Annexe 13 - Etude nationale Grèce
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Annexe 13 - Etude nationale Grèce

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EVALUATION DES MESURES AGRO-ENVIRONNEMENTALES AGRI/ G4/ 2004 ANNEXE 13 : ETUDE NATIONALE GRECE Novembre 2005 – Oréade-Brèche – 64, chemin del prat – 31320 AUZEVILLE – FRANCE – tél. : 05.61.73.62.62 – Fax : 05.61.73.62.90 – oreade-breche@oreade-breche.fr – Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INVENTORY OF AGROENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES IN GREECE ......................1 1.1 Terminology...............................................................................................................................1 1.2 Brief presentation of the measures by type.............................................................................1 1.3 – Details of AEM .......................................................................................................................2 1.3.1 List of measures.......2 1.3.2 List of objectives.....................................................................................................................3 2. TYPOLOGIES OF ACTIONS AND MEASURES IN GREECE ..............................5 3. CONTEXT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AEM: THE GREEK AEM SCHEME.7 3.1 Main steps of the historic of the AEM implementation in Greece........................................7 3.1.1 Inventory of the AEM of Regulation(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece .............................................7 3.1.2 Inventory of the agro-environmental programs ...

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EVALUATION DES MESURES AGRO-ENVIRONNEMENTALES
AGRI/ G4/ 2004 ANNEXE13:ETUDE NATIONALEGRECE
Novembre 2005
 – Oréade-Brèche – 64, chemin delprat – 31320 AUZEVILLE – FRANCE – tél. : 05.61.73.62.62 –Fax : 05.61.73.62.90 – oreade-breche@oreade-breche.fr –  
1.
1.1
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INVENTORY OF AGROENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES INGREECE...................... 1
Terminology ............................................................................................................................... 1
1.2Brief presentation of the measures by type ............................................................................. 11.3 2 Details of AEM .......................................................................................................................1.3.1 2List of measures ......................................................................................................................1.3.2List of objectives..................................................................................................................... 3
2.TYPOLOGIES OF ACTIONS AND MEASURESIN GREECE .............................. 5
3.CONTEXT OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AEM:THEGREEKAEMSCHEME. 73.1Main steps of the historic of the AEM implementation in Greece ........................................ 73.1.1 7Inventory of the AEM of Regulation(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece .............................................3.1.2Inventory of the agro-environmental programs RDP (Single Programming Document of Rural Development) ........................................................................................................................... 113.2- Main target of the AEM of the RDR in Greece.................................................................. 123.3The organisation of the implementation at national and regional level ............................. 143.3.1Planning ................................................................................................................................ 143.3.2 .................................................................................... 14Monitoring- auditing of the Program3.3.3Level of development of the good agricultural practice documentation............................... 153.4 16The level of implementation of the measures........................................................................
4.ANSWER TO EVALUATION QUESTIONS....................................................... 204.1Theme nº 1 : environmental impacts of agro-environmental measures (AEM)  Questions common to all AEMs ............................................................................................................................ 214.1.1Q 1 : To what extent have agro-environmental measures improved or maintained biodiversity (species richness)? ......................................................................................................... 214.1.2Q 2: To what extent have the agro-environmental measures maintained or improved habitats? ............................................................................................................................................. 264.1.3Q 3: To what extent have the agro-environmental measures maintained or improved genetic resources by safeguarding endangered animal and plant species?..................................................... 304.2Theme nº 1: environmental impacts of agro-environmental measures  Sub-theme nº 2: natural resources .................................................................................................................................. 344.2.1Q 4: To what extent have agro-environmental measures maintained or improved water quality?344.2.2what extent have the agro-environmental measures maintained or increased theQ 5: To volume of water?................................................................................................................................ 384.2.36 : To what extent have agro-environmental measures maintained or improved soil qualityQ and prevented soil erosion ?............................................................................................................... 414.2.4Q 7 : To what extent have agro-environmental measures had an impact on other environmental resources not covered above (for example air) or other unmentioned environmental impacts ? ............................................................................................................................................ 444.3Theme nº 1 : environmental impacts of the agro-environmental measures - Sub-theme nº 3 : landscape.......................................................................................................................................... 464.3.1what extent have the agro-environmental measures preserved or improved the ruralQ 8 : To landscape ? ......................................................................................................................................... 464.4Theme 2a: Institutional and contextual issues which determine the success of agro-environmental policy ............................................................................................................................ 49
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
4.4.1Q9 To what extent have institutional structures and working methods at all levels in the Member State facilitated/hindered the construction of good quality agro-environmental programmes and measures? .................................................................................................................................... 494.4.2extent is funding for agro-environmental programmes and measures adequateQ 10: To what (e.g. in the EU contribution, Member states budget, Regional budget, payment levels for farmers, etc.) and how has the level of funding influenced uptake and programme quality ? ......................... 544.4.3Q 11: To what extent is the monitoring, evaluation and control of agro-environmental measures in place in the Member states adequate to the task? To what extent have the results of monitoringandevaluationbeenusedtoimproveprogrammes?Whatlessonscanbelearnedfrombest practices on monitoring, evaluation and control? ....................................................................... 564.4.4Q 12: To what extent have other implementation or contextual factors (such as the attitude towards/knowledge about agro-environment at all levels in the Member states, the level of GAP, other CAP/EU measures, minimum 5-years contracts, farmers as the only beneficiaries, etc.) influenced programmes uptake and environment effectiveness? ....................................................... 604.5 65Theme nº 2b: Economic efficiency of measures. Payment mechanism...............................4.5.1Q 13: What differences are there in the budget spending and the administrative effort of different measures having similar environmental outcomes? How could less efficient measure be improved? What lessons can be learned from very efficient measures (best practices)? .................. 654.5.2Q 14 : Is the present way of applying the payment mechanism (based on costs incurred plus income foregone plus an incentive where necessary) suited to achieving the desired environmental outcome? Do payment levels reflect costs incurred and income foregone? Are incentive payments, when used, being justified? Can any improvements be suggested to the payment mechanism which would maintain compatibility with WTO rules? ................................................................................ 694.6 measures ...................... 72Theme nº 3: The socio-economic impact of agro-environmental4.6.1Q 15 : To what extent have agro-environmental measures provided farmers with opportunity of a gainful activity (provision of environmental services)? To what extent have they contributed to enhancing the image of agriculture as a provider of services to society? ................... 724.7Theme nº 4: Objectives and targeting of agro-environmental measures ........................... 734.7.1Q 16: To what extent agro-environmental measures designed with clear environmental objectives? To what extent have Member states and Regions chosen to target their agro-environmental measures to areas and topics covered by Community environmental legislation or objectives?.......................................................................................................................................... 73
Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9. Table 10.
Table 11.
Table 12. Table 13.
Table 14. Table 15.
Table 16. Table 17. Table 18. Table 19. Table 20.
Table 21.
Table 22. Table 23.
Table 24. Table 25.
Table 26.
Table 27. Table 28.
Table 29.
Table 30. Table 31.
Table 32. Table 33. Table 34.
Table 35.
Table 36.
Table 37.
Table 38. Table 39.
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
TABLE OF TABLES
Agri-environmental measures in Greece (1995  1999)....................................................... 1 Agri-environmental measures in Greece (2000  2004)....................................................... 2 Horizontal AEM of Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece (1995-1999) ......................................... 2 Horizontal AEM of SPDRD in Greece (2000-2004)............................................................ 2 Zonal AEM of Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece (1995-1999)................................................. 2 Zonal AEM of SPDRD in Greece (2000-2004) ................................................................... 3 Objectives of the AEM Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece ........................................................ 3 Objectives of AEM of SPDRD in Greece ............................................................................ 4 Typology of AEM Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece according to environmental objectives.. 5 Typology of AEM of Reg. RDR (SPDRD 2000-2006) in Greece according to environmental objectives ...................................................................................................... 5 Typology of AEM of Reg. RDR (SPDRD 2000-2006) in Greece according to environmental issues and farmers commitments ................................................................. 6 Evolution of the AEM 2078/92 of Organic Farming in Greece (1995-1999) ...................... 9 Evolution of the AEM 2078/92 of Reduction of Nitrates Pollution at the plain of Thessaly, in Greece (1995-1999)........................................................................................................ 10 Evolution of the AEM 2078/92 of Long Term Set-aside, in Greece (1997-1999) ............. 11 Evolution of the AEM 2078/92 of Protection of Rare Breeds of Farm Animals, in Greece (1998-1999) ........................................................................................................................ 11 Objectives of SPD Rural Development  AEM ................................................................. 13 List of data available from RDRs for monitoring AEMs.................................................... 20 Beneficiaries and areas under contract ............................................................................... 23 Diversity of weeds in AEM 2078/92 .................................................................................. 23 Main subjects on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on ordinary biodiversity ......................................................................................................................... 24 Main subjects on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on ordinary biodiversity ......................................................................................................................... 26 AEM 2078/92 Long term set-aside: Measure A ................................................................. 26 Main subjects on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on exceptional biodiversity and habitats.................................................................................. 28 Main subjects on the effects of AEMs on exceptional biodiversity and habitats ............... 30 Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on the biodiversity of endangered domesticated animals . ............................................................ 31 Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on the biodiversity of endangered domesticated plants . ............................................................... 32 Number of races bred until 31/03/2004 according to Interim RDR Evaluation Report ..... 33 Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on the biodiversity of endangered domesticated animals . ............................................................ 33 Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on the biodiversity of endangered domesticated plants. ................................................................ 34 Quantity of nitrogen............................................................................................................ 35 Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of the AEMs on water quality ................................................................................................................................. 36 Soil nitrate reduction........................................................................................................... 37 Results on the audited producers ........................................................................................ 37 Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of the AEMs on water quality ................................................................................................................................. 38 Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on quantitative water management .......................................................................................... 39 Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on quantitative water management .......................................................................................... 41 Main themes for which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on soil protection and erosion. ....................................................................................................... 42 Main themes on the effects of AEMs on soil protection and erosion. ................................ 44 Main themes on which to gather information on air quality, energy saving, development of renewable energy and risks of forest fire............................................................................ 45
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
Table 40. Main themes on which to gather information on air quality, energy saving, development of renewable energy and risks of forest fire............................................................................ 46 Table 41. Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on landscape protection ............................................................................................................................ 47 Table 42. Main themes on which to gather information to evaluate the effects of AEMs on landscape protection ............................................................................................................................ 48 Table 43. Changes of Measures in the 2nd Amendment of the Single Programming Document....... 68 Table 44. AEM quantitative goals ...................................................................................................... 71 Table 45. Goals set for the measures in 1st and 2nd Amendment of the Single Programming Document............................................................................................................................ 74 Table 46. Targets set for the measures in 1st and 2nd Amendment of the Single Programming ........................ 75
Document.................................................................................................... GLOSSARYAE = Agri-environmental AEM = Agri-environmental Measures ATE = Agricultural Bank of Greece CAP= Common Agricultural Policy CLGI= Center of Livestock Genetic Improvement DRCH = Drachma (ex-greek currency unit) DSPEP = Directorate of Spatial Planning and Environmental Protection EC = European Commission EEC= European Economic Community ECU = European Currency Unit EKBY =Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre EU = European Union FAO= Food and Agriculture Organisation GFP= Good Farming Practices LU = Livestock Unit N.AG.RE.F = National Agricultural Research Foundation NGO= Non Governmental Organisation NVZ = Nitrates Vulnerable Zone OSDE= Integrated System of Management and Control PASEGES = Hellenic Federation of Unions of Agricultural Cooperatives RDP = Rural Development Plan RDR = Rural Development Regulation SPDRD Single Programming Document of Rural Development = UAA = Utilised Agriculture Area YPGE Hellenic Ministry of Agriculture = YPEHODE = Hellenic Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Public Works WTO= World Trade Organisation WWF = World Wildlife Fund
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
1. INVENTORY OF AGROENVIRONMENTAL MEASURES IN GREECE
1.1 Terminology The AEM in Greece have been implemented in two distinct phases. During the first phase 4 measures were implemented according to Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 from July 1995 till 1999. Greek authorities have used the termprogramin relation to the AEM of Reg. 2078/92. The term measure was used to separate two distinct sectors of application of a certain program (see program of Long term set-aside in ch. 3.1.1). They were established at national administrative level, meaning that the central administration (HMA) was responsible for their elaboration, implementation and administration. Following the classification of Art.3 of the Regulation the country implemented both: - Horizontal programs: corresponding to those AEM Reg. 2078/92 that were implemented to the entire state. - Zonal programs: to those AEM Reg. 2078/92 that were tailored and corresponding implemented to specific areas of the country. In the second phase, AEM have been launched in 2001, according to RDP (Single Programming Document of Rural Development). Specific terms have been used in relation with the AEM. A definition of these terms is given according to the SPDRD: - Priority Axes:these are the core set of measures described in the SPDRD. They gather measures relating to the same issue. - Measures:corresponding to the detailed measures described in the SPDRD. Each axis is composed of one or more measures. - Horizontal measures:corresponding to measures, which are not region or site-specific. They are implemented with more or less the same requirements at the entire state.- Zonal measures:corresponding to measures applied in specific areas in the country. Concerning the administrative level (national or regional) the country has implemented only national programs, with the central administration being responsible for their planning, elaboration, implementation and overall administration.
1.2 Brief presentation of the measures by type a) According to the above-mentioned definitions, a first classification of the AEM Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 implemented in Greece, is presented in the table below:
Table 1. 
Agri-environmental measures in Greece (1995  1999)
Total programs
Horizontal programs
Zonal programs
Source: Ex-ante evaluation SPDRD and YPGE, 2000
Number 4
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b) The presentation of the AEM measures in Greece, in accordance with Reg.1257/99 Articles 22 and 53 par. 2, is summarised in the table below. All AEM of SPDRD are included in one sole Axis (Axis 3):
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Table 2. 
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
Agri-environmental measures in Greece (2000  2004)
Priority Axes
Measures Horizontal measures Zonal measures
1.3  Details of AEM
1.3.1 List of measures
Horizontal measures
Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 (1995  2000)
Source: SPDRD, 2000
Number 1 13 6 7
Table 3. Horizontal AEM of Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece (1995-1999)
Title of program Organic farming Long term set aside of agricultural land Protection of rare breeds of farm animals Source: Ex-ante evaluation SPDRD, 2000 Reg RDR
Horizontal AEM of SPDRD in Greece (2000-2004)
Table 4. Code Title of measure Μ3.1Organic farming Μ3.2 Organic livestock farming M 3.3 Long-term set aside Μ farming extensification3.4 Livestock Μ for endangered local livestock breeds.3.7 Program Μ of extensive crops (local varieties) under threat of genetic erosion3.8 Conservation Μ3.12 Conservation and restoration of terraces for soil erosion protection Measure M 3.3 is a continual measure from the previous programming period (Reg 2078/92), which was approved by no.Ε(96) 1144/19-07-96 Decision of the Commission. No other (new) beneficiaries will be funded, under this measure, although is a measure of great environmental importance.
Zonal measures
Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 (1995  1999)
Table 5. Zonal AEM of Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece (1995-1999)
Reducti
Title of program on of nitrate leaching of agricultural origin at the plain of Thessaly Source: Ex-ante evaluation SPDRD, 2000
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Reg RDR
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
Table 6. Zonal AEM of SPDRD in Greece (2000-2004) Code Title of measure Μ3.5 Reduction of Nitrate Pollution Μ3.6 Environmental Protection of Lake Pamvotis Μ3.9 Management Program for the Lakes and Lagoons of Thrace Μ Program 3.10 Managementfor the lakeside areas of Lakes Volvi and Koronia Μ and Restoration of Hedgerows3.11 Conservation Μ of agricultural lands for the protection of wild fauna species3.13 Conservation
1.3.2 List of objectives
Objectives of AEM Reg.(EEC) 2078/92
Corresponding to the objectives, articles and paragraphs of Reg.(EEC) 2078/92, the agrienvironmental programs of the Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 together with their main environmental and additional objectives are presented in the following table:
Table 7. Objectives of the AEM Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece No Title of program Main Environmental Objectives Additional Objectives Reduction of the pollution of agricultural origin. Protection of wild fauna and flora. Creation of standard areas Conservationofbiodiversityoff(anrumclienugs.areas)oforganic1OrganicFarmingagrsotaeicnoasbylsetemms.anagementofnaturalSu Uniformity of the distribution rPersootuecrtcieosn.andconservationoftheruloforganicfarmingareasatl ndscape. ra national level. a Protection of public health. Protection of biotopes, biological parcs and areas of ecological interest and ecological degradation. Development of buffer zones at coastal 2Lonagsitderemfset-zones,riversidesandlakesides.ConservationofruralProtection of the hydrological systems agriculturaollandfrompollutionofagriculturaloriginlandscape.Protection of the quality and quantity of the aquatic resources. Conservation of biodiversity of native flora and wild fauna. Conservation of natural . 3PrborteeecdtsioonfoffararebCioonlosegrivcaaltiondiverasnitdyainndcreaasenimalosfrCeosnosuerrcveastionandeffectiveanimalsrmgeneticdiversity.managementofthe environment, the natural space and rural landscape. Reduction of the pollution of Improvement of the stability Reduction of agricultural origin (art. 1 Reg.2078/92) at the cotton market. nitrate pollution of Reduction of nitrate leaching of 4 agricultural origin agricultural origin Protection of waters from at the plain of nitrate pollution of Thessaly agricultural origin (Dir. 91/676/EEC). Source: Ex-ante evaluation SPDRD (2000) and Ministerial Decisions for the Implementation of AEM 2078/92.
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Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
Objectives of AEM of SPDRD
In the SPD of Rural Development the main objectives of the 13 AEM, are presented:
Table 8. 
No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
30 31
32
Objectives of AEM of SPDRD in Greece
Objectives Reduction of pollution derived from agriculture Sustainable management of soil resources Improvement of measures for farmers health protection Production of organic livestock products Respect of animals welfare Improvement of pastures plant shielding Biodiversity restoration Pastures protection from erosion Water resources exhaustion protection Groundwater quality restoration Improvement of soil fertility Reduction of nitrate fertilizers consumption Conservation of biodiversity and genetic diversity of native farm animals Protection and effective management of pastures, natural environment and rural landscape. Utilisation of desirable traits of protected species for productive aims In situ conservation of endangered species and varieties of crops Renewal and conservation of genetic material of species and varieties Awareness of local rural population for the conservation of agricultural biodiversity Reduction of irrigation water consumption Reduction of farm inputs, fertilisers and pesticides Improvement of ecological operations of rural land Conservation of biodiversity in rural land Conservation of nutritive and relaxation fields of predatory migratory birds Conservation and improvement of wild fauna habitat Protection from soil erosion Better exploitation of rainfall water Conservation of rural landscape and its characteristics Improvement of biodiversity Conservation and protection of endangered and rare wild fauna with their habitats depended partially on agricultural land. Harmonisation with Directive 79/409/EEC (articles 4 and 7). Conservation of biotopes that constitute feeding or nest places of endangered and rare species of wild fauna Retention of rural population and continuation of their rural activities in mountainous and less-favored areas, using environmentally friendly practices. Source: Ex-ante evaluation SPDRD, 2000.
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2. 
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
TYPOLOGIES OF ACTIONS AND MEASURES IN GREECE
Typology of AEM under Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 (1995  1999) Following the first classification in horizontal and zonal programs of the AEM of Reg.(EEC) 2078/92, a typology adapted to the main environmental issues that had been their main framework objectives (targets) could be applied:
Table 9. Typology of AEM Reg.(EEC) 2078/92 in Greece according to environmental objectives
Main Environmental Issues Programs Conservation of biodiversity* 1,2,3 Reduction of the pollution of agricultural origin 1,2,4 Protection of the quality and quantity of the aquatic resources 1,2,4 Conservation of the rural landscape 1,2,3,4 Sustainable management of natural resources 1,2,3,4 Protection of public health 1,2,4 * It includes the conservation of genetic diversity, plant and animal diversity and habitats diversity. Source: Ex-ante evaluation SPDRD, 2000. Typology of AEM under Reg. RDR. PriorityAxis 3of SPDRD includes AEM in compliance to Reg.1257/99 and its amendments, with an additional effort for complementarity and harmonization with other EUs legislative documents (e.g. Dir. 91/676/EEC, Dir. 92/43/EEC, Dir. 79/409/EEC). A first typology of the measures was applied at the ex ante evaluation of the SPDRD 2000-2006, combining the measures with their main environmental objectives.
Table 10. Typology of AEM of Reg. RDR (SPDRD 2000-2006) in Greece according to environmental objectives
Main Environmental Objectives Measures Reduction of nitrates pollution of agricultural origin 3.5 Reduction of pollution from pesticides to ESAs (NATURA 2000) 3.1 Protection of the quality and quantity of water resources 3.6, 3.9, 3.10 Protection from soil erosion and abandonment of rural space 3.2, 3.4, 3.12 Conservation of biodiversity 3.3, 3.7, 3.8, 3.11, 3.13 Source: Ex ante evaluation SPDRD, 2000. Another approach combining at the list of the main environmental objectives (targets) presented in ch. 1.3.2.2, the commitments that should be adopted by farmers and the general effect of the measure to the environment, could show off that many of the AEM of SPDRD 2000-2006 have direct and indirect effects to more environmental issues than the ones presented at the above table. Consequently, a second typology could be applied and is presented to the following table:
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Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Greece
Table 11. Typology of AEM of Reg. RDR (SPDRD 2000-2006) in Greece according to environmental issues and farmers commitments
Environmental Issues AEM Reg. RDR  Direct effect Indirect effect Protection from soil erosion 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.12 3.1, 3.11 Conservation of biodiversity 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 3.7, 3.8, 3.11, 3.12 3.2 Protection of the quality and qua resourcesntityofwater3.1,3.3,3.5,3.6,3.9,3.10,3.123.1,3.8oRreigdiunctionofnitratespollutionofagricultural3.5,3.6,3.103.1Protection of public health 3.1, 3.2, 3.5 3.6 Conservation of the rural landscape 3.3, 3.11, 3.12 3.7, 3.8, 3.13 Source: SPDRD 2000-2006 and Ministerial Decisions for the implementation of AEM SPDRD. Other evaluators1 had stated several typologies in the form of classifications and categorisations according to the administrative structure, the environmental impacts, the coverage, the geographical targeting, the intensity of obligations and whether they were wide or focused in particular environmental issues. It is, therefore, obvious that the lists of typologies could be wide as every typology is closely target-related.
1DGVI, Commission Working Document VI/7655/98:State of Application of Regulation(EEC) no. 2078/92.
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