VMP Comment summary

VMP Comment summary

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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY - VISITOR MASTER PLAN The table below summarizes public comments received in the draft public participation period and staff’s response. The goal of public participation is to ask for ideas that improve the plan. Several issues or concerns about the Visitor Master Plan received substantial public comment. Public comments are summarized in the first column below. Comments were compiled in electronic form from five sources: web-based comment form, e-mail, letters, open house and a citizen forum. Written comments were reviewed for discrete ideas. Actual comments, edited for brevity, were used to best express the participant’s view. Comments on the same issue that represent different view points are both included, separated by a short dashed line. Comments were then grouped by topic, and organized in the same order as the plan. Comments received generally reflected those received in the past about the Visitor Master Plan. The second column is staff’s response to the ideas expressed in comments. Comment Summary Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 4 (continued) Plan Direction 2 Dog Management Definition of Passive Recreation 2 General 14 Video and Tag 15 CHAPTER 2 Trailhead Leash 15 Need for Plan Changes 3 Poop Pick-Up 15 Key Unmet Needs Table 4 Trails Undesignated Trails Map 4 General 16 Trails Planning and Undesignated Trails 18 ...

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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY - VISITOR MASTER PLAN  The table below summarizes public comments received in the draft public participation period and staff’s response. The goal of public participation is to ask for ideas that improve the plan. Several issues or concerns about the Visitor Master Plan received substantial public comment.  Public comments are summarized in the first column below. Comments were compiled in electronic form from five sources: web-based comment form, e-mail, letters, open house and a citizen forum. Written comments were reviewed for discrete ideas. Actual comments, edited for brevity, were used to best express the participant’s view. Comments on the same issue that represent different view points are both included, separated by a short dashed line. Comments were then grouped by topic, and organized in the same order as the plan. Comments received generally reflected those received in the past about the Visitor Master Plan.  The second column is staff’s response to the ideas expressed in comments.  Comment Summary Table of Contents  CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 4 (continued) Plan Direction  2 Dog Management Definition of Passive Recreation  2 General    Video and Tag CHAPTER 2Trailhead Leash Need for Plan Changes  3 Poop Pick-Up Key Unmet Needs Table  4 Trails Undesignated Trails Map  4 General   Trails Planning and Undesignated Trails CHAPTER 3Muddy Trails Dealing With Uncertainty  4 Public Involvement Least Restrictive Management Approach  5 Special Use Permits Use of Best Information  6 Commercial Use Permits   Competitive Events CHAPTER 4Safety Management Areas Activities General  6  Permits 10 6 CHAPTER Night Time 10 Organizational Capacity And Funding Dogs (Management Areas) 11 Fees
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
STAFF RESPONSE
  COMMENT / ISSUE CHAPTER 1 Plan Direction The focus of open houses and board meetings The goals of the Visitor Master Plan are to enjoy, preserve and protect Open Space and is shifting from preserving the environment, Mountain Parks. Some members of the community are very supportive of the purchase of and the primary goal to preserve is present Open Space and Mountain Parks lands because of the role these lands play in providing only if it doesn't get in the way of recreation. opportunities for recreation. Open Space and Mountain Parks recognizes that there are impacts to the environment, the infrastructure and the visitor experience resulting from certain kinds and levels of use. The plan recommends a set of strategies aimed at improving the current situation. Growth in Boulder and its effect on Open The review draft was modified based on public input. The report of the Community Group Space and Mountain Parks are an issue. The Forum and other public input was discussed by the Open Space Board of Trustees and the Draft Visitor Master Plan is good as presented. City Council. City Council provided direction about how to integrate the comments of this The value of Open Space and Mountain Parks group. is in both preservation and recreation, and is not just a place of individual entitlement. The Community Group Forum was one avenue for input, as were the two Visitor Master There is a responsibility to wildlife and Plan Advisory Groups and suggestions from citizens not involved in advisory groups preservation now and for the future. through City Council meetings, Open Space Board of Trustees meetings, open houses, ----- forums, e-mails, letters and faxes. Suggestions made by the Community Groups should be adopted, as they give Open Space and Mountain Parks staff more flexibility, and will address shortcomings in the current Draft Visitor Master Plan.  -----Various user groups threaten to dominate the process, and the sentiment of the broader community might be overlooked. The Open Space Board of Trustees and City Council need to recognize the Boulder community’s strong support for the value of our open space as natural areas. Definition of Passive Recreation Replace the word adversely with significantly: The language has been changed to “significantly impact” from “significant adverse impact.”
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
COMMENT / ISSUE STAFF RESPONSE “passive recreation is non-motorized activity “Significantly” simplifies the definition. This acknowledges that virtually all visitor activities that does not significantly impact natural, have the potential to impact the environment. cultural, scientific, or agricultural values.” The City Charter does not list climbing as Climbing, as well as many other popular activities, is acknowledged as a form of passive "passive recreation" despite being much more recreation in Table 2.1. The activities in the City Charter were approved by Boulder voters integral to the history of Mountain Parks than in 1986, and were included as examples of activities that are considered “passive.” The biking and fishing. We have to get farther into City Charter does not need to be amended to establish traditional methods of climbing as a the document to even see acknowledgment of passive recreational activity. an activity that is synonymous with the Flatirons for at least 70 years. CHAPTER 2 Need for Plan Changes The Open Space and Mountain Parks system Open Space and Mountain Parks is charged by the citizens of Boulder to promote has worked beautifully for decades so there is enjoyment of the lands while preserving and protecting the resources. With changing no reason for the restrictions proposed. circumstances, management must keep up with a new reality. The Visitor Master Plan Further restrictions will cost more money and provides a vehicle that the department, public, Open Space Board of Trustees and City alienate the constituency. Council can utilize to strike the appropriate balance, and enables the department to manage more strategically and less reactively.   Demand for passive recreation is heavy and increasing o In 1990, 225,000 people lived in Boulder County. o 2000, 291,000 people lived in Boulder County, almost a 30% increase. In o projected 409,000 people will be living in Boulder County. a 2015 In o A 1994 Open Space and a 1996 Mountain Parks study estimated 3 million annual visits. o Astudy to be completed in 2005, estimated 1.8 million visits year-long visitation in the first three summer months (June, July, August) of 2004. recreation areas not growing nearly as quickly. of passive  Supply  Impacts associated with use levels are affecting the visitor experience, infrastructure and natural systems, lowering the quality of service.  higher levels of use, new and enhanced services and facilities and some different At management approaches are needed to deliver a continued high level of service An analysis of conditions identified a number of significant issues needing to be addressed: trail and trailhead maintenance backlog, levels of conflict among recreationists, safety at
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
COMMENT / ISSUE STAFF RESPONSE road crossings, and resource degradation. Key Unmet Needs Table  From Table 2.6 (2.5 in Final Draft), The ultimate goal is to have no conflict. Unfortunately, when people interact, some conflict “unacceptable level of conflict” should not be occurs. Management actions are designed to reduce conflict to an acceptable level. A changed to “high” level. This implies that a monitoring system is included in the plan to measure whether acceptable levels (standards) medium level or medium-high level would be of conflict are exceeded. acceptable. It is not. Any level of conflict is unacceptable. Change the word “unacceptable” to "any"  . Add two new statements to Table 2.6 (2.5 in Significantly more work on trails and trailheads is needed, along with other needs, such as Final Draft): “Funding for maintenance and weed management. Construction needs are listed in the Capital Improvements Projects improvement of existing trails and construction cost estimates and project list in Chapter 6 of the plan. Collaboration with climbers and of new trails is inadequate.” “Collaboration other groups is listed as a key project in implementing the Visitor Master Plan. with climbers to develop a sustainable climbing Collaboration with climbers and naturalists in assessing destinations in mountainous terrain access system.” will make the decisions about access and minimizing resource impacts more effective. Undesignated trails map  Replace the map in Fig. 2.2 with a section of Figure 2.2 is an example of undesignated trails created by use through time. Open Space the newer undesignated trails map that and Mountain Parks acknowledges that some trails are wider than others, and some trails includes categories showing the different may disappear from little use or expand because of use. Ways to address these issues are widths of the trails. included in Chapters 3 and 4. CHAPTER 3 Add to Goal 3 (Goal 4 in Final Draft): Partner The term “community” was meant to include other jurisdictions. Open Space and Mountain with the community “and other jurisdictions” in Parks routinely communicates and partners with neighboring agencies. The text has been passive recreation decision-making, amended to clarify this point. stewardship efforts, and resource preservation. Dealing with Uncertainty  The "Priority of Preservation" guiding principle The approach to dealing with uncertainty comes in response to the non-prioritized multiple conflicts with the other purposes listed in the use mission of the Open Space and Mountain Parks program. Management decisions City Charter that is not prioritized. A statement must be made when there is uncertainty about impacts to the environment. When should be placed in the Visitor Master Plan confronted with incomplete or unreliable information, Open Space and Mountain Parks that the Charter does not set priorities for or attempts to be cautious before allowing human activities that may cause serious or rank the purposes for Open Space and irreversible harm to resources. Mountain Parks lands.  Based on feedback from the public, the Open Space Board of Trustees, City Council, and -----
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
COMMENT / ISSUE STAFF RESPONSE The “Priority of Preservation” principle is Open Space and Mountain Parks department eliminated the “priority of preservation” critical because natural systems seldom can language and added in the Guiding Principles in Chapter 3: be truly restored once they have been compromised; invasive plants predominate,Balance Among Competing Uses. Open Space and Mountain Parks shall seek to wildlife departs, and even soil can be balance competing community needs and desires, and to provide fairness in allocating degraded. However, through adaptive recreational use opportunities among competing uses and the open space purposes management and monitoring, additional visitor defined in the Open Space Charter (which are not prioritized). access can be incorporated later, should tha t monitoring reflect stable conditions that mightDealing with Uncertainty. As established by the Open Space Charter, preserving support additional future use. the natural environment is essential to maintaining the quality of the visitor experience. Open Space and Mountain Parks shall be careful to protect and preserve environmental resources when there is uncertainty about their conservation status, the impacts of visitor use, and/or the effects of management actions. Open Space and Mountain Parks will assess management alternatives and determine appropriate resource protection measures when there are reasonable grounds for concern regarding threats of potentially serious or irreversible resource damage. Open Space and Mountain Parks will use best available information to assess and weigh the benefits and impacts of the various management alternatives (including no action) and then select the best overall management action in order to achieve appropriate resource protection.  Determining Management Priorities to Address Site-Specific Conflicts.Open Space and Mountain Parks shall consider the management context provided by the underlying management area designation when there are site-specific conflicts between resource protection and visitor use activities. Open Space and Mountain Parks shall attempt, with involvement of the public, to find creative solutions that mediate between providing new or enhanced recreational opportunities and avoiding, minimizing, or mitigating the impacts of visitor use activities. Least-Restrictive Management Approach  Use the least restrictive means possible to The least restrictive approach was moved from the Visitor Safety and Regulation section to achieve management goals and incrementally the guiding principles in Chapter 3. The plan now reads:Least Restrictive Management implement more restrictive solutions if lessApproach.Parks shall use the least restrictive means possibleOpen Space and Mountain restrictive solutions are ineffective as was to achieve management goals, and incrementally implement more restrictive solutions if recommended by the Community Group less restrictive solutions are ineffective. Forum
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
STAFF RESPONSE
COMMENT / ISSUE   -----The Community Group Forum recommends the least restrictive measures to be utilized first, and then increase protections as the negative impacts are noticed. That will be too late in many cases, which is a backwards approach to a complicated land management issue. Use of Best Information After “Open Space and Mountain Parks shall Use of best information available is a guiding principle in chapter 3. It now reads: use the best available information when making and implementing decisions onUse of Best Information. Use the best available information (see inset) when making managing passive recreational and management decisions with the goal of making sound decisions based on consideration educational uses.” Add: “The goal is to make of all relevant factors, needs, and values. When available, scientific information on the sounds decisions based on consideration of all existing and desired conditions of natural, agricultural, and cultural resources and the relevant factors, needs, and values. Scientific impacts of visitor use on them, shall be used as well. When key information gaps exist, information on the existing and desired Open Space and Mountain Parks shall take reasonable measures, through independent conditions of natural, agricultural and cultural or collaborative efforts, to generate or obtain new or improved information that will resources, and the impacts of visitor use on reduce uncertainty and improve decision making. them, shall be utilized when available. When  key information gaps exist, collaborative efforts with Open Space and Mountain Parks staff, other agencies, and the public will be made to conduct new studies, research, and experiments to generate new, reliable, relevant information.” CHAPTER 4  Management Areas General The Habitat Conservation Areas should retain Habitat Conservation Areas are proposed to have the necessary levels of protection to the highest degree of protection. Other land protect the native ecosystems and natural values found in these areas. Size is a key factor management programs allow certain areas to in delineating these areas. be closed off entirely to preserve entire plant communities. Boulder County Parks and Open Space, The Natural Heritage Program, The
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
STAFF RESPONSE
COMMENT / ISSUE Nature Conservancy, and the Colorado Natural Areas Program all recognize that these areas cannot be closed off seasonally, and in patches to manage for single species. Restrictions should not be in place for places The Visitor Master Plan seeks to provide sustainable conditions, by ensuring long term that aren’t being damaged by current use. preservation. Access should be allowed in Habitat Conservation areas on designated Why create restricted access zones when trails. Research has shown that the first impacts are typically the greatest and decrease actual damage has not occurred in these with each additional impact/disturbance. We also know restoration is very expensive, takes areas? years of work and usually does not completely restore an area. The Habitat Conservation Area approach is meant to be preventive, so that a portion of Open Space and Mountain Parks is preserved long term, and costly restoration needs are minimized. This part of the system receives higher levels of protection, while others do not. More signs are needed, especially when one Signs will be posted to clearly communicate boundaries and management requirements. trail goes from one type of area to another. The designation of the "Western Mountain The designation of Habitat Conservation Areas will mean that off-trail activities are Parks" as a Habitat Conservation Area, open prohibited to protect environmental resources. There are numerous bouldering problems in only to guided tours, or not at all, is a problem the Natural and Passive Recreation Areas where off-trail access is allowed. Several trail for climbers. A big part of climbing is study areas have been proposed for the Habitat Conservation Areas to provide access to exploration, and this effectively closes off new selected destinations including climbing areas. bouldering development on the backs of Green Mountain and South Boulder Peak, two of the largest untapped bouldering resources in the area. In the Eldorado Mountain Lindsay Area we feel Eldorado Mountain/Lindsay Area is relatively undisturbed and intact, and has very high that the habitat conservation designation would wildlife values. Visitation in the area has increased significantly since the city acquired the be unnecessary, and the goals of protecting property over a decade ago. Growth in visitation is expected to continue as more people habitat can be accomplished through Natural learn of the area and the metro area grows. The Habitat Conservation Area designation is Area designation, which would allow a great intended to emphasize the high natural quality of the area and the management emphasis deal of protection while allowing access. on lower levels of use. There are low levels of use and little chance for increasing use because of limited parking. The area has already been impacted in the past. The proposed plan specifies a “high tolerance” The term “high tolerance” has been removed. The Plan now requires trail planning where for undesignated trails in passive recreational undesignated trails will be evaluated area-by-area to decide which trails to designate and
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
STAFF RESPONSE
COMMENT / ISSUE areas. That seems like a recipe for wholesale which to improve or close. proliferation of such trails, to the extreme detriment of the property. I strongly believe that all new trails must receive prior approval by Open Space and Mountain Parks management, and that existing, undesignated trails get closed and the land be restored. The Gunbarrel/Heatherwood area is best Open Space and Mountain Parks lands near Heatherwood in Gunbarrel have been designated as recreational. changed from Agricultural Area to Passive Recreation Area. Most of the Flatirons rock formations are Raptor closures do shorten the climbing season on some crags. Raptor closures are closed to climbing from February 1 to July 31 monitored, and if no nesting activity is observed, the closures are immediately lifted. each year to protect nesting raptors and bats. Climbers have cooperated very well with the raptor closures and appreciate the need to The formations that are closed encompass have these areas available for nesting birds during breeding season. most of the climbing in the proposed Eldorado Mountain (Mickey Mouse Wall) and Western Mountain Parks (Sacred Cliffs and others) Habitat Conservation Areas. Crags with no nesting activity remain closed for the entire six-month period and are not reopened even when there are no raptors present. The climbing season typically ends by late October or November, with the effect of the wildlife closure limiting climbing to three or four months a year. Using a conservative approach to protecting The on-trail requirement for Habitat Conservation is the recommended option. Open Space and preserving is disappearing with the and Mountain Parks considers it more equitable to continue to allow all uses on-trail in most allowance of less strict rules for areas. Only cases and where appropriate. Dogs must be leashed in Habitat Conservation Areas people should be allowed in Habitat (unless prohibited) with the exception of three peak trails, where for safety reasons dogs Conservation Areas, if anyone is allowed at all. are allowed under on-corridor, voice-and-sight control No dogs; no bikes; no horses. In Natural and Agriculture Areas, dogs on leash all the time and no bikes. Do not follow the Community Group Forum’s The area remains classified as a Natural Area. No changes to the types of levels of use recommendation that the Shannahan Ridge (beyond increases related to population growth and the growing popularity of outdoor loop trail be re-classified as a recreation area recreation) are anticipated with this designation. Open Space and Mountain Parks seeks to
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
COMMENT / ISSUE STAFF RESPONSE rather than a natural area, as in the existing provide the type of visitor experience described for this area. draft of the Visitor Master Plan. The trail offers quietness, and opportunity for reflection and renewal that this beautiful area affords. It is the epitome of what is meant by "natural area." Do not turn this area into a recreation area, with the attendant increase in use and diversity of recreational activities implied by that classification. Other Open Space and Mountain Parks land are far better suited to recreation. Think of the next 100 -1000 years when Open Space and Mountain Parks works to manage all lands for the long term. Habitat designating Habitat Conservation Areas. Conservation Areas are larger habitat blocks with the priority of protecting lands. Open Space and Mountain Parks lands Resource/Recreation Areas will be managed to provide good passive recreation mission needs to continue to be protecting the experiences and protect the natural resources integral to these areas. lands for habitat for native plants and animals, for now and the future. Recreation should occur only where it can be done without significantly degrading the most important habitat areas. Resource Protection Areas should be designated based on ecological reasons, not political. As it is, there is serious resource degradation going on, and for the Open Space and Mountain Parks lands to remain good quality habitat some areas need to be off limits, while others need increased control over the recreation that occurs on them. Do not soften language in the original draft of The on-trail requirement for Habitat Conservation Areas remains in the Visitor Master Plan. the Visitor Master Plan where protection of Trail study areas will be used to see if trails are needed or not. The dogs on-leash in Habitat Conservation Areas and of Natural Habitat Conservation Areas language remains, except for three trails that are on-corridor, Areas are concerned for two reasons: (1) voice-and-sight, instead of on-leash: Ranger Trail, Shadow Canyon Trail, and the potential general degradation of these areas connector trail between Bear and South Boulder Peaks. Open Space and Mountain Parks due to erosion, weeds, and loss of wildlife staff is concerned about the levels of use and resulting impacts, and the plan is intended to numbers; (2) potential loss of diversity. improve conditions on the land and to maintain good experiences for visitors.
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
STAFF RESPONSE
COMMENT / ISSUE Numerous studies document that high concentrations of recreating people and domestic pets intensify these problems. In the early 1990s, Doudy Draw was relatively undisturbed and intact with a narrow trail. People saw bobcats, bear and the occasional rarity such as yellow-billed cuckoo and northern mockingbird. Now the numbers of new social trails in all directions are numerous, wide, well-established, and terribly placed so that erosion and weeds will follow. In addition, the former narrow single-track official trail, where increasing numbers of people hike has become a double-tracked in a 6- foot wide scar, similar to a major off-road vehicle track with a duplicate trail created by dogs. Permits Requiring off trail permits in Habitat Off-trail permits will be required in Habitat Conservation Areas for research, education and Conservation Areas is not needed. The other purposes. Additional trails will be evaluated to improve access in the Habitat relatively low levels of use in these more Conservation Areas. Trail study areas for further evaluation have been identified in the remote areas would suggest that less plan. restrictive measures such as education and monitoring is a more appropriate management Education as a management approach will be emphasized throughout the system. response. Another option is seasonal Education alone does not work for all people, and those for whom it does work, retain to closures, and closure of selected, especially varying degrees. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the first impacts are typically sensitive areas. the greatest impacts—so a relatively small number of people can create an expensive and difficult to restore situation. More direct management is required to adequately protect these important areas. Do not require permits for climbs in lower Permits are not required for these areas. Skunk Canyon and south of Shadow Canyon. Horseback riders will be limited to the same Horseback riders will not be limited to biking trails. Most of the designated trails are trails as the bicyclists. available for horseback riding. Night time Do not close Habitat Conservation Areas at The trailhead parking 11 p.m. to 5 a.m. prohibition does offer night time protections. The night. Night walks to Green Mountain for Habitat Conservation Areas offer more protection to important ecological areas. It gives
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City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks Visitor Master Plan PUBLIC COMMENT RESPONSE SUMMARY  
COMMENT / ISSUE STAFF RESPONSE instance offer a unique opportunity. There wildlife better refuge from all the activity during the day. Most opportunities for night time aren’t enough rangers to enforce the closure use are not affected by this change; all Natural Areas, Passive Recreation Areas and anyway. The Flagstaff and trailhead parking Agricultural areas are all available for night time experiences. restrictions already in place offer enough protection and a more easily enforced. Dogs (Management Areas) Dogs should not be allowed in Habitat Dogs will be required to be on-leash in Habitat Conservation areas, with the exception of Conservation Areas. three trails which will require on-corridor, voice-and-sight and some dog-prohibited trails. Leash and on-trail corridor, voice-and-sight are tighter restrictions for trails in Habitat Conservation Areas, and thus will provide more control by dog walkers and more protection of the environment. Trails in other management areas that are ecologically sensitive, such as Towhee Trail in a Resource/Recreation Area, will require dogs to be on-leash. Have you considered fencing to keep dogs out Yes. East Boulder Trail at Dry Creek Trailhead and the Eagle Trailhead at Boulder Valley of sensitive areas? Ranch are fenced to keep dogs and prairie dogs apart. However, fencing can disrupt wildlife movement, affect the aesthetics of the site, and increase maintenance costs. The proposed dog management strategies Some trails in Natural Areas will require dog walkers to have their dogs on-leash. These only appear to require leashing of dogs in trails include: Lefthand, Boulder Creek Path (part), Eldorado Canyon (part), Sawhill Ponds, Habitat Conservation Areas. This will not Cottontail Skunk Canyon (part), Fern Canyon, Bear Canyon (part), South Boulder Creek address the conflict issues noted in the plan. (Bobolink), Doudy Draw (part). Natural Areas, or at least the majority of Natural Areas, should require that dogs be on leash. Include a mandatory leash requirement for Some trails in Resource/ Recreation Areas require dogs to be on-leash. These trails dogs on all high use trails in the designated include: Foothills (part), Old Kiln, Wonderland Lake, Boulder Creek Path (part), Towhee, Resource/Recreation Areas. Gregory Canyon (part).  Provide dogs and their guardians on-corridor While the default for Habitat Conservation Areas remains leash on-corridor, on-corridor voice and sight access to South Boulder, Bear voice-and-sight control access to South Boulder and Bear Peaks is provided via Shadow Peak, and Green Mountain, which allows Canyon Trail. On-corridor voice on sight access to Green Mountain is provided on Ranger access to the summits by runners with dogs, Trail. Dog walkers want access to the peaks, and a leash requirement on steep trails may and it keeps everyone safe when the icy winter create safety issues. Requiring dogs to stay on-corridor under voice-and-sight provides trails make an on-leash dog a hazard. When more control, and is more enforceable than just voice-and-sight control. dogs are climbing mountains, they stay on the trail.  -----
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