DCCO EA for public comment TOC and acronyms
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DCCO EA for public comment TOC and acronyms

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT REDUCING DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT DAMAGE IN OHIO Prepared By: United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Wildlife Services In Cooperation with United States Department of Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Bird Management Office Fish and Wildlife Service, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge Ohio Department of Natural Resources Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment 1 January 2006 Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY OF PROPOSED ACTION 6 ACRONYMS 7 CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.1 PURPOSE 1.2 OBJECTIVES 1.3 DECISION TO BE MADE 1.4 NEED FOR ACTION 1.4.1 Potential DCCO Impact on Wildlife and Native Vegetation, Including Threatened and Endangered Species Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.4.2 Potential DCCO Impact on Fishery Resources 1.4.3 mpact on Aquaculture 1.4.4 Potential DCCO Impact on Property 1.4.5 mpact on Human Health and SafetyError! Bookmark not defined. 1.5 BACKGROUND Error! Bookmark not defined. 1.5.1 Potential DCCO Impact on Wildlife and Native Vegetation, Including T&E Species 1.5.2 Potential DCCO Impact on Fishery Resources 1.5.3 mpact on Aquaculture 1.5.4 Potential DCCO Impact on Property 1.5.5 mpact on Human Health and SafetyError! Bookmark not defined. ...

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Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment
1
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
REDUCING DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT
DAMAGE IN OHIO
Prepared By:
United States Department of Agriculture
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
Wildlife Services
In Cooperation with
United States Department of Interior
Fish and Wildlife Service, Migratory Bird Management Office
United States Department of Interior
Fish and Wildlife Service, West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge
Ohio Department of Natural Resources
Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment
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January 2006
Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY OF PROPOSED ACTION
6
ACRONYMS
7
CHAPTER 1: PURPOSE AND NEED FOR ACTION
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1.0 INTRODUCTION
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1.1 PURPOSE
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1.2 OBJECTIVES
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1.3 DECISION TO BE MADE
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1.4 NEED FOR ACTION
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1.4.1
Potential DCCO Impact on Wildlife and Native Vegetation, Including Threatened
and Endangered Species
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1.4.2
Potential DCCO Impact on Fishery Resources
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1.4.3
Potential DCCO Impact on Aquaculture
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1.4.4
Potential DCCO Impact on Property
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1.4.5
Potential DCCO Impact on Human Health and Safety
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defined.
1.5 BACKGROUND
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1.5.1
Potential DCCO Impact on Wildlife and Native Vegetation, Including T&E
Species
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1.5.2
Potential DCCO Impact on Fishery Resources
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1.5.3
Potential DCCO Impact on Aquaculture
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1.5.4
Potential DCCO Impact on Property
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1.5.5
Potential DCCO Impact on Human Health and Safety
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defined.
1.5.6
Double-crested Cormorants in Ohio
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1.5.7
Ohio DCCO Management Working Group
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1.5.8
Examples of CDM efforts in Ohio
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1.6 WS RECORD KEEPING REGARDING REQUESTS FOR CDM ASSISTANCE
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1.7 RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL DOCUMENTS
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1.8 SCOPE OF THIS ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
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1.8.1
Actions Analyzed
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1.8.2
Period for which this EA is Valid
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1.8.3
American Indian Tribes and Land
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1.8.4
Site Specificity
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1.8.5
Summary of Public Involvement
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1.9 AUTHORITY AND COMPLIANCE
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1.9.1
Authority of Each Lead and Cooperating Agency in CDM in Ohio
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1.9.2
Compliance with Other Laws, Executive Orders, Treaties, and Court Decisions
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CHAPTER 2: ISSUES
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2.0 INTRODUCTION
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2.1 SUMMARY OF ISSUES
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2.1.1
Effects on DCCO Populations
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2.1.2
Effects on other Wildlife and Fish Species, Including Threatened and Endangered
Species
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2.1.3
Effects on Human Health and Safety
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2.1.4
Effects on Aesthetic Values
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2.1.5
Humaneness and Animal Welfare Concerns of Methods Used by WS
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2.1.6
Effects of Carcass Disposal
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2.1.7
Effects of CDM on Recreation
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2.2 ISSUES CONSIDERED BUT NOT IN DETAIL WITH RATIONALE
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2.2.1
Impacts on Biodiversity
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2.2.2
A “Threshold of Loss” Should Be Established Before Allowing Any Lethal CDM
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2.2.3
Cormorant Conflict Management as proposed in the preferred alternative is
contrary to the purpose and mission of a National Wildlife Refuge and Wilderness
area.
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2.2.4
There are effective mechanisms in place to address DCCO damage to property
and aquaculture facilities and to reduce risks from DCCOs at airports. There is no
need to expand DCCO removals for these issues.
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CHAPTER 3: ALTERNATIVES
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3.0 INTRODUCTION
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3.1 ALTERNATIVES ANALYZED IN DETAIL
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3.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE ALTERNATIVES
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3.2.1
Alternative 1. Integrated CDM Including Implementation of the PRDO
(Proposed Action)
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3.2.2
Alternative 2. Only Non-lethal CDM by Federal Agencies
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3.2.3
Alternative 3. Only Technical Assistance by Federal Agencies
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3.2.4
Alternative 4. No CDM by Federal Agencies
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3.2.5
Alternative 5. - Integrated CDM Program, Excluding Implementation of the
PRDO (No Action)
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3.3 CDM STRATEGIES AND METHODOLOGIES
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3.3.1
Integrated Wildlife Damage Management (IWDM)
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3.3.2
Decision Making
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3.3.3
Cormorant Conflict Management Methods Available for Use
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3.4 ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED BUT NOT ANALYZED IN DETAIL WITH
RATIONALE
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3.4.1
Lethal CDM Only
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3.4.2
Compensation for DCCO Damage Losses
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3.4.3
Non-lethal Methods Implemented Before Lethal Methods
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3.5 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs) FOR CDM
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3.5.1
Standard Operating Procedures
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3.5.2
Standard Operating Procedures Specific to the Issues
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CHAPTER 4: ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
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4.0 INTRODUCTION
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4.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES FOR ISSUES ANALYZED IN DETAIL
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4.1.1
Effects on DCCO Populations
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4.1.2
Effects on Other Fish and Wildlife Species, Including Threatened and
Endangered Species
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4.1.3
Effects on Human Health and Safety
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4.1.4
Effects on Aesthetic Values
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4.1.5
Humaneness and Animal Welfare Concerns of the Methods Used
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4.1.6
Impacts of Carcass Disposal
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4.1.7
Effects on Recreation in Surrounding Area
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4.2 CUMULATIVE IMPACTS
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4.3 SUMMARY
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CHAPTER 5: LIST OF PREPARERS AND PERSONS CONSULTED
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APPENDIX A: LITERATURE CITED
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APPENDIX B: SPECIES THAT ARE FEDERALLY LISTED AS THREATENED OR
ENDANGERED IN THE STATE OF OHIO
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APPENDIX C: SPECIES THAT ARE LISTED AS ENDANGERED AND THREATENED BY
THE STATE OF OHIO
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APPENDIX E: LOCATION AND SIZE OF DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT
BREEDING COLONIES IN THE STATE OF OHIO WITH INFORMATION
ON CO-NESTING COLONIAL WATERBIRDS
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APPENDIX E: INTERACTION AMONG AGENCY DECISIONS
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APPENDIX F: LIST OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES
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APPENDIX G: USFWS FINAL RULEMAKING AND RECORD OF DECISION ON
DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT MANAGEMENT
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Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment
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SUMMARY OF PROPOSED ACTION
The United States Department of Agriculture’s, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service,
Wildlife Services (USDA, APHIS, WS), the Department of Interior’s, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service (USFWS), and the Ohio Division of Wildlife (ODW) propose to implement a double-
crested cormorant (DCCO) damage management program in Ohio, including the implementation
of the Public Resource Depredation Order (PRDO) (50 CFR 21.48) as promulgated by the
USFWS. An Integrated Wildlife Damage Management (IWDM) approach would be
implemented to reduce DCCO damage to aquaculture, property, and natural resources, and
reduce risks to human health and safety in localized situations when it is deemed necessary.
Cormorant damage management (CDM) may be conducted on public and private property in
Ohio when the resource owner (property owner) or manager requests assistance and any
necessary permits and authorizations are obtained. An IWDM strategy would be recommended
and used, encompassing the use of practical and effective methods of preventing or reducing
damage while minimizing harmful effects of CDM measures on humans, target and non-target
species, and the environment. Under this action, the agencies could provide technical assistance
and direct operational damage management, including non-lethal and lethal management
methods. When appropriate, physical exclusion, habitat modification, or harassment would be
recommended and used to reduce damage. In other situations, birds would be humanely
removed through shooting, egg addling/destruction, nest destruction, or euthanasia following live
capture. In determining the damage management strategy, preference would be given to
practical and effective non-lethal methods. However, non-lethal methods may not always be
applied as a first response to each problem. The most appropriate response could be a
combination of non-lethal and lethal methods, or there could be instances where the application
of lethal methods alone would be the most appropriate strategy. Landowner/resource manager
permission would be obtained prior to conducting CDM activities. Management activities would
comply with all applicable Federal, State, and local laws. The USFWS would be responsible for
ensuring compliance with the regulations at 50 CFR 21.48 and that the long-term sustainability
of regional DCCO populations is not threatened by CDM activities.
Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment
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ACRONYMS
ADC
Animal Damage Control
APHIS
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
AVMA
American Veterinary Medical Association
BCNH
Black-crowned night heron
CCP
Comprehensive Conservation Plan
CDC
Center for Disease Control
CDFG
California Department of Fish and Game
CDM
Cormorant Damage Management
CEQ
Council on Environmental Quality
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
DCCO
Double-crested cormorant
DOI
U.S. Department of the Interior
EA
Environmental Assessment
EIS
Environmental Impact Statement
EJ
Environmental Justice
END
Exotic Newcastle Disease
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. or OH)
ESA
Endangered Species Act
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration
FEIS
Final Environmental Impact Statement
FY
Fiscal Year
IWDM
Integrated Wildlife Damage Management
MBP
Migratory Bird Permit
MBTA
Migratory Bird Treaty Act
MIS
Management Information System
MOU
Memorandum of Understanding
NEPA
National Environmental Policy Act
NFH
National Fish Hatchery
NHPA
National Historic Preservation Act
NOA
Notice of Availability
NWPS
National Wildlife Preservation System
NWRC
National Wildlife Research Center
OARDC
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center
ODA
Ohio Department of Agriculture
ODH
Ohio Department of Health
ODOT
Ohio Department of Transportation
ODW
Ohio Division of Wildlife
ODSW
Ohio Division of Soil and Water
ODNR
Ohio Department of Natural Resources
OMNR
Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
ONWR
Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge
ORC
Ohio Revised Code
Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment
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OSUE
Ohio State University Extension
PRDO
Public Resource Depredation Order
ROD
Record of Decision
SOP
Standard Operating Procedure
T&E
Threatened and Endangered
TAC
Total Allowable Catch
TPI
Turning Point Island
USC
United States Code
USDA
U.S. Department of Agriculture
USFWS
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
USGS
U.S. Geological Survey
WNV
West Nile Virus
WS
Wildlife Services
WSI
West Sister Island
WSINWR
West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge
NOTE:
On August 1, 1997, the Animal Damage Control program was officially renamed to Wildlife Services. The
terms Animal Damage Control, ADC, Wildlife Services, and WS are used synonymously throughout this
Environmental Assessment.
Ohio Cormorant Environmental Assessment
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