Natural Resource Degradation and Famine in Ethiopia [Elektronische Ressource] : Assessment of Students’ Awareness and Views / Aklilu Dalelo
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Natural Resource Degradation and Famine in Ethiopia [Elektronische Ressource] : Assessment of Students’ Awareness and Views / Aklilu Dalelo

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Natural Resource Degradation and Famine in Ethiopia Assessment of Students’ Awareness and Views By Aklilu Dalelo A Dissertation Presented as a Fulfilment of the Requirements for a Doctor of Philosophy (Dr. phil) Degree in Geography and Environmental Education Flensburg University, Institute of Geographic Education and Regional Science June, 2000 DEDICATION This work is dedicated to my teachers at Gerema, Damboya and Durame primary and secondary schools who laid a foundation for my further education. CONTENT1 INTRODUCTION 131.1 BACKGROUND 131.1.1 Centuries of Continuous Degradation: The State of Natural Resourcesin Ethiopia 131.1.2 The Premise 131.2 THE PROBLEM AND AIM OF THE STUDY 141.3 VARIABLES AND HYPOTHESES 151.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 161.4.1 Document Analysis 161.4.2 Field Research 171.4.2.1 Preparation of Data Gathering Instruments 171.4.2.2 Administration of the Instrument (Post-test Version) 201.4.2.3 Methods of Data Analysis 211.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 222 LAND DEGRADATION: A THREAT TO LIFE IN THEDEVELOPING WORLD 232.1 THE VALUE OF LAND AS A NATURAL RESOURCE 232.2 PROBLEM OF LAND DEGRADATION 232.2.1 Land Degradation: The Oldest of the Environmental Problems? 232.2.2 Causes of Land Degradation 252.2.2.1 Land Degradation through Soil Erosion 262.2.2.

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Published 01 January 2000
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Natural Resource Degradation
and Famine in Ethiopia

Assessment of Students’ Awareness and Views































By

Aklilu Dalelo

A Dissertation Presented as a Fulfilment of the Requirements
for a Doctor of Philosophy (Dr. phil) Degree in
Geography and Environmental Education




Flensburg University,
Institute of Geographic
Education and Regional Science

June, 2000







DEDICATION





This work is dedicated to my teachers at
Gerema,
Damboya and
Durame
primary and secondary schools
who laid a foundation for my further education.















CONTENT
1 INTRODUCTION 13
1.1 BACKGROUND 13
1.1.1 Centuries of Continuous Degradation: The State of Natural Resources
in Ethiopia 13
1.1.2 The Premise 13
1.2 THE PROBLEM AND AIM OF THE STUDY 14
1.3 VARIABLES AND HYPOTHESES 15
1.4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 16
1.4.1 Document Analysis 16
1.4.2 Field Research 17
1.4.2.1 Preparation of Data Gathering Instruments 17
1.4.2.2 Administration of the Instrument (Post-test Version) 20
1.4.2.3 Methods of Data Analysis 21
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 22
2 LAND DEGRADATION: A THREAT TO LIFE IN THE
DEVELOPING WORLD 23
2.1 THE VALUE OF LAND AS A NATURAL RESOURCE 23
2.2 PROBLEM OF LAND DEGRADATION 23
2.2.1 Land Degradation: The Oldest of the Environmental Problems? 23
2.2.2 Causes of Land Degradation 25
2.2.2.1 Land Degradation through Soil Erosion 26
2.2.2.2 Land Degradation through Overgrazing 28
2.2.2.3 Land Degradation through Sedimentation 29
2.2.2.4 Land Degradation through Intensive Farming 29
2.2.2.5 Land Degradation through Pollution 30
2.2.2.6 External Debt and Trade Barriers as Causes of Land Degradation 30
2.3 CONSEQUENCES OF LAND DEGRADATION 30
2.3.1 Desertification 30
2.3.2 Population Displacement 31
2.3.3 Poverty and Malnutrition 31
3 THE PROBLEM OF NATURAL RESOURCE DEGRADATION IN
ETHIOPIA 32
3.1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM OF NATURAL RESOURCE
DEGRADATION 32
3.1.1 Physical Characteristics 32
3.1.2 Pattern of Population Distribution 33
3.2 EXTENT AND SEVERITY OF NATURAL RESOURCE
DEGRADATION 34
3.2.1 Depletion of Forests 35
3.2.2 Degradation of Farm Land 37
33.2.3 Degradation of Grazing Land 40
3.3 TENURE RIGHT AND THE PROBLEM OF NATURAL RESOURCE
DEGRADATION 42
3.4 LACK OF AWARENESS AS FACTOR FOR NATURAL RESOURCE
DEGRADATION 42
3.5 CONSEQUENCES OF NATURAL RESOURCE DEGRADATION 43
3.5.1 Non-Economic Consequences 43
3.5.2 Economic Consequences 45
3.6 MEASURES PROPOSED AGAINST NATURAL RESOURCE
DEGRADATION 46
3.6.1 Afforestation and Reforestation 46
3.6.2 Conservation Oriented Crop Combination and Land Management 47
3.6.3 Agroforestry 47
3.6.4 Ensuring Rights of Tenure 48
3.6.5 Controlling the Rate of Population Growth 48
4 FAMINE IN ETHIOPIA: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES AND CURES 49
4.1 A DISTRESSFUL ASSOCIATION TO FAMINE 49
4.2 FAMINE IN ETHIOPIA: A HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 49
4.3 MULTIPLE CAUSES OF FAMINE 51
4.3.1 Famine as a Result of Natural Factors 51
4.3.2 Faminesult of Socio-economic and Political Factors 52
4.3.2.1 Gap between Rates of Food Production and Population Growth 53
4.3.2.2 System of Production 53
4.3.2.3 Deterioration of Household Resources 54
4.3.2.4 Shortage of Alternative Employment Opportunities 54
4.3.2.5 Taxes and Payments Imposed on Peasants 54
4.3.2.6 The Market 54
4.3.2.7 War and Political Instability 55
4.4 CONSEQUENCES OF FAMINE 55
4.4.1 Death of People 56
4.4.2 Long Ranging Economic Effects 56
4.4.3 Socio-psychological Effects 56
4.5 MEASURES TO PREVENT THE OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL THE
EFFECTS OF FAMINE 56
4.5.1 Protection of the Right to Food and Provision of Famine Relief 56
4.5.2 Long-term Strategies against Famine 57
4.5.3 Increasing food production 57
4.5.4 Monitoring of Household Food Security: A Strategy for Preventing
Occurrence of Famine 57
4.6 FIGHT AGAINST FAMINE: PRACTICAL SIDE OF THE MATTER 58
45 GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM AND ISSUES RELATED TO THE
USE AND MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES 59
5.1 HISTORICAL TIES BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC EDUCATION AND
NATURAL RESOURCE USE AND MANAGEMENT 59
5.1.1 What is Geographic Education all about? 59
5.1.2 Geographic Education and Environmental Awareness 59
5.1.3 Geographic Education of Tomorrow 60
5.2 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM: THE
CASE OF GERMANY 60
5.2.1 Environmental issues well addressed 60
5.2.2 Environmental Issues in Geography Syllabus for Schools in Schleswig-
Holstein 61
5.3 NATURAL RESOURCE USE AND MANAGEMENT IN GEOGRAPHY
CURRICULUM FOR ETHIOPIAN SCHOOLS 64
5.3.1 Geographic Education in Ethiopian Schools 64
5.3.2 Analysis of Objectives 64
5.3.3 Analysis of Students’ Textbooks 66
5.3.4 Ample but Unused Opportunity 69
5.4 THE PROBLEM OF NATURAL RESOURCE DEGRADATION IN THE
REVISED SYLLABI 69
5.4.1 A Beginning that Could Transform Geographic Education in Ethiopian
Schools 69
5.4.2 The Revised Geography Syllabi 70
6 STUDENTS’ AWARENESS OF AND VIEWS ABOUT ISSUES
RELATED TO NATURAL RESOURCE USE AND MANAGEMENT 72
6.1 A BRIEF REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 72
6.1.1 Poor and Discouraging Results 72
6.1.2 Very General and Uncritical Knowledge 73
6.1.3 Great Concern for the Ennvironment 73
6.1.4 Knowledge-Attitude-Behaviour Relationship 74
6.2 RESULTS OF THE PRESENT STUDY 74
6.2.1 A Preliminary Analysis 74
6.2.2 Causes of Land Degradation 75
6.2.3 Consequences of Land Degradation 76
6.2.4 Measures against Land Degradation 77
6.2.5 Natural Resource Use and Management 77
6.2.6 Analysis of Individual Items 78
6.3 VIEWS ABOUT NATURAL RESOURCE USE AND MANAGEMENT 81
6.3.1 Environmental Problems Rated on the Basis of Seriousness 81
6.3.2 Views about the Specific Issues 83
57 STUDENTS’ VIEWS ABOUT FAMINE IN ETHIOPIA 88
7.1 WHAT DO EXPERTS AND THE ACADEMIA SAY? 88
7.2 A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS 88
7.3 CAUSES OF FAMINE 89
7.4 SOLUTIONS TO FAMINE 90
7.5 VIEWS ABOUT SPECIFICS FACTORS RELATED TO FAMINE 90
7.5.1 Drought as a Factor 91
7.5.2 Government Officials and Policies as Factors 91
7.5.3 Famine and Hard work 93
8 FACTORS INFLUENCING AWARENESS OF AND VIEWS ABOUT
NATURAL RESOURCE DEGRADATION AND FAMINE 94
8.1 A BRIEF REVIEW OF LITERATURE 94
8.1.1 Curricular Focus and Teaching Strategies 94
8.1.2 Age/Grade Level 94
8.1.3 Sex 95
8.1.4 Place of Residence 95
8.1.5 Academic Stream 95
8.2 IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ON STUDENTS’
KNOWLEDGE 96
8.3 FINDINGS OF THE PRESENT STUDY 96
8.3.1 Difference in Grade Level 96
8.3.2 Difference in Sex 97
8.3.3 Difference between Students with and without Geography Background 99
9 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 101
9.1 SUMMARY 101
9.2 CONCLUSION 106
9.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 108
9.4 ZUSAMMENFASSUNG, FOLGERUNGEN, EMPFEHLUNGEN
(Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations – German Version) 110
9.4.1 Zusammenfassung 110
9.4.2 Folgerungen 116
9.4.3 Empfehlungen 117
A. REFERENCE 120
B. APPENDIX I 129
C.X II 132
D. APPENDIX III 135
6TABLES
Table 1.1 Check-list for reviewing the place of ‘issues related to the use
and management of natural resources’ in the syllabi and student
textbooks of Geography for Ethiopian secondary schools 17
Table 1.2 Number of students who participated in the study by grade level 21
Table 2.1 The state of soil degradation in the world 24
Table 2.2 Land degradation by type of land use 25
Table 2.3 The dominant forms of soil degradation in the world 25
Table 2.4 Extent of soil degradation by form and degree of seriousness 26
Table 2.5 Extent and seriousness of soil erosion by water 26
Table 2.6 Extent and seriousness of soil erosion by wind 27
Table 2.7 Causes of soil degradation (Area in Mill. km² and %) 27
Table 2.8 Amount of rainforests cleared annually during the 1980’s in
selected tropical countries 28
Table 3.1 Altitude-population relationship in Ethiopia 34
Table 3.2 Forest loss by source 35
Table 3.3 Household energy consumption as a percentage of total biomass
consumption in a number of selected African countries 36
Table 3.4 Estimates for household energy consumption by source (percent
of total energy consumption) 37
Table 3.5 Estimated rates of soil loss on slopes in Ethiopia dependent on
land cover 39
Table 3.6 Social costs of resource degradation in selected countries 45
Table 4.1 Time of occurrence of famine in Ethiopia and areas affected 50
Table 4.2 Population at risk of famine in Ethiopia (1977-1991) 50
Table 4.3 Average annual growth rates of total and per capita food
production in % 53
Table 5.1 Themenübersicht (Topic Overview) 62
Table 5.2 Topics related to the use and management of natural resources
that are integrated into the revised geography syllabi for
Ethiopian secondary schools 71
7Table 6.1 Table 6.1 Awareness about land degradation: Performance by
grade level 74
Table 6.2 Awareness about land degradation: Performance of junior
secondary schools 75
Table 6.3 Awareness about land degradation: Performance of senior
secondary schools and the TTI 75
Table 6.4 Causes of land degradation as expressed by the respondents 76
Table 6.5 Consequences of land degradation as expressed by the
respondents 76
Table 6.6 Measures against land degradation as expressed by the
respondents 77
Table 6.7 Awareness about issues related to natural resource use and
management: Performance by grade level 77
Table 6.8 Awareness related to natural resource use and management:
Junior secondary schools 78
Table 6.9 Awareness related to natural resource use and management:
Senior secondary schools and TTI 78
Table 6.10 Items correpoding to the codes (A1-5 and B1-10) 79
Table 6.11 Performance of students in both general and specific items 79
Table 6.12 Performance in general items (A1-A5) 80
Table 6.13 Performance in items related to the problem of natural resource
degradation in Ethiopia (B1-B10) 81
Table 6.14 Some environmental problems (1,2,3... 10) rated on the basis of
their seriousness 82
Table 6.15 Environmental problems (1,2,3...10) designated as top three on
the basis of their seriousness 82
Table 6.16 Proportion of students who rated the problem as ‘very serious’
and ‘the first of the three most serious’ 83
Table 6.17 Statements making up the attitude scale by code 83
Table 6.18 Views of students about issues concerning use and management
of natural resources 84
Table 6.19 Views of students about the value of natural resources (all figures
are given in percentages) 84
Table 6.20 Views of students about the use and protection of natural
resources (all figures are given in percentages) 85
Table 6.21 Students’ views about community participation in natural
resource protection and management (all figures are given in
percentages) 86
Table 6.22 Students’ views about the contribution of education to the
protection and management of natural resources (all figures are
given in percentages) 87
8Table 7.1 Causes and cures of famine: Responses by grade level (figures
are all in percentages) 88
Table 7.2 Causes and cures of famine: Responses by students of the junior
secondary schools (figures are all in percentages) 88
Table 7.3 Causes and cures of famine: Responses by students of senior
secondary schools and the TTI (figures are all in percentages) 89
Table 7.4 Causes of famine as expressed by the respondents 89
Table 7.5 Solutions to famine as expressed by the respondents 90
Table 7.6 Statements making up the attitude scale by code 91
Table 7.7 Students’ views about the statement (C1): ‘Drought alone may
not lead to the outbreak of famines’(figures are all in
percentages) 91
Table 7.8 Views of students on government policy or officials as forces
behind famine in Ethiopia (figures are all in percentages) 92
Table 7.9 Students’ views about hard work and ‘appealing for aid’ as
solutions to famine (figures are all in percentages) 93
Table 8.1 Difference between students of the different levels in their
awareness about natural resource use and management 96
Table 8.2 Difference between students of the different levels in their views
about natural resource use and management 97
Table 8.3 Difference between students of the different levels in their views
about famine 97
Table 8.4 Percentage of female students 98
Table 8.5 Difference between male and female students in their awareness
about issues related to naturalresource use and management 98
Table 8.6 Difference between male and female students in their views
about issues related to natural resource use and management 98
Table 8.7 Difference between male and female students in their views
about famine 99
Table 8.8 Difference between students with and without geography
background in their awareness about issues related to natural
resource use and management 100
Table 8.9 Difference between students with and without geography
background in their views about famine 100
Table 9.1 Concepts related to natural resource use and management and
recommended to be integrated into geography curricula for
Ethiopian schools 109
9FIGURES
Figure 1 Physical features of Ethiopia and Eritrea 33
Figure 2 Severity of soil erosion in Ethiopian highlands 38
Figure 3 The pastoral areas of Ethiopia 41
Figure 4 Resettlement in Ethiopia 1984/85 44
Figure 5 Areas affected by drought in Ethiopia and Eritrea 52
PHOTOS
(see Appendix III)
Photo 1 A rural house involving use of a large amount of biomass (Butajira,
southern Ethiopia)
Photo 2 Use of biomass for fencing (Rift Valley region)
Photo 3 Supply of firewood for Addis Ababa from Entoto mountain
Photo 4 Dung cakes prepared for use as fuel (Addis Ababa)
Photo 5 One of the most densely settled areas (Kedida Gamela, southern Ethiopia)
Photo 6 Road side erosion (Near Adilo town, southern Ethiopia)
Photo 7 Free grazing (Near Lake Ashenge, northern Ethiopia)
10