The early calving of heifers and its impact on beef production
310 Pages
English
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The early calving of heifers and its impact on beef production

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310 Pages
English

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Agricultural and fisheries research
Animal production
Target audience: Scientific

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Language English
Document size 9 MB

Exrait

THE EARLY
CALVING
OF HEIFERS
ITSIMfrø"
ON BEEF
services of the OF THE
IROPEAN COMMUNI!
in ie framework of the
Co
krdination of Agricultural Research
a^^^jssffass« J THE EAELY CALVING OF HEIFERS
AND ITS IMPACT ON BEEF PRODUCTION
PARL EUROP. Biblio*.
'c- c3A£>&7^
Edited by J.C. TAYLER
First seminar on "Nutrition and Management"
in the EEC Programme of co-ordination
of research on beef production
held by the
Department of Cattle Experiments
National Institute of Animal Science
25, Rolighedsvej, 1958 Copenhagen V
DENMARK
June 4th- 6th, 1975
Sponsored by the services of the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
1975
EUR 5545 e 11
Sponsored by and available from:
COMMISSION OP THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
D.G. VI Division'E4: Co-ordination
of agricultural research
200, Rue de la Loi, 1049 Brussels
Reproduced by the Department of Cattle Experiment
National Institute of Animal Science, 25, Rolighedsvej
DK-1958 Copenhagen V
The seminar was held at the
Scandinavian Seminar College "Bakkerne"
Kongevejen 195, 2840 Holte
Denmark Ill
CONTENTS
Page
Preface vi
Objective and background to seminar vii
Part I GENERAL ASSESSMENT OP CURRENT
SITUATION IN EACH COUNTRY
Belgium Age of cows at first calving in Belgium
P. Vandenbyvang
Denmark The Danish cattle population and beef
production
J. Brolund Larsen and Kr. Sejrsen
Prance Age of cows at first calving in France
R. Jarrige 10
Germany Current situation and potential increase
(Fed.Rep.) in beef and veal production from female
cattle in the Federal Republic of Germany
S. Ko'gel and H. Kräusslich 14
Ireland General assessment of current situation
in Ireland
F.J. Harte 23
Italy Some considerations on the beef situation
in Italy
A. Romita 25
Netherlands Beef and veal production in the Nether­
lands
W.L. Harmsen 28
United Age of cows at first calving in the
Kingdom United Kingdom
D.M. Allen 33
DISCUSSION 35
Part 2 REVIEW OF RESEARCH ON EARLY CALVING:
ENDOCRINOLOGICAL ASPECTS
Recent research related to the physiology of puberty
P. Mauleon 37
The control of oestrus in cattle
G.E. Lamming 47 Control of parturition and lactation in cattle:
endocrinological aspects
B. Hoffmann and D. Schams 58
GENETIC ASPECTS
Genetic aspects of early calving
H.O. Gravert 76
Genetic aspects related to use of beef breeds
P. Menissier 81
NUTRITION AND MANAGEMENT
System of production of beef from once calved
heifers
P.J. Harte 123
Factors affecting first oestrus in cattle and
their effects on early breeding
J.H.B. Roy, CM. Gillies and S.M. Shotton 128
Carcass composition and meat quality in once
calved heifers
R.I. Joseph 14
DISCUSSION 151
Part 3 PRACTICAI AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS:
BEEP HERDS
Early calving in suckling herds
M. Petit7
Economic aspects of early calving in suckling
herds
G. Lienard 17
Research results from Italy
A. Romita 191
The early calving of heifers and its impact on
beef production
D.M. Allen 205
DAIRY HERDS
Early calving of dairy heifers in the United
Kingdom
W. Little 214
Practical and economic aspects of early calving
in dairy herds
H.O. Gravert 220 Effects of early calving on the profitability
of milk production and on the milk: beef ratio
V. Østergaard 225
Experiments with heifers in the Netherlands
W.L. Harmsen 232
Model for intensive beef production
P. Vandenbyvang8
The early calving of heifers and its impact on
beef production
R.J. Esslemont 244
A comparison between different feeding intensities
using various (concentrate/roughage/grass) rations
for rearing dairy heifers to calve at an early age
J. Brolund Larsen, J. Foldager and Kr. Sejrsen 250
DISCUSSION . 263
Part 4 FUTURE RESEARCH
Some topics for future research
S. Amir and J. Kali 274
Future research on problems of increasing meat pro­
duction by early calving
E.W. Swanson 281
DISCUSSION9 VI
PREFACE
This publication contains the proceedings of a seminar held in
Denmark on June 4-6, 1975, under the auspices of the Commission of
the European Communities, as part of the EEC programme of co-ordina­
tion of research on teef production.
The programme was drawn up by a scientific working group on
"Nutrition and Management" on behalf of the Beef Production Committee.
The working group comprised Professor A. Neimann-Sørensen (Chairman),
Denmark; Ir. J. Brolund Larsen, Denmark; Mr. R. Jarrige, France;
Professor A. Romita, Italy; Mr. P. L'Hermite, C.E.C.; Dr. J.C. Tayler
(Temporarily seconded to the C.E.C, during 1975 from the Grassland
Research Institute, Hurley, Maidenhead, Berkshire, U.K.).
The subject chosen for this seminar was drawn from the list of
priorities in research objectives drawn up in 1973 by members of a
committee (now the Standing Committee on Agricultural Research, CPRA)
in the form given in Appendix I. One of the functions of this series
of seminars was to summarise and update the information available on
the selected subjects and to discuss future needs for research, so as
to assist the Commission in evaluating the probable impact of research
on agricultural production within the Community.
The Commission wishes to thank those representatives of the
Member States who took responsibility in the organisation and conduct
of this seminar; notably Professor A. Neimann-Sørensen (Chairman),
Ir. J. Brolund Larsen (Local Organiser) and the Chairman of Session
four, Mr. R. Jarrige. OBJECTIVE OP SEMINAR
To review current practice and the results of recent research in
dairy herds and in beef herds; to consider practical and economic
aspects of early calving; and to examine the requirements for future
research.
BACKGROUND
The practice of earlier calving of heifer.s could lead to considerable
increases in output of beef. The more widespread use of early calving
and the specific method of rearing heifers to produce a calf before
slaughter raise problems of nutritional and endocrinological control
of growth, oestrus, parturition and lactation. The effective appli­
cation of research in this field will involve a consideration of
effects of the practice of early calving on the ratio of milk to
beef production, and of economic aspects as well as development stu­
dies to overcome the technical problems in practice. APPENDIX I
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES DRAWN UP BY THE BEEF PRODUCTION COMMITTEE, June 197Τ. AND LIST OF SEMINARS PROPOSED IN 1975­1976 ON SELECTED TOPIC!
SEMINAR PLACE DATE
To obtain a greater number of viable calves through:
1. better control of reproduction:
­ interval between oalvings;
­ heat synchronization;
­ sex determination;
­ production of twins;
­ egg transplantation. Cambridge Dec. 10,11,12,1975 Egg transplantation
2. a reduction in calf mortality during and after birth Perinatal ill­health in Compton Sept.22,23,24,1975
calves
3. early breeding and the UBe of once bred heifers for The early calving of heifers Copenhagen June, 4,5,6,1975
slaughter and its impaot on beef
production
Toimprovequalityofmeat and increase the weight of Theix Oct. 14,15,16,17,1975 Improving nutritional effi­
thecarcassthroughabetter understanding of the ciency of beef production
genetic,physiological and nutritional factors in­
Criteria and methods for the
fluencingbodydevelopment
assessment of carcass and
meat characteristics in beef
Toimprovetheutilisation of the carcass by
Zeist Nov. 10,11,12,1975 production experiments
technologicalmeans
III. To achieve a better understanding possibly by co­ Optimization of cattle Dublin Nov. 26,27,28,1975
breeding schemes operative programmes of the comparative suitability
of the major cattle breeds used as pure breeds or in
Cross­breeding experiments Verden Feb. 9,10,11,1976 crossing (including beef and dairy breeds) for:
and strategy of breed utili­­ fertility
­ ease of calving sation to increase beef produc­
tion. ­ maternal ability
­ growth
­ characteristics of carcass meat
­ feed utilisation
Close co­operation was recommended with the agencies studying
the economics of beef production and possibly special studieB
integrating biological and economic approaches with a view to
improving the balance between milk and beef within the Community