Air Quality in the Slovak Republic - Monitoring of air pollution and audit of Quality System (SLK 021 02)
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Air Quality in the Slovak Republic - Monitoring of air pollution and audit of Quality System (SLK 021 02)

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Air Quality in the Slovak Republic - Monitoring of air pollution and audit of Quality System (SLK/021/02) Minutes of the meeting in VMM and VITO, Belgium, 12-16/05/03 Within the framework of project „Co-operation programme between Flanders and candidate member states in the central and eastern Europe”. Experts of Air Quality Department (SHMI) were participated in training course and networking at Flemish Environment Agency VMM and in Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) on May 12. – 16, 2003, was training was focused on education in passive sampling monitoring technique, EU AQ legislation and QA/QC (ISO 17025). Introduction The VITO monitors the air quality in Flanders according to the EU Directives. The Flemish promoters have the competency, experience and qualifications to sample and analyze the pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, ozone, fine dust, heavy metals, polyaromatic compounds, dioxins. This organization was put in as reference laboratory for environmental analysis (research projects, European research programs, analytical service, support to air pollution networks, proficiency testing). The Vito performed several studies in order to compare different sampling techniques for the measurement of air pollutants. The Vito have a lot of experience with the development of monitoring programs, which comprise the assessment of the air quality and in particular, the screening of strongly ...

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Air Quality in the Slovak Republic - Monitoring of air pollution and audit of Quality
System (SLK/021/02)
Minutes of the meeting in VMM and VITO, Belgium, 12-16/05/03
Within the framework of project „Co-operation programme between Flanders and candidate
member states in the central and eastern Europe”. Experts of Air Quality Department (SHMI)
were participated in training course and networking at Flemish Environment Agency VMM
and in Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) on May 12. – 16, 2003, was
training was focused on education in passive sampling monitoring technique, EU AQ
legislation and QA/QC (ISO 17025).
Introduction
The VITO monitors the air quality in Flanders according to the EU Directives. The Flemish
promoters have the competency, experience and qualifications to sample and analyze the
pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, volatile organic compounds, ozone, fine dust,
heavy metals, polyaromatic compounds, dioxins. This organization was put in as reference
laboratory for environmental analysis (research projects, European research programs,
analytical service, support to air pollution networks, proficiency testing).
The Vito performed several studies in order to compare different sampling techniques for the
measurement of air pollutants. The Vito have a lot of experience with the development of
monitoring programs, which comprise the assessment of the air quality and in particular, the
screening of strongly polluted areas. Throughout Flanders about 50 automatic stations are in
operation. Additionally, the Flemish partners are experienced in screening air pollutants by
use of passive samplers. These samplers are small, accurate and inexpensive, which make
them suitable for the extensive monitoring of the air quality. Passive sampling included in the
European Directives, can monitor nitrogen dioxide and benzene, sulphur dioxide (Council
Directive 96/62/EC on ambient air quality and management).
Accession countries have to comply with the environmental EU standards for air quality. The
scope of this project is to enable the transfer of the Flemish knowledge regarding the
measurement and monitoring of air quality to the Slovak partner.
The Flemish experts have the know-how to:
-
analyse the pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and benzene by a cost-efficient
method,
-
to develop a monitoring program in order to evaluate the air quality.
Activities / sessions
12/05/03
Natacha Claeys
Heavy metals
VMM network design and regulations (local, EU and WHO) One part of VMM Air Quality
Network is measuring of concentration of heavy metals in ambient air and deposition. The
aims are to measure and the report air quality in Flanders according the established limit
values and thresholds designed to avoid, prevent or reduce harmful effects on human health
and the environment.
Heavy metal network is based on measurement of concentration of particulate matter and
deposition
Sampling and Measurement
Heavy Metals in ambient air
- measured from particulate matter network- TSP (Pourbaix
stations) and PM 10 samples ( Leckel – Partisol combination).
Heavy metals in deposition
- bulk /wet + dry/ deposition and Hg (vapor) on gold absorbers.
In ambient air samples are measurement metals/metalloids: Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, As, Cd, and
Cr.
In deposition samples are measurement Pb, Ni, As and Cd on industrial sites and Pb, Zn,
Cu, Mn, Ni, As, Cd, Cr, Fe and Hg on background sites.
Concentration of heavy metals is on VMM measured nondestructive wavelength x-ray
fluorescence and in deposition flame and graphite furnace AAS with Zeemann correction. Hg
in deposition is measured hydride generation technique and external. Vaporous Hg is
measured atomic fluorescence spectrometry and external analyses.
Other related programs: Biomonitoring
Air Quality Data Reporting – short review of Quality Data in Flanders
Validation of data, archive the individual data in database and reporting. Calculation the
annual mean values and simple statistics and trends.
Uncertainty of the method
Paul Bruyndonckx
AM Sampling and QC proceeding
There are 7 TSM- Poubaix samplers, 11 PM10-Leckel samplers and 2PM10 –Partisol
samplers on industrial, urban and rural sites in Flanders
Pourbaix Sampling -
advantages – easy to use, solid construction
-disadvantages – only TS /total suspended particles/,max 8 filters
PM10 sampling: KFG; Leckel and Partisol samplers- filter material
Leckel – advantages – 14 filters, solid construction, easy to use
disadvantage – small company produced this equipment
Partisol Plus 2025 – advantages -16 filters, big company, EPA- approval
-disadvantage - complicated
Other sampling methods: TSP and PM2.5 sampling
The filters which they use: glass-fiber, quartz- fiber and membranes: cellullosenitrate,
cellulloseacetate and teflon
Next step was visit sampling site 00HB23; sampling station nearby nonferrous plant.
Elke Adriaenssens, Jacqueline Van Den Eede
Heavy metals measurements and gravimetry visit of labs.
On VMM used WD-XRF method for measurement heavy metals in suspended dust.
On Vito developed for VMM special method for preparation of standards filter with dry
aerosols what is necessary for WD- XRF measurement.
First are standards filters measured with WD- XRF and next are destructed with microwave
system. After destruction are solutions analyzed with GF- AAS and F-AAS. Measured
concentration is used in XRF software for standard concentration.
XRF method is not reference method due low sensitivity. EU legislation- problems for Cd, Ni
and As. Solution is to use longer sampling times of other measurement techchniques /GTA-
AAS, ICP, ICP-MS/.
Measurement of heavy metals in deposition samples on VMM is as follows:
Sampling in NILU deposition bottles, determination of the weight, acidification to 1%,
subsample of 250 ml, destruction with MW system and analysis with AAS.
Determination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb with GF-AAS. Multi element
technique, As with cap tube- higher sensitivity
QA/QC procedure- control standard measurement, duplo measurement, reference
material and proficiency tests
Gravimetric: weighting PM10, PM2.5, TSP dust samples
After presentation we visited AAS lab, XRF lab and lab for gravimetric measurements.
Lector Peter
Wermaercke
Introduction to ISO 17025
This meeting was opened representative VMM Peter
Wermaercke, he explains scope,
normative references, management requirements, technical requirements, term and
definitions.
The discussion was aimed at technical requirements of ISO / IEC 17025 measurement
traceability, sampling, assuring the quality of test and calibration results.
13/05/03
Philip Van Avermaet and Dominique Meremans
Meeting with about monitoring of wet and dry acid deposition
Definition the joint effects air pollutants (SO
2
, NO
x
and NH
3
) that are transported through the
atmosphere and from which acids can be built (nitric and
acid) Wet + dry (+occult)= total
deposition.
- Mina policy plan – the policy on acidification must be such that ecosystems are protected,
- Target: reduce by 2010 the area of sensitive ecosystems with exceeding of CL in 1990
(without reducing the area of ecosystems themselves,
- As part of the Mina – 2 policy plan was made a new network measured total deposition in
accordance with existing international standards ISO 5667-8, VDI 3870,
- Resulting is 10 sampling sites and new equipment: wet-only collectors, standard rain gauges,
passive samplers (dry deposition),
- Sitting criteria ISO 5667-8,
- There are 12 operational sites in Flanders,
- Wet deposition- wet-only collectors (NSA 181 Eigenbrodt) for collecting precipitation
samples, standard rain gauge for measuring exact amount of precipitation, data logging and
remote control, 2 extra units for QA, QC purposes,
- Dry deposition- ammonia studies determining best method, passive sampling for gasses and
small aerosols, surrogate surfaces for large aerosols,
- NH
3
screening in Flanders using passive samplers, active annular denuder URG and R&P,
Radiello: SO
2
and NO
x
,
- Weather condition co-determines amount of acid deposition, 10 sites are enough for
monitoring wet deposition, but not for dry deposition.
After meeting we discussed about monitoring network for wet and dry deposition in Slovakia
and about measurement of dry deposition with passive samplers-in Slovakia usage of filters-
advantages and disadvantages
Philip Van Avermaet
Visit Kapellen site - working station for wet and dry deposition
Monitoring networks of VMM have telemetric networks (41 sites: continuous on-line
information, smog alarms, SO
2
, NO
x
, O
3
, PM 10, VOC, CO, meteo, black smoke), local
network (12 sites), mobile lab, network heavy metals, network organic compounds,
measurements of dioxines, monitoring network acid deposition.
Acid deposition involve the joint effects of air pollutants (SO
2
, NO
x
, and NH
3
that are
transported trough the atmosphere and from witch acid can be built (nitric acid and sulfuric
acid). Acid deposition strategy includes dray and wet deposition. Direct dry deposition (large
aerosols), indirect (international method, combining meteo and concentration measurements
for gasses and small aerosols, passive sampling, active denuder). Wet deposition is chemical
analysis of colleted sample measuring rain quantity (wet – only collector, standard rain
gauge).
14/05/03
Visit to VITO (Mol):
Before noon: introduction activities of VITO, tour aroun VITO, visit to the labs
VITO
- meeting, introduction, discussion of the
planning
- tour around
reference lab Vito
Nicole De Brucker
Introduction of passive sampling of analytical method, principle and
explanation
Wendy Swaans
Determination of nitrite, nitrate, sulfite and sulfate in desorption liquid of Radiello.
NO
2
- SO
2
passive samplers by ion chromatography was interpreted by Wendy Swans,
representative VITO. Principe: nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide are chemiadsorbed onto
trietanolamine (TEA) coated cartridge and analysed by ion chromatography as nitrite, nitrate
sulfite and sulfate ions.(Rupprecht
Patashnik Model 3310)
Nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide are linearly sampled in concentration range of 3 ,000 to
5 ,000,000 ppb.min.
The sampling rate
for NO
2
and SO
2
is independent of relative humidity
in the range of
15 to 90 %. We have to use the blue diffusive barrier for sampling gas- phase
NO
2
- SO
2
, the cartridge
and
outdoor shelter for outdoor sampling.
Analytical method contains:
- Transport and keeping
- Ion chromatographic parameters
- Analysis
- Validation of sampler to EN 1358
In reference lab was demonstrate ion chromatograph. Dionex system DX 120 is equipped
analytical column AS 14, guard column AG 14, suppressor ASRS.
15/05/03
Preparation of standards, stock eluent, calibration curve, independent standard In lab was
prepared designated stock eluent, triethanolamine-solution, 10 calibration standard. The
measuring range for the four compounds is 0,1mg/l - 30 mg/l.
Following the analyses of real samplers from the VMM- network acidification by IC.
16/05/03
Handling of data, desorption of loaded test and blanks, storage shelf live, registration of data,
calculation, quality control.
During training course we obtained 13 samplers to analyze nitrite, nitrate sulfite and sulfate
ions by ion chromatography dionex system DX 600, with autosampler AS50. Samples were
analyzed 10. 8- 6. 9 2003 and then sent to VITO.
Conclusions and recommendations
1. Quality manager in Slovak laboratories must be competed handbook for the expansive
declaration of quality control and quality assurance within the ISO 17025 us general
requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories.
2. Results of the loaded tubes provided by VITO were discussed. Spikes tubes with BETEX
were analysed in Slovak laboratories by thermal desorption and GC/FID method. This
results referred about problems with thermal desorption.
3. Slovak experts must be considered eventuality of application for measurement of benzene
concentrations in diffusive samplers followed by solvent desorption and GC/MSD
method.
4. Slovak experts had been possibility for saw of demonstration of liquid spiking technique
and gaining practical experience with solvent desorption after starting of a gas phase
loading to test chamber of passive sampling.
5. Slovak experts discussed with Flemish experts about revalue of budget of project because
Slovak experts attained new information’s about air monitoring products for calibration
technique of analytical system and prepared of test’s and control (visitation) samplers,
thermal and solvent desorption (microbalance, calibration solution loading RIG,
pneumatic control accessory, tube conditioner, standard material, Hamilton syringes, etc.).
6. Flemish experts demonstrated practical experience of passive sampling, field
measurement (blanks, field blanc, shelters).
7. The visit of VMM and Vito was very useful. After study all materials there is possibility
to utilize experiences in designing network for heavy metals and wet and dry deposition in
Slovakia.
8. Flemish experts will help to Slovak experts with SOP for the determination of benzene in
ambient air with diffusive samplers and with expansive validation of analytical method.
List of participants
Belgium experts
Claeys Natacha
Bruyndonckx Paul
Adrianssens Elke
Swaans Wendy
Wauters Eric
Bormans Robert
Maes Frederik
Poelmans David
Slovak experts
Szabóová Jaroslava
Šrenkelová Silvia
Barcziová Terézia
Brežná Magdaléna