................................... 88
5.4 Summary and conclusions .............................................................. 89

Chapter 6 Concluding Remarks ............................................... 91
6.1 Summary and conclusions .............................................................. 91
6.2 Outlook ............................................................. 93
II Table of Contents
Acknowledgments .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
Symbols and Abbreviations ...................................................... 97
Appendix .................................................................................. 101
Bibliography ............ 107
Curriculum Vitae............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.


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