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COST 814


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368 Pages


Crop development for the cool and wet regions of Europe: Alternative crops for sustainable agriculture: Workshop held at BioCity, Turku, Finland, 13 to 15 June 1999
Agricultural and fisheries research
Vegetable production



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Language English
Document size 6 MB


in the field of
scientific and
European Commission technical research
Workshop held
BioCity, Turku, Finland
13 to 15 June 1999
Organised by
The Finnish Delegation of the Management Committee of COST 814
The Danishn of thete of COST 814
DG XII/B.1 — RTD actions: Cooperation with non-member countries and international
organisations — European Economic Area, COST, Eureka and international organisations
Contact: Mr K. Pithan
Address: European Commission, rue de la Loi 200 (SDME 1/99)
B-1049 Brussels — Tel. (32-2) 29-57669; tax (32-2) 29-64289 COST EUROPEAN COMMISSION
Alternative crops for sustainable
Research progress
COST 814
held at BioCity, Turku, Finland
13 to 15 June 1999
Edited by
Timo Mela, Jorgen Christiansen, Markku Kontturi, Katri Pahkala, Anneli Partala,
Mia Sahramaa, Hannele Sankari, Mari Topi-Hulmi, Klaus Pithan LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible
for the use which might be made of the following information
A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int).
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1999
ISBN 92-828-7831-7
© European Communities, 1999
Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Belgium
PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER THEME 1: Productivity and raw material quality - alternative fibre crops
Opening presentation: Alternative crops as a research target
Timo Mela 8
Quality aspects of alternative crop fibres
I.M. Morrison 11
Effect of genotype and growing conditions on fibre and mineral composition of reed canary
grass (Phaltiris anmdinacea L.)
K.A. Pahkala, M. Eurola and A. Varhimo 29
Possibilities with new breeding lines of reed canary grass for delayed harvesting and
combined pulp and energy production
Rolf Olsson, Michael Finell and Staffan Landstrom 43
Potential of Miscanlhus genotypes in Europe: Over-wintering and yields
I. Lewandowski, J. Clifton-Brown and M. Deuter6
Reed canary grass breeding in Sweden
B. Andersson and E. Lindvall 5
Evaluation of some herbaceous grasses as biomass crops in Southern England
D.G. Christian, A.B. Riche and N.E. Yates8
Biomass and fiber production of Spanish cultivars of hemp in the humid cool areas of
Southern Pyrenees
G. Gorschs and J. Lloveras 70
Alternative fibre crops grown under Scottish conditions
I.M. Morrison and D. Stewart9
THEME 2: Productivity and raw material quality — alternative small grain cereals and
Potential for quinoa {Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) for cool and wet regions of Europe
Sven-Erik Jacobsen 87
Progress in breeding of sweet quinoa
Dick Mastebroek and Hans Marvin 100
Study and evaluation of selected alternative crops for sustainable agriculture
A. Michalova and Z. Stehno8 Genetic analysis and early testing of spelt specific stress tolerance
Stephane Burgos, P. Stamp and J.E. Schmid 118
The possibilities for spelt growing in Norway
Ragnar Eltun, Mauritz Aassveen, Oddvar Bjerke and Haakon Linnerud 127
Quinoa - potential in Sweden
Ingvar Ohlsson and Lars Dahlstedt 139
Optimising quality of medicinal and aromatic plants in sustainable agriculture
D. Baricevic, A. Zupancic and T. Bartol 146
Energy crops production in Poland
Magdalena Rogulska 15
Crops of European origin
K. Hammer and M. Spahillari 163
THEME 3: Environmental effects on alternative crops and their contribution to
sustainable agriculture
Ecological foundation of sustainable crop production
J. Helenius 177
Sustainability of reed canary grass in cold climate
StaffanLandstrom 194
The fate of 15N-labelled nitrogen applied to reed canary grass
Anneli Partala, Timo Mela, Martti Esala and Elise Ketoja 198
The effect of light use on hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) growth
S. Amaducci and N.C. Stutterheim 205
Wide temperature adaptation to seed germination in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)
B. Jornsgard, J.P. Lyck Rasmussen and J.L. Christiansen 21
Fast seed germination of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) at low temperature
J.L. Christiansen, E.N. Ruiz-Tapia, B. Jornsgard and S.-E. Jacobsen 220
Effect of sowing date on seed quality and yield of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)
in Greece
C. Uiadis, Th. Karyotis and S. Jacobsen 226 THEME 4: Production systems, sustainability and economy
Economics of the combined reed canary grass production chain for cellulose chips and
biofuel - based on North European conditions
S.M. Pedersen and M. Gylling 233
Physical and economical bioresource production assessment of hemp {Cannabis sativa L.)
N.C. Stutterheim and S. Amaducci 24
Biomass as industrial raw materials - organizational aspects
Morten Gylling and Soren Marcus Pedersen 264
THEME 1: Productivity and raw material quality - alternative fibre crops
Variation of natural populations of reed canary grass in Finland
Mia Sahramaa 277
Performance of different miscanthus genotypes under Mediterranean conditions
G. Basch, K. Tayebi and F. Teixeira 280
Propagation and cultivation techniques of Miscanthus Xgiganleus as related to plant
Kai-Uwe Schwarz, Wolfram Miinzer, Jens Bonderup Kjeldsen and Rainer Junge 288
Pests and diseases of reed canary grass, Pluihiris arundinacea (L.)
Arja Vasarainen, Asko Ilannukkala and Jaana Grahn 294
Diseases and insect pests of organically grovvh flax {Linum usitatissimum L.)
Pauliina Lehtincn, Asko Hannukkala and Arja Vasarainen 302
Characteristics of fibre hemp {Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars compared at two experimental
sites in Finland
M.J. Isolahti and H.S. Sankari 307
Trials with hemp for fiber production, Denmark 1998
Poul Flengmark 313
The baling methods in reed canary grass harvesting
Antti Suokannas7 POSTERS
THEME 2: Productivity and raw material quality - alternative small grain cereals and
Response of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to frost
Cecilia Monteros and Sven-Erik Jacobsen 319
Response of quinua {Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amarantus caudatus L.)
to salinity
Hipolito Quispe and Sven-Erik Jacobsen 326
A new low input oilseed-plant Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz
K. Men, R. Rajalahti, M. Kallela and E. Pehu 331
Whole exploitation of an ancient cereals: Grain for healthy food and straw for paper
production in Triticnm dicoccum Schubler.
Leonardo Recchia, Marina Brizzi, Andreina Belocchi and Ersilio Desiderio 337
Actual situation and perspectives of cultivation of alternative species in Poland
Anna Grzybek, Bogdan Koscik and Ewa Kalita 348
Prospects for and problems of more rare agricultural crops growing in Lithuania
A. Svirskis 353
Buckwheat: Alternative crop in Finland
Markku KontturiTheme 1.
Productivity and raw material quality
Timo Mela
Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland
Alternative crops research is of a great importance in the cool and wet regions of Europe, because
of the lack of ability of the regions to carry on conventional agricultural production competitively.
Surprisingly similar is the situation in the northern borealic countries and the southern
mountaineous areas, although under different solar radiation different crops are often grown.
Under these unfavourable growth conditions farmers themselves, not only researchers and
extention, are actively searching a new basis for their economy out of alternative crops. Often the
joint efforts of farmers are extended to an establishment of a new raw material manufactoring
plant. However, interest on alternative crops stretches also to the best agricultural areas of Europe
where excess of food supply stimulates studies on alternative use of fields. This aim is supported
by an increasing aspiration on recycling raw materials and products and even quality benefits of
farm based raw materials to be used for special purposes.
Crops introduced to new regions and the wild plants can contain a large number of potentially
useful characteristics. They can produce valuable raw material for energy, fibre, oil, starch,
pesticides as well as pharmaceutical purposes. However, the introduction of a novel crop for a
new agricultural region takes a lot of effort. Still more effort is needed to introduce a wild species
in agriculture. Primitive characteristics such as an extended germination, flowering, ripening and
seed shattering must be removed by breeding. Also consideration must be given to environmental
factors, e.g. the species potential as host plants for pests and plant diseases.
The criteria an alternative crop must pass for industrial acceptance as new raw material are based
on economy and logistic of transportation and manufacturing. Suitability of a new raw material in
the production chain is essential. Quality of the new raw material must be comparable or better to
the raw material to be replaced. Environmental effects must be acceptable. Sustainability of crop
production and life cycle of products are essential. Economic competitiveness and attraction of an
alternative crop is weakened by the possible need of industry to establish new factory or train