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. •. • »• * • • .*.NOSE Nomenclature for sources of emissions eurostat Manual eurostat STATISTISCHES AMT DER EUROPÄISCHEN GEMEINSCHAFTEN STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES OFFICE STATISTIQUE DES COMMUNAUTÉS EUROPÉENNES L-2920 Luxembourg — Tél. (352) 43 01-1 — Télex COMEUR LU 3423 Rue de la Loi 200, B-1049 Bruxelles — Tél. (32-2) 299 11 11 Eurostat hat die Aufgabe, den Informa­ It is Eurostat's responsibility to use the Pour établir, évaluer ou apprécier les dif­tionsbedarf der Kommission und aller am European statistical system to meet the férentes politiques communautaires, la Aufbau des Binnenmarktes Beteiligten requirements of the Commission and all Commission européenne a besoin d'infor­mit Hilfe des europäischen statistischen parties involved in the development of the mations. single market. Systems zu decken. Eurostat a pour mission, à travers le sys­To ensure that the vast quantity of ac­Um der Öffentlichkeit die große Menge an tème statistique européen, de répondre cessible data is made widely available, verfügbaren Daten zugänglich zu machen aux besoins de la Commission et de l'en­and to help each user make proper use of semble des personnes impliquées dans und Benutzem die Orientierung zu this information, Eurostat has set up two le développement du marché unique. erleichtern, werden zwei Arten von Publi­main categories of document: statistical kationen angeboten: Statistische Doku­documents and publications.

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. •.
• »•
* •
• .*.
NOSE
Nomenclature for sources of emissions eurostat
Manual eurostat
STATISTISCHES AMT DER EUROPÄISCHEN GEMEINSCHAFTEN
STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
OFFICE STATISTIQUE DES COMMUNAUTÉS EUROPÉENNES
L-2920 Luxembourg — Tél. (352) 43 01-1 — Télex COMEUR LU 3423
Rue de la Loi 200, B-1049 Bruxelles — Tél. (32-2) 299 11 11
Eurostat hat die Aufgabe, den Informa­ It is Eurostat's responsibility to use the Pour établir, évaluer ou apprécier les dif­
tionsbedarf der Kommission und aller am European statistical system to meet the férentes politiques communautaires, la
Aufbau des Binnenmarktes Beteiligten requirements of the Commission and all Commission européenne a besoin d'infor­
mit Hilfe des europäischen statistischen parties involved in the development of the mations.
single market. Systems zu decken.
Eurostat a pour mission, à travers le sys­
To ensure that the vast quantity of ac­Um der Öffentlichkeit die große Menge an tème statistique européen, de répondre
cessible data is made widely available, verfügbaren Daten zugänglich zu machen aux besoins de la Commission et de l'en­
and to help each user make proper use of semble des personnes impliquées dans und Benutzem die Orientierung zu
this information, Eurostat has set up two le développement du marché unique. erleichtern, werden zwei Arten von Publi­
main categories of document: statistical
kationen angeboten: Statistische Doku­
documents and publications. Pour mettre à la disposition de tous l'im­mente und Veröffentlichungen.
portante quantité de données accessibles
The statistical document Is aimed at spe­
Statistische Dokumente sind für den et faire en sorte que chacun puisse
cialists and provides the most complete
Fachmann konzipiert und enthalten das s'orienter correctement dans cet ensem­
sets of data: reference data where the
ausführliche Datenmaterial: Bezugs­ ble, deux grandes catégories de docu­
methodology is well-established, stand­
ments ont été créées: les documents daten, bei denen die Konzepte allgemein
ardised, uniform and scientific. These
statistiques et les publications. bekannt, standardisiert und wissenschaft­
data are presented in great detail. The
lich fundiert sind. Diese Daten werden in
statistical document is intended for ex­
Le document statistique s'adresse aux einer sehr tiefen Gliederung dargeboten.
perts who are capable of using their own
Die Statistischen Dokumente wenden spécialistes. Il fournit les données les plus
means to seek out what they require. The
sich an Fachleute, die in der Lage sind, complètes: données de référence où la
information is provided on paper and/or
selbständig die benötigten Daten aus der méthodologie est bien connue, standar­
on diskette, magnetic tape, CD-ROM. The
Fülle des dargebotenen Materials auszu­ disée, normalisée et scientifique. Ces
white cover sheet bears a stylised motif
données sont présentées à un niveau très wählen. Diese Daten sind in gedruckter
which distinguishes the statistical docu­
détaillé. Le document statistique est des­Form und/oder auf Diskette, Magnet­
ment from other publications.
tiné aux experts capables de rechercher, band, CD-ROM verfügbar. Statistische
par leurs propres moyens, les données Dokumente unterscheiden sich auch The publications proper tend to be com­
optisch von anderen Veröffentlichungen requises. Les informations sont alors piled for a well-defined and targeted
durch den mit einer stilisierten Graphik disponibles sur papier et/ou sur disquette, public, such as educational circles or
versehenen weißen Einband. bande magnétique, CD-ROM. La couver­political and administrative decision­
ture blanche ornée d'un graphisme stylisé
makers. The information in these docu­
Veröffentlichungen wenden sich an eine démarque le document statistique des
ments is selected, sorted and annotated
ganz bestimmte Zielgruppe, wie zum autres publications.
to suit the target public. In this instance,
Beispiel an den Bildungsbereich oder an
therefore, Eurostat works in an advisory
Entscheidungsträger in Politik und Ver­ Les publications proprement dites peu­
capacity.
waltung. Sie enthalten ausgewählte und vent, elles, être réalisées pour un public
auf die Bedürfnisse einer Zielgruppe Where the readership is wider and less bien déterminé, ciblé, par exemple
abgestellte und kommentierte Informa­ well-defined, Eurostat provides the infor­ l'enseignement ou les décideurs politi­
ques ou administratifs. Des informations tionen. Eurostat übernimmt hier also eine mation required for an initial analysis,
sélectionnées, triées et commentées en Art Beraterrolle. such as yearbooks and periodicals which
contain data permitting more in-depth fonction de ce public lui sont apportées.
Für einen breiteren Benutzerkreis gibt studies. These publications are available Eurostat joue, dès lors, le rôle de conseil­
Eurostat Jahrbücher und periodische on paper or in videotext databases. ler.
Veröffentlichungen heraus. Diese enthal­
To help the user focus his research,
ten statistische Ergebnisse für eine erste Dans le cas d'un public plus large, moins
Eurostat has created 'themes', i.e. subject Analyse sowie Hinweise auf weiteres défini, Eurostat procure des éléments
classifications. The statistical documents Datenmaterial für vertiefende Unter­ nécessaires à une première analyse, les
and publications are listed by series: for suchungen. Diese Veröffentlichungen annuaires et les périodiques, dans les­
example, yearbooks, short-term trends or werden in gedruckter Form und in Daten­ quels figurent les renseignements adé­
methodology in order to facilitate access banken angeboten, die in Menütechnik quats pour approfondir l'étude. Ces
to the statistical data. zugänglich sind. publications sont présentées sur papier
ou dans des banques de données de type
Y. Franchet
Um Benutzem die Datensuche zu erleich­ vidéotex.
Director-General
tem, hat Eurostat Themenkreise, d. h.
eine Untergliederung nach Sachgebieten, Pour aider l'utilisateur à s'orienter dans
eingeführt. Daneben sind sowohl die ses recherches, Eurostat a créé les
Statistischen Dokumente als auch die thèmes, c'est-à-dire une classification
Veröffentlichungen in bestimmte Reihen, par sujet. Les documents statistiques et
wie zum Beispiel „Jahrbücher", „Kon­ les publications sont répertoriés par
junktur", „Methoden", untergliedert, um série — par exemple, annuaire, conjonc­
den Zugriff auf die statistischen Informa­ ture, méthodologie — afin de faciliter
tionen zu erleichtern. l'accès aux informations statistiques.
Y. Franchet Y. Franchet
Generaldirektor Directeur général NOSE
Nomenclature for sources of emissions
Manual
Version 1.0
Luxembourg
25 May 1998
Theme
8 Environment
Series
Studies and research
STATISTICAL DOCUMENT A great deal of additional information on the European Union is available on the Internet.
It can be accessed through the Europa server (http://europa.eu.int).
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1998
ISBN 92-828-4333-5
©European Communities, 1998
Printed in Luxembourg
PRINTED ON WHITE CHLORINE-FREE PAPER FOREWORD
This is the first published version of the NOSE Manual, which is being made available by Eurostat for use in
the testing and further development of NOSE.
NOSE, the proposed standard nomenclature for sources of emissions, combines the standard European
nomenclature for economic activities (NACE) with a nomenclature of emission-generating processes, the
NOSE Process List, which is a development of the SNAPe used in the CORINAIR project.
NOSE provides a complete framework for recording, disseminating and analyzing information on emissions
from all kinds of sources. The NOSE Manual describes the principles of NOSE, together with the NOSE
Process List, as well as providing guidelines for the use of NOSE.
It should be made clear that NOSE has been developed as a common tool for a range of projects and
activities concerned with emission data. It does not define a set of data which have to be collected; rather, it
provides a framework which can be used to organize any emission data. As with other standard statistical
classifications, the use of NOSE can help to ensure that data from different sources are consistent, thereby
helping to achieve the goals of cost-effectiveness and harmonization in the collection of statistics.
NOSE is being developed by Eurostat, in collaboration with the European Environment Agency and DG XI,
and supported by the NOSE Task Force. The following people and organizations participated in the NOSE
Task Force during 1996-1997:
Bulgaria Stefan Tzonev National Statistical Institute
Finland Kari Grönfors Statistics Finland
Jukka Muukkonen
Nadine Allemand CITEPA France
Germany Joachim Thomas Statistisches Bundesamt
Italy Angelica Tudini ISTAT
Norway Kristin Rypdal Statistics Norway
Sweden Jan Grünberger Statistics Sweden
Inger Öhman
Eiwor Höglund Dávila
Sara Ribacke
Bernt Rondell Swedish Environmental Protection Agency
Margaretha Stackerud
United Kingdom Jeff Barron Office for National Statistics
EU John Allen Eurostat, European Commission
Danny Delcambre
Maila Puolamaa
Leopoldo Rubinacci DG XI, European Commission
André Jol European Environment Agency
Eurostat acknowledges the large contributions made by participants in the Task Force, on which this Manual
is based, it should be noted, however, that participation in the Task Force does not imply official
endorsement of NOSE by the participating organizations.
Special thanks are also due to Statistics Sweden, which acted as host for the meetings of the Task Force.
Further information on NOSE can be obtained from Eurostat:
Maila Puolamaa Environment Statistics Unit
telephone: (+352) 4301 35364 or 37286
fax: (+352)4301 37316
Internet: maila.puoloamaa@eurostat.cec.be
c=be; a=rtt; p=cec; o=eurostat; s=puolamaa; g=maila X400:
Eurostat, L-2920 Luxembourg post:
-3- NOSE Manual Version history:
first published version, completed May 1998 1.0
a few new headings added to NOSE Process List
moved NOSE Process List to Annex 2
corrected minor errors
added foreword
added new examples in Table 2.1 and moved this table to Chapter 3
added new Annex 3 with correspondence table SNAP94-NOSE-P
added new section on territorial definition in Chapter 5
added new Figure 6.1
version prepared for Environment Statistics Working Group, October 1997 0.3
changed main NOSE-P groups to 3 digits to allow future addition of new groups
created reserved codes for possible future split of NOSE-P 101
corrected various errors
version discussed at 2nd NOSE Task Force meeting, June 1997 0.2
NOSE Manual -4-Contents
1 Introduction 7
Objectives and background
Definitions 8
Functions of emission inventories
Kinds of nomenclatures needed
Principles fors 9
Source nomenclature
Processe 10
Nomenclature for geocoding of sources
Pollutant nomenclature
Other nomenclatures
Fuel
Determination method
Destination of emissions1
Developing the NOSE Manual
2 NOSE 13
Emissions reporting by enterprises 1
Measurement and estimation of emissions5
Presentation ofinformation ons
Analysis and assessment of emissions information
3 The NOSE Process List7
Classification of production processes9
4 The treatment of NOSE-P headings with multiple NACE associations 2
General methodologies 2
Stationary combustion6
Transport8
Solvents and other product use 33
Other 34
5 Business registers and statistical units5
Businesss
Statistical units7
Territorial definition
6 The use of NACE within NOSE9
Reporting of emissions by installations
Presentation and analysis of emission data
7 Issues and recommendations 4
8 References
Annex 1: Glossary8
Annex 2: NOSE Process List
Annex 3: SNAP94 to NOSE-P correspondence table 61
-5- NOSE Manual List of Tables
Table 3.1 High-level NOSE-P Groups 18
Table 3.2 Examples of presentation of emissions for a single NACE branch, showing breakdown by process,
for typical pollutants 21
Table 4.1 Energy use in commercial and institutional plants: general importance of branches (all stationary
fuel use); distribution of the consumption of kerosene and heavy fuel oil for stationary use between
branches7
Table 4.2 Calculation of petrol consumption in branch 60.2 29
Table 4.3 Consumption of petrol for road transport: allocation to NACE branches using survey
data/calculations and data from the national accounts input-output tables 30
Table4.4 Calculation of diesel consumption in branch 60.2 3
Table 4.5 Directly emission generating products (other than fuels) specified in the Norwegian national
accounts input-output tables 33
Table 5.1 Minimum set of variables to be included in a statistical business register under Council Regulation
2186/936
Table 6.1 Proposed classification of economic activities and final consumption by households, based on
NACE Rev 1 40
List of Figures
Figure 1.1 Emissions sources categorized by NACE branch and by process 12
Figure 2.1 Typical data for an installation 14
Figure 5.1 Conceptual model for information in statistical business registers 3
Figure 6.1 Typical processes by NACE branch3
NOSE Manual Introduction
1 INTRODUCTION
Objectives and background
1.01 The NOSE (Nomenclature for Sources of Emissions) project provides a classification for emissions
sources which is linked directly to NACE Revision 11, the European counterpart of the international
ISIC classification of economic activities.
1.02 Standard statistical classifications are needed in order to ensure that statistical data collected at
different times, for different purposes, and in different countries, can be used together. The main
internationally-recognized statistical classifications cover economic activities and products (see
Figure 1, Rainer 1995).
1.03 Emissions registers and inventories are important tools for the formulation and monitoring of pollution
control policies. At the EU level, two new initiatives are under development:
• the Pollutant Emission Register (PER) which is foreseen under the Directive on Integrated
Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC), adopted by the Council in September 1996. The PER
will include reported emissions of a list of specified pollutants from a group of large industrial
installations. The design of the PER, including the specification of information to be reported will
have to be agreed upon by an ad hoc Committee established under the IPPC Directive, which will
meet for the first time in late 1997.
• the Integrated Emission inventory (IEI) which is included in the work programme of the European
Environment Agency (EEA). The IEI is still in the planning stage, but it will probably be a
development of the well-established CORINAIR air emission inventory, extended to cover
emissions to other media such as water and land. It will aim at a complete inventory of emissions,
for a smaller list of pollutants than the PER. These emissions fall into two categories:
a) "large point sources", for which the inventory will be based on data on individual
installations (such as the data included in the PER);
b) "diffuse sources", such as smaller industrial installations, agriculture, households,
transport, etc, for which aggregated emissions are estimated.
1.04 In order to promote the common use of data among projects on emissions, DG XI, Eurostat and the
EEA agreed to work together on common classifications of pollutants and emissions sources. These
classifications would provide descriptors which could in principle allow sharing of data between the
PER and the IEI. It should be emphasized, however, that any use of NOSE in the PER exercise will
have to be agreed by the ad hoc Committee established under the IPPC Directive (see above) as
part of the overall technical specification for the PER.
1.05 NOSE is also relevant to other current projects in Eurostat and the national statistical offices,
particularly projects in the areas covered by the Commission's 1994 Communication on
Environmental indicators and green national accounting, which are intended to provide new
information on the relationship between economic development and the environment. The present
version of the NOSE manual draws on the experience of the national statistical offices and of
Eurostat in:
• the development of NAMEAs (National Accounting Matrices with Environmental Accounts);
• the Environmental Pressure Information System (EPIS).
1.06 Comprehensive guidelines for estimating and reporting air emissions have already been developed
during the CORINAIR project (Mclnnes 1996) and these are used extensively within NOSE to ensure
the fullest possible compatibility with existing practices in air emission inventories.
1.07 This chapter reviews the background to issues involved in developing and using nomenclatures for
emission inventories and registers. Many points are discussed in much greater detail in Briggs
1 All references to NACE in this document refer to the NACE Revision 1 as adopted in Council
Regulation (EEC) N° 3037/90 of 9 October 1990 on the statistical classification of economic activities
in the European Community (OJ L293, 24.10.1990), and subsequent amending legislation.
NOSE Manual Introduction
(1993), Bouscaren (1994) and Mclnnes (1996). Additional ideas come from descriptions of national
inventories, notably that of the Netherlands (Berdowski and van der Most 1994).
Definitions
1.08 For the purposes of this document, the following definitions are suggested:
1.09 Emission: the direct or indirect release of substances, vibrations, heat or noise from individual or
diffuse sources into the air, water or land. (IPPC Directive)
1.10 Emission inventory, a list of sources of emissions of one or more pollutants, together with the amount
of each pollutant generated by each listed source.
1.11 Emissions register: a kind of emission inventory in which the sources are identifiable economic units
(for example, enterprises, households) which are under a legal obligation to report their emissions.
1.12 Source: the origin of an emission, which may be a physical entity or process (factory, machine,
animal...) which generatess of pollutants, or a set of such entities or processes defined
according to some common characteristic (for example, power plants, agricultural sources). Such a
set of sources is sometimes referred to as a source sector.
1.13 Pollutant: a material emitted by a source, which has some negative impact on the environment, and
which is to be included in an emission inventory or register. In this context, wastes are pollutants.
Other examples are SOx, C02, Pb...
1.14 Certain terms are deliberately avoided here because their use gives rise to confusion; notably, the
term activity, which has been used both for economic activities, (as classified according to NACE
and ISIC) as well as for processes generating emissions. Other definitions are provided in the draft
IPPC Directive.
Functions of emission inventories
1.15 Emission inventories are inherently multi-purpose tools which can serve many different policy
objectives (see Briggs 1993). Typical functions of inventories are in the areas of:
• development of technical and regulatory measures to reduce emissions: in other words, to reduce
emissions one needs detailed information on where they come from;
• monitoring of measures already in force;
• scientific studies of local, regional and global air pollution;
• analysis of the relationships between emissions and economic factors (production, investment,
employment), in the context both of the development of regulatory measures and of assessment
of the impact of existing measures;
• providing information to the public generally.
1.16 In order to fulfill all possible functions, emission inventories necessarily contain very detailed data.
However, for many purposes these data must be aggregated, perhaps in several different ways. In
addition, for presentation and analysis, the aggregated emissions data have to be placed alongside
other kinds of economic data, for example data on employment, investment or environmental
protection expenditures.
Kinds of nomenclatures needed
1.17 The basic definition of an emission inventory given above implies that nomenclatures are needed for
• sources
• geocoding of sources
• pollutants
1.18 In addition, nomenclatures may also be needed for:
• fuels
• determination method
• destination of emission
NOSE Manual