Detection of sugarbeet diseases using remote sensing techniques
254 Pages
English
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Detection of sugarbeet diseases using remote sensing techniques

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254 Pages
English

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Research policy and organisation
Environment policy and protection of the environment

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CommissionCommission ofof thethe EuropeanEuropean Communities
Environment
Detection of sugar-beet diseases
using remote sensing techniques
FinalFinal reportreport
Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development
EUFiEUFi 86788678 ENEN 19831983Luftbild freigegeben durchdurch diedie Regierung vonvon Oberbayern,Oberbayern,
ARMSHEIM, Nr. GS 300/8303Commission of the European Communities
Environment
Detection of sugar-beet diseases
using remote sensing techniques
Final report
EditedEdited byby
Reichert P., Hildebrandt G.
Dept. of Remote Sensing, University of Freiburg (FRG)
AuthorsAuthors ofof thethe reportreport
Part A: H.J. Boehnel, W. Fischer, G. Knoll
Fraunhofer - Institut für Physikalische Messtechnik, Freiburg (FRG)
Part B: P. Amodeo, C. De Carolis+
Laboratorio di Patologia Vegetale,
Università deglidegli Studi,Studi, Milano (Italia)(Italia)
PartPart C:C: P.P. ReichertReichert
Abteilung Luftbildmessung und Fernerkundung,
Universität Freiburg (FRG)
with the cooperation of:
A.A. Kadro,Kadro, P.P. Loesche, E.E. Sanwald.Sanwald.
Study contract between the Joint Research Centre (Ispra) and
the University of Freiburg (FRG) and Milano (Italy)
(No 1594-81-07 ED ISP D)
Joint Research Centre
Ispra Establishment
Directorate-General forfor Science,Science, Research andand DevelopmentDevelopment
EUR 8678 ENEN 1983Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate General
InformationInformation MarketMarket andand Innovation
BâtimentBâtiment JeanJean MonnetMonnet
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
NeitherNeither thethe Commission ofof thethe EuropeanEuropean Communities nornor
any person acting on behalf of the Commission is
responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
CataloguingCataloguing datadata cancan bebe foundfound atat thethe endend ofof thisthis publicationpublication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1983
ISBN 92-825-3959-8 Catalogue number: CD-NO-83-025-EN-C
© ECSC - EEC - EAEC, Brussels-Luxembourg, 1983PREFACE
The submitted study summarizes the results of multidiscip¬
linary research programs, where agronomists, physicists and
technicians cooperated with the aim to assess the feasibili¬
ty of remote sensing techniques for the detection of sugar
beetbeet diseases.diseases. AA multinational aspectaspect waswas alsoalso givengiven by-by- thethe
cooperation ofof GermanGerman andand Italian scientists. ThisThis multidis¬
ciplinary and cooperation was possible due to
the support provided by the "Joint Research Centre", repre¬
sented by Dr. A. Berg.
The report is divided in three parts, according to the diffe¬
rentrent methodsmethods appliedapplied toto proveprove thethe feasibility ofof remoteremote sen¬sen¬
singsing techniques:techniques: in-situ measurements werewere carried outout withwith
spectroradiometers by H.-J. Boehnel, W. Fischer and G. Knoll
in the Italian and in the German test sites. The thermal be¬
haviour of healthy and diseased plants was studied by C. de
Carolis and P. Amodeo on the Italian test sites. Airborne mul¬
tispectral scanner data were evaluated by P. Reichert on the
German testtest site.site.
The authors appreciate the valuable contributions of A. Kadro
and E. Sanwald, who assisted in the collection of ground-truth
and the support given by P. Loesche, who developed the soft¬
ware which was necessary for the digital analysis of the scan¬
ner data.
TheThe authorsauthors areare gratefulgrateful forfor thethe scientificscientific support provided
byby Dr.Dr. A.A. BergBerg andand lastlast notnot leastleast forfor providingproviding thethe funds,funds,
which were required for the here described investigations.
Finally, the editors wish to thank Mrs.E. Erat and Mrs.T. Trê-
soret for the assistance in typing and editing this report.INDEX
ABSTRACT .IX
INTRODUCTION 1
PART A
H.J. Boehnel, W. Fischer, G. Knoll:
ININ SITUSITU MEASUREMENTS FORFOR THETHE DETERMINATION OFOF THETHE SPECTRALSPECTRAL
CHARACTERISTICS OF DISEASED AND HEALTHY SUGAR-BEETS 5
1 . Introduction 6
2 . Objectives of the Investigation 6
33 .. TestTest SitesSites 77
4 . Methodology and Instrumentation 7
4.1. The spectral reflectance factor R C\) 7
4.2. Remarks on the prior discussion . 1 1
4.3. Measuring equipment and procedures 14
55 .. ResultsResults 1616
5.1. Table of measurements 16
5.2. Diagrams ( -at , f t" ) and ( ι>τ , f i - f r ) 17
5.3. Reflectance factor spectra 17
5.1». Relative change of R(¡\) with varied measuring ze¬
nithnith angleangle 1818
6 . Interpretation of Results 19
6.1. Introduction 19
6.2. Healthy sugar-beets 20
6 . 2 . 1 . Inf luence of the solar zenith angle i_¿ on r(A.)...22
6.6. 2.2. 2.2. InfluenceInfluence ofof thethe rowrow azimuthazimuth η(Γη(Γ onon R(.A.)R(.A.) 2929
6 . 2 . 3 . Variation of R(^) with the observational zenith
angle vr and the azimuth difference between sun
and radiometer T» - ΤΓ 29
6.3. Diseased sugar- beets 32
66 .. 3.3. 11 .Discussion.Discussion ofof thethe difference inin thethe reflection
behaviour of the test sites 35
6.3.2. Influence of the position of the sun and the
plant row direction on R (_\) 40
-VI-
6. 3. 3. Variation of R(P\) with the observational zenith
angle vrand the illumination conditions 40
6.4.6.4. Conclusion. 4141
7. Radiometric Temperature Measurements of Sugar -
Beets with a PRT 5 42
PARTPART ΒΒ
P. Amodeo, C. de Carolis:
IN SITU MEASUREMENTS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE THERMAL
CHARACTERISTICS OF DISEASED AND HEALTHY SUGAR-BEETS 49
11 . Diseases and Test Sites 50
2. Methodology and Instrumentation 51
3 . Measurements 51
4 . Ground Truth Data 52
4.1.4.1. ROVIGOROVIGO NEMATODESNEMATODES (Heterodera(Heterodera Schachtii) 5252
4.2. SAN PIETRO IN CASALE (BO) RHIZOMANIA 55
4.3. ANZOLA DELL'EMILIA CERCOSPORA BIETICOLA 55
5 . Results and Discussion 56
5.1. ROVIGO - NEMATODES - July 15 to 22 - 1979 56
5.2.5.2. SANSAN PIETROPIETRO ININ CASALE -- RHIZOMANIA -- JulyJuly 2020 -- 2222
1979 60
5.3. SAN PIETRO IN CASALE - September 3th - 6th-1979.63
5.4. ANZOLA DELL'EMILIA (BO^ Sugar-beet leaf spot 68
6 . Conclusion 70
PART C
P. Reichert;
EVALUATION OF AIRBORNE MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA FOR THE
DISCRIMINATION OFOF HEALTHY ANDAND DISEASEDDISEASED SUGAR-BEETSSUGAR-BEETS 7272
1 . Introduction 73
2. Data available 73
2.1. Remote Sensing Data 73
2.2.2.2. Ground-Truth DataData 7575
3. Methodology 77
3.1. Statistical Analysis of the MSS-Data 77
3.2. Calculation of the spectral reflectance factor
"R" 77
-VII-
3.3. Determination of observation angle effects 79
3.4. Classification algorithm 81
44 .. ResultsResults 8282
4.1. Spectral Signatures 82
4.2. Angle Effects 87
4.3. Classification Results 89
5.5. Conclusions 9.r9.r
References 96
List of Symbols «99
Translation List 100
AppendixAppendix toto PartPart AA 101101
-VIII-