Draft Amendment 2 FINAL for public comment

Draft Amendment 2 FINAL for public comment

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Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission DRAFT AMENDMENT 2 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan For SHAD AND RIVER HERRING For Public Comment (River Herring Management) ASMFC Vision Statement: Healthy, self-sustaining populations for all Atlantic coast fish species or successful restoration well in progress by the year 2015. Approved for Public Comment August 2008 Draft for Public Comment Draft Amendment 2 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Shad and River Herring Prepared by: Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission Shad and River Herring Plan Development Team Plan Development Team Members: Erika Robbins (ASFMC, Chair); Michael Armstrong, PhD (Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries); Michael Brown (Maine Department of Marine Resources); Phillip Edwards (Rhode Island Division of Fish and Wildlife); Andrew Kahnle (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation); Larry M. Miller (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service); Bill Post (South Carolina Department of Natural Resources); Kathy Rawls (North Carolina Division of Marine Fisheries); Ray Rhodes (College of Charleston); and Winnie Ryan (Virginia Institute of Marine Science). This Draft Amendment was prepared under the guidance of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission’s Shad and River Herring Management Board. Technical assistance was provided by the Shad and River Herring Technical Committee, the River Herring Stock ...

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Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission


DRAFT AMENDMENT 2 to the
Interstate Fishery Management Plan
For SHAD AND RIVER HERRING
For Public Comment
(River Herring Management)




ASMFC Vision Statement:
Healthy, self-sustaining populations for all Atlantic coast fish species or successful
restoration well in progress by the year 2015.




Approved for Public Comment August 2008

Draft for Public Comment

Draft Amendment 2 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for
Shad and River Herring


Prepared by:

Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission
Shad and River Herring Plan Development Team

Plan Development Team Members:
Erika Robbins (ASFMC, Chair); Michael Armstrong, PhD (Massachusetts Division of Marine
Fisheries); Michael Brown (Maine Department of Marine Resources); Phillip Edwards (Rhode
Island Division of Fish and Wildlife); Andrew Kahnle (New York State Department of
Environmental Conservation); Larry M. Miller (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service); Bill Post (South
Carolina Department of Natural Resources); Kathy Rawls (North Carolina Division of Marine
Fisheries); Ray Rhodes (College of Charleston); and Winnie Ryan (Virginia Institute of Marine
Science).

This Draft Amendment was prepared under the guidance of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries
Commission’s Shad and River Herring Management Board. Technical assistance was provided
by the Shad and River Herring Technical Committee, the River Herring Stock Assessment
Subcommittee, and the Shad and River Herring Advisory Panel.

Special assistance was provided by the following people: Robert Beal (ASMFC), Stacey Carlson
(NMFS), Bryan Chikotas (Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission), Matt Cieri (Maine
Department of Marine Resources), Tony Jarzynski (Maryland Department of Natural Resources),
Amanda Johnson (National Marine Fisheries Service), Toni Kerns (ASMFC), Laura Lee
(Virginia Marine Resources Commission), Nichola Meserve (ASMFC), Melissa Paine
(ASMFC), Jessie Thomas (ASMFC), Brian Watson (Virginia Institute of Marine Science), and
Alan Weaver (Virginia Division of Game and Inland Fisheries).

ii Draft for Public Comment

PUBLIC COMMENT PROCESS AND PROPOSED TIME LINE

The public is encouraged to submit comments regarding this document during the public
comment period. All comments must be received by ASMFC by 5:00pm. (EST) on January 1,
2009. Regardless of when they were sent, comments received after that time will not be included
in the official record. The Shad and River Herring Management Board will use public comment
on this Draft Amendment to develop the final Amendment 2 to the Shad and River Herring
Fishery Management Plan.

You may submit public comment in one or more of the following ways:

1. Attend public hearings held in your state or jurisdiction

2. Refer comments to your state’s member on the Shad and River Herring Management
Board or Advisory Panel, if applicable

3. Mail, fax, or email written comments to the following address:

Kate Taylor
Fishery Management Plan Coordinator
Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission
th1444 Eye Street NW, 6 Floor
Washington, DC 20005
Fax: (202) 289-6051
comments@asmfc.org (subject line: River Herring)

If you have any questions please call Kate Taylor at (202) 289-6400.
iii Draft for Public Comment

TENTATIVE TIMELINE FOR AMENDMENT 2 COMPLETION



Nov/ Mar/

Oct
Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May
Jan Feb May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct
Dec April
2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009
2007
2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008
2007 2008

Approval of Draft PID by
X

Management Board

Public review and comment on PID X X

Board review of public comment;

Board direction on what to include X


in Draft Amendment 2

Preparation of Draft Amendment 2
X X X X
X
Review and approval of Draft

Amendment 2 by Management

X
Board
Public review and comment on
X X X
X X X
Draft Amendment 2

Board review of public comment on

X
Draft Amendment 2



Preparation of Final Amendment 2 X X


Review and approval of the final
Amendment 2 by the Board, Policy
X
Board and Commission
iv Draft for Public Comment

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Draft Amendment 2 to the Interstate Fishery Management Plan for.......................................... ii
Shad and River Herring................................................................................................................. ii
PUBLIC COMMENT PROCESS AND PROPOSED TIME LINE ...........................................iii
TENTATIVE TIMELINE FOR AMENDMENT 2 COMPLETION ......................................... iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................................v
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ vi
LIST OF FIGURES..................................................................................................................... vii
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 1
1.1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ................................................................. 1
1.1.1 Statement of the Problem..................................................................................... 1
1.1.2 Benefits of Implementation.................................................................................. 2
Social and Economic Benefits .............................................................................................. 2
1.1.2.1 Ecological Benefits 3
1.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE RESOURCE .......................................................... 3
1.2.1 Alewife and Blueback Herring Life Histories ..................................................... 4
1.2.3 River Herring Stock Assessment Summaries ...................................................... 4
1.2.3.1 Stock Assessment of River Herring from Selected Atlantic Coast Rivers –
Crecco and Gibson 1990...................................................................................... 4
1.2.3.2 2005 North Carolina Stock Assessment............................................................... 6
1.3 HABITAT CONSIDERATIONS...................................................................... 7
1.3.1 Alewife Habitat Description ................................................................................ 7
1.3.1.1 Spawning Habitat ................................................................................................. 8
1.3.1.2 Egg and Larval Habitat 15
1.3.1.3 Juvenile Riverine/Estuarine Habitat................................................................... 16
Avoidance.......................................................................................................................... 18
Preferred 18
1.3.1.4 Late Stage Juvenile and Adult Marine Habitat .................................................. 20
1.3.1.5 Significant Environmental, Temporal and Spatial Factors Affecting Distribution
of Alewife .......................................................................................................... 20
1.3.2 Blueback Herring Habitat Description............................................................... 22
1.3.2.1 Spawning Habitat ............................................................................................... 22
1.3.2.2 Egg and Larval Habitat ...................................................................................... 28
1.3.2.3 Juvenile Riverine/Estuarine Habitat................................................................... 29
1.3.2.4 Late Stage Juvenile and Adult Marine Habitat .................................................. 34
1.3.2.5 Significant Environmental, Temporal and Spatial Factors Affecting Distribution
of Blueback Herring........................................................................................... 37
1.3.3 Overlapping Habitat and Habitat Areas of Particular Concern for Alosines..... 37
1.3.3.1 Identification and Distribution of Habitat and Habitat Areas of Particular
Concern for Alosines ......................................................................................... 37
v Draft for Public Comment

1.3.3.2 Present Condition of Riverine Habitats and Habitat Areas of Particular Concern
............................................................................................................................ 38
1.3.4 Threats to Alosine Species................................................................................. 39
1.3.4.1 Identification of Threats..................................................................................... 39
1.3.4.2 Effects of Habitat Degradation on Harvesting/Marketability ............................ 58
1.4 DESCRIPTION OF THE FISHERIES ......................................................... 60
1.4.1 Commercial Fishery........................................................................................... 60
1.4.2 Recreational Fishery .......................................................................................... 67
1.4.5 Subsistence Fishing............................................................................................ 68
1.4.6 Non-Consumptive Factors 68
1.4.7 Interactions with Other Fisheries, Species and Other Uses ............................... 68
1.4.7.1 Bycatch............................................................................................................... 68
1.4.7.2 Protected Species Considerations....................................................................... 69
2. AMENDMENT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES ................................................ 75
2.1 ENT 2 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES .......................................... 75
2.2 MANAGEMENT UNIT ................................................................................. 76
2.3 DEFINITION OF OVERFISHING ............................................................... 76
3. MONITORING PROGRAM SPECIFICATIONS 76
3.1 FISHERY-INDEPENDENT MONITORING............................................... 77
3.1.1 Juvenile Abundance Indices .............................................................................. 77
3.1.1.1 Calculation of Juvenile Abundance Indices....................................................... 77
3.1.1.2 Elements for Measurement and Use of Juvenile Indices ................................... 77
3.1.1.3 Evaluation of Juvenile Abundance Indices ........................................................ 78
3.1.2 Assessing Adult Population Size ....................................................................... 78
3.1.3 Hatchery Evaluation........................................................................................... 78
3.1.3.1 Stocking and Hatchery Evaluation..................................................................... 79
3.1.3.2 Stocking Techniques .......................................................................................... 79
3.2 FISHERY-DEPENDENT MONITORING ................................................... 80
3.2.1 Commercial Fishery-Dependent Surveys Required........................................... 80
3.2.2 Recreational Fishery Surveys Required............................................................. 81
3.3 BYCATCH MONITORING AND REDUCTION........................................ 81
3.4 SUMMARY OF MONITORING PROGRAMS........................................... 81
3.4.1 Biological Information....................................................................................... 81
3.4.2 Social Information ............................................................................................. 82
3.4.3 Economic Information 82
4. MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION .................................... 83
4.1 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT MEASURES.................. 83
Option 1: Status Quo.............................................................................................................. 83
Option 2: Reduce Effort .........................................................................................................83
Option 2A: Implement area closures in river systems ........................................................ 83
Option 2B: Require an escapement provision in river systems .......................................... 84
Option 2C: Reduce landings by river system ..................................................................... 84
vi Draft for Public Comment

Option 2D: Reduce state landings....................................................................................... 84
Option 2E: Limited access.................................................................................................. 84
Option 3: Regulate Bycatch ................................................................................................... 84
Option 3A: Establish limits on bycatch of river herring..................................................... 84
Option 3B: Require mandatory reporting of bycatch and discards..................................... 85
Option 3C: Time/area closures for fisheries with high bycatch ......................................... 85
Option 3D: Gear Restrictions to reduce bycatch ................................................................ 85
Option 4: Close Fisheries with Exceptions for Systems with a Sustainable Fishery............. 85
Option 5: Moratorium on River Herring Fishing................................................................... 86
4.2 RECREATIONAL FISHERIES MANAGEMENT MEASURES .............. 86
Option 1: Status Quo.............................................................................................................. 86
Option 2: Recreational License/Permit .................................................................................. 86
Option 3: Reduce Effort .........................................................................................................86
Option 3A: Limit the days of the week for recreational harvest......................................... 86
Option 3B: Coastwide creel limit ....................................................................................... 86
Option 3C: Gear restrictions ............................................................................................... 87
Option 3D: Area or seasonal closures within river systems ............................................... 87
Option 4: Close Fisheries with Exceptions for Systems with a Sustainable Fishery............. 87
Option 5: Moratorium on River Herring Fishing................................................................... 87
4.3 HABITAT CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION ............................... 87
4.3.1 Freshwater Spawning and Larval Rearing Habitat ............................................ 88
4.3.2 Estuarine Juvenile Rearing and Migration Corridors ........................................ 89
4.3.3 Coastal Production and Migration Corridors..................................................... 89
4.3.4 Habitat Restoration, Improvement and Enhancement ....................................... 90
4.3.5 Avoidance of Incompatible Activities ............................................................... 90
4.3.6 Fisheries Practices.............................................................................................. 91
4.3.7 Habitat Recommendations................................................................................. 91
4.3.7.1 Dams and Other Obstructions ............................................................................ 91
4.3.7.2 Water Quality and Other Contamination ........................................................... 92
4.3.7.3 Habitat Protection and Restoration .................................................................... 93
4.3.7.4 Permitting........................................................................................................... 94
4.3.7.5 Stock Restoration and Management................................................................... 94
4.3.7.6 Habitat Change................................................................................................... 94
4.4 ALTERNATIVE STATE MANAGEMENT REGIMES............................. 94
4.4.1 General Procedures ............................................................................................ 95
4.4.2 Management Program Equivalency 95
4.4.3 De Minimis Fishery Guidelines ......................................................................... 95
4.5 ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT ....................................................................... 96
4.5.1 General Procedures 96
4.5.2 Measures Subject to Change.............................................................................. 97
4.6 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES..................................................................... 97
4.7 MANAGEMENT INSTITUTIONS ............................................................... 97
4.7.1 The Commission and the ISFMP Policy Board................................................. 98
4.7.2 Shad and River Herring Management Board..................................................... 98
4.7.3 Shad and River Herring Plan Review Team and Plan Development Team ...... 98
vii Draft for Public Comment

4.7.4 Shad and River Herring Technical Committee.................................................. 98
4.7.5 Shad and River Herring Stock Assessment Subcommittee ............................... 99
4.7.6 Shad and River Herring Advisory Panel............................................................ 99
4.7.7 Secretaries of Commerce and the Interior ......................................................... 99
4.8 DE MINIMIS STATUS ................................................................................... 99
4.9 RECOMMENDATIONS TO SECRETARIES........................................... 100
5. COMPLIANCE ............................................................................................... 100
5.1 MANDATORY COMPLIANCE ELEMENTS FOR STATES................. 100
5.1.1 Mandatory Elements of State Programs .......................................................... 100
5.1.2 Regulatory Requirements ............................................................................. 100
5.1.3 Monitoring Requirements ................................................................................ 101
5.1.4 Research Requirements.................................................................................... 101
5.1.5 Law Enforcement Requirements...................................................................... 101
5.1.6 Habitat Requirements....................................................................................... 101
5.2 COMPLIANCE SCHEDULE....................................................................... 102
5.3 COMPLIANCE REPORT CONTENT ....................................................... 102
5.4 PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING COMPLIANCE ......................... 102
5.5 RECOMMENDED (NON-MANDATORY) MANAGEMENT MEASURES
103
5.6 ANALYSIS OF THE ENFORCEABILITY OF PROPOSED MEASURES
General Format............................................................................................................... 104
6. MANAGEMENT RESEARCH NEEDS........................................................ 105
6.1 STOCK ASSESSMENT AND POPULATION DYNAMICS.................... 105
6.2 RESEARCH AND DATA NEEDS............................................................... 106
6.2.1 Habitat.............................................................................................................. 106
6.2.3 Life History...................................................................................................... 106
6.2.4 Stocking and Hatcheries .................................................................................. 107
6.2.5 Socioeconomic................................................................................................. 107
7. LITERATURE CITED ................................................................................... 107
viii
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Status of several blueback and alewife runs along the Atlantic coast based on 5
data from the 1990 River Herring Stock Assessment.
Table 2. Reported spawning seasons for alewife along the Atlantic coast of North 8
America.
Table 3. Percentage of repeat spawners for alewife along the Atlantic coast of North 9
America.
Table 4. Alewife spawning temperatures for locations along the Atlantic coast of North 11
America.
Table 5. Juvenile alewife temperature tolerances/preferences along the Atlantic coast. 15
Table 6. Significant environmental, temporal and spatial factors affecting distribution of 20
alewife.
Table 7. Juvenile blueback herring water temperature associations. 30
Table 8. ental, temporal a35
blueback herring.
Table 9. Threats identified for shad and river herring. 56
Table State-reported commercial landings (pounds) of river herring, 2003-2007. 59
10.
Table Total annual U.S. Atlantic landings, ex-vessel values and prices of the alewife as 60
11. reported to the National Marine Fisheries Service, 1986-2006 (Source: NMFS,
Fisheries Statistics Division, Silver Spring, MD, pers. comm.).
Table List of protected birds in nearshore marine coastal waters most likely to interact 69
12. with gillnets.
Table Protected birds in coastal bays most likely to interact with gillnets and their East 69
13. Coast population status.
Table Required format for annual state compliance reports. 76
14.
Table p96
15.







Draft for Public Comment
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Total (in-river and ocean) commercial landings of river herring for the U.S. 2
Atlantic coast, 1950-2006 (Source: NMFS, Fisheries Statistics Division, Silver
Spring, MD, pers. comm.).
Figure 2. Real and nominal ex-vessel price ($/lb) for U.S. Atlantic alewife landings, 61
1985-2005 (Source: NMFS, Fisheries Statistics Division, Silver Spring, MD,
pers. comm.).

vii