New conception and decision support model for integrated urban water system [Elektronische Ressource] / von Yucheng Feng
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New conception and decision support model for integrated urban water system [Elektronische Ressource] / von Yucheng Feng

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New Conception and Decision Support Model for Integrated Urban Water System Vom Promotionsausschuss der Technischen Universität Hamburg-Harburg zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Doktor-Ingenieur genehmigte Dissertation von Yucheng FENG aus Xinjiang, China 2009 Gutachter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Knut Wichmann Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Otterpohl Prüfungsausschussvorsitzender: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Erik Pasche Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 09. April 2009 Acknowledgements By this chance, I would like to thank Prof. Dr. -Ing. Knut Wichmann and Prof. Dr. -Ing. Ralf Otterpohl so much for providing me this precious chance to accomplish this challenging and meaningful research work. As the fatherlike supervisors, Prof. Wichmann and Prof. Otterpohl supported both my work and my life constantly, whereby I can finally achieve my doctorate. I would like to heartily thank Dr. Joachim Behrendt. Besides the invaluable support and input to my research work, he is also like an old brother taking care of me all long, which can be never forgotten. I would like to cordially thank Dr. Claudia Wendland. In the often-raining city of Hamburg she and her family made me feel like at home, which will be remembered as long as I live. I would like to thank Dr. Martina Winker so much for her support, consideration, generosity and patience.

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Published 01 January 2009
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New Conception and Decision Support Model
for Integrated Urban Water System




Vom Promotionsausschuss der
Technischen Universität Hamburg-Harburg
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades

Doktor-Ingenieur

genehmigte Dissertation





von
Yucheng FENG


aus
Xinjiang, China




2009
























Gutachter:
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Knut Wichmann
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ralf Otterpohl

Prüfungsausschussvorsitzender:
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Erik Pasche

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung:
09. April 2009 Acknowledgements

By this chance, I would like to thank Prof. Dr. -Ing. Knut Wichmann and Prof. Dr. -Ing.
Ralf Otterpohl so much for providing me this precious chance to accomplish this challenging
and meaningful research work. As the fatherlike supervisors, Prof. Wichmann and Prof.
Otterpohl supported both my work and my life constantly, whereby I can finally achieve my
doctorate.
I would like to heartily thank Dr. Joachim Behrendt. Besides the invaluable support and
input to my research work, he is also like an old brother taking care of me all long, which can
be never forgotten. I would like to cordially thank Dr. Claudia Wendland. In the often-raining
city of Hamburg she and her family made me feel like at home, which will be remembered as
long as I live. I would like to thank Dr. Martina Winker so much for her support, consideration,
generosity and patience. Especially, I am very grateful for her help to revise my dissertation. I
would like to thank Mr. Felix Tettenborn very much for being always considering me, and for
bringing me to another wonderful world. I would like to thank Mr. Kay Möller very much for
his plenty of help to my dissertation. Besides, I appreciate very much those profound
discussions with him and those touching encouragements from him. I would like to thank Mr.
Stefan Deegener so much for the light-hearted and jolly time, and for sharing my burden. As
the colleague, I thank Dr. Stefan Kohl very much for his help, understanding and kindness;
as the officemate, I enjoyed and appreciate very much the time that we spent in the same
office.
I would like to thank the programme of International Postgraduate Studies in Water
Technologies (IPSWaT) for financing my research work. Meantime, I would like to thank Dr.
Ulrike Schaub for being supportive and considerate to me and my research all the time.
I appreciate the whole Institute of Water Resources and Water Supply for providing such
comfortable conditions and ambience for scientific research. I appreciate the whole Institute
of Wastewater Management and Water Protection for always considering me as a family
member and giving me the considerable support.
Very special gratitude is for my parents and my sister. Without their support and
encouragements either in spirit or in matter, I would never be able to surmount all those difficulties
and go through all those tough days, and I could never reach this grand goal and have this
dreamy life. They are the best parents and the best sister for me.

Day and night, black and white, the world consists of two ultimate fringes. Traveling
between the two sides of the world, from birth to death, I draw my life with all my passion.


Yucheng FENG
April 2009, Hamburg, Germany Herausgeber / Editor:

Gesellschaft zur Förderung und Entwicklung der Umwelttechnologien an der
Technischen Universität Hamburg-Harburg e.V. (GFEU)


GFEU
c/o Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg
Institut für Abwasserwirtschaft und Gewässerschutz (B-2)
Eißendorfer Str. 42
21073 Hamburg
Germany

Tel.: +49 (0)40 42878 3207
Fax: +49 (0)40 42878 2684
http://www.gfeu.org


ISBN 978-3-930400-31-7
URN urn:nbn:de:gbv:830-tubdok-5749
URL http://doku.b.tu-harburg.de/volltexte/2009/574/

© Yucheng Feng









Hamburger Berichte zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Band 68
Indices I
Contents
TABLES .................................................................................................................... IV
FIGURES................................................................................................................... VI
ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................... VIII
DEFINITIONS............................................................................................................ IX
ABSTRACT............................................................................................................... XI
CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION.............................................................. 1
1.1 Urban water systems..............................................................................................1
1.1.1 Conventional concepts .......................................................................................2
1.1.2 New developing trends3
1.2 Decision support systems (DSS)............................................................................4
1.2.1 General overview................................................................................................4
1.2.2 Application to urban water systems ....................................................................6
1.3 Scope of the research ............................................................................................7
1.3.1 Research objectives ...........................................................................................7
1.3.2 System Boundaries.............................................................................................7
1.3.3 Application fields.................................................................................................7
CHAPTER 2 NEW CONCEPTION .......................................................................... 9
2.1 Fundamentals of modern urban water systems .....................................................9
2.1.1 Water cycle in cities............................................................................................9
2.1.2 Composition of water system............................................................................10
2.1.3 Hierarchy of urban water system ......................................................................11
2.1.4 Essential components.......................................................................................12
2.1.4.1 water quality ...............................................................................................13
2.1.4.2 intake and treatment facilities.....................................................................17
2.1.4.3 conveying system23
2.1.4.4 water fixtures ..............................................................................................24
2.2 Subsystems..........................................................................................................24
2.2.1 Water usage .....................................................................................................25
2.2.1.1 water end-user ...........................................................................................25
2.2.1.2 end-user’s water usage profile (EUWUP) ..................................................26
II New Conception and Decision Support Model for IUWS
2.2.1.3 estimation...................................................................................................28
2.2.2 Water sources29
2.2.2.1 categorisation .............................................................................................29
2.2.2.2 planning process ........................................................................................31
2.2.3 Desired water supply32
2.2.3.1 options........................................................................................................32
2.2.3.2 planning process33
2.2.4 Used water management..................................................................................34
2.2.4.1 options34
2.2.4.2 planning process36
2.2.5 Rainwater utilisation..........................................................................................38
2.2.5.1 options38
2.2.5.2 planning process ........................................................................................39
2.3 Integrated Urban Water System (IUWS) ..............................................................41
2.3.1 Options .............................................................................................................41
2.3.2 Planning processes45
2.3.3 Demonstration ..................................................................................................46
CHAPTER 3 DECISION SUPPORT MODEL (IUWS-DSM) .................................. 49
3.1 Architecture of IUWS-DSM...................................................................................49
3.2 Planning procedure for water entities...................................................................50
3.2.1 General procedure............................................................................................51
3.2.2 Planning of water entity of GROUP type ..........................................................53
3.2.3 water entity of ZONE type..............................................................54
3.3 Decision making policies......................................................................................55
3.3.1 Water sources...................................................................................................56
3.3.2 Water supply.....................................................................................................58
3.3.3 Used water and rainwater collection.................................................................65
3.3.4 Used water........................................................................................................68
3.3.5 Rainwater..........................................................................................................69
3.4 System evaluation................................................................................................71
3.4.1 System sizes71
3.4.2 Cost estimation.................................................................................................72
3.4.2.1 general methods.........................................................................................72
3.4.2.2 intake and treatment facilities.....................................................................75
3.4.2.3 conveying system.......................................................................................75
3.4.3 Energy assessment ..........................................................................................77
3.5 Option comparison ...............................................................................................79
3.5.1 Water usage .....................................................................................................80
3.5.2 Water infrastructure83
Indices III
3.6 Realisation Method in Software............................................................................86
3.6.1 Concepts...........................................................................................................86
3.6.2 Model engine ....................................................................................................87
3.6.3 Database ..........................................................................................................87
CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION.................................................. 89
4.1 New conception89
4.2 Decision support model (IUWS-DSM)..................................................................91
4.3 Uncertainty of urban water systems .....................................................................92
4.4 Improvement of the IUWS-DSM...........................................................................93
4.5 Prospect of further research for IUWSs ...............................................................94
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY ....................................................................................... 95
REFERENCES......................................................................................................... 99
APPENDICES ........................................................................................................ 107
Appendix 1 Tables built up in database.......................................................................107
Appendix 1.1 Water entities .....................................................................................107
Appendix 1.2 Water sources....................................................................................108
Appendix 1.3 Treatment facilities.............................................................................108
Appendix 1.4 Conveying system..............................................................................109
Appendix 1.5 EUWUP..............................................................................................110
Appendix 1.6 Water standards.................................................................................113
Appendix 2 Case study................................................................................................114
Appendix 2.1 Basic information ...............................................................................114
Appendix 2.1.1 introduction to the city .................................................................114
Appendix 2.1.2 study area....................................................................................114
Appendix 2.2 System planning ................................................................................115
Appendix 2.3 System analyses and discussion .......................................................117
Appendix 2.4 Planning maps and calculation tables................................................119
CURRICULUM VITAE............................................................................................ 146

IV New Conception and Decision Support Model for IUWS
Tables
Table 1: Rainwater quality in different streams (with secondary treated sewage for
comparison) ....................................................................................................................14
Table 2: Categorisation of desired water quality....................................................................15
Table 3: Quality comparison of greywater and urban sewage...............................................16
Table 4: Classification of the inflow of water treatment facilities............................................19
Table 5: water treatment steps20
Table 6: Summation of common disinfection methods ..........................................................21
Table 7: Classification of solids/sludge treatment steps........................................................22
Table 8: Possible source water qualities and their applicability.............................................32
Table 9: System options of desired water system .................................................................34
Table 10: System options of used water – WATER...............................................................37
Table 11: water – MATTER.............................................................37
Table 12: System options of rainwater water – Surface runoff management ........................40
Table 13: ter water – Roof-water utilisation ...................................40
Table 14: System types of water entities in IUWS.................................................................41
Table 15: General matrix for calculating cost and energy consumption of water entity.........42
Table 16: Matrix for calculating cost and energy consumption of CA....................................43
Table 17:st n of UD44
Table 18:st n of WUU ................................45
Table 19: Priority of water sources based on the type of water entity ...................................57
Table 20: Rules for determining the type of distribution systems ..........................................59
Table 21: Water supply options for CA – with SINGLE system .............................................60
Table 22:UD – with SIm61
Table 23:UD – with DUAL system ................................................61
Table 24:WUU – with SINGLE system .........................................63
Table 25: Water supply options for DUAL system .............................................63
Table 26: Possible collection systems and their general priorities ........................................66
Table 27: General rules for determining collection system....................................................67
Table 28: System options and general priorities of used water68
Table 29:s of surface runoff management...................70
Table 30: Evaluation of pipe assets based on statistical data (as pattern)............................71
Table 31: Table of cost functions (or coefficients) for different treatment steps (as pattern).75
Indices V
Table 32: Sheet of average pipe costs based on pipe diameters (as pattern) ......................76
Table 33: Option comparison – within water entities .............................................................84
Table 34: Option comparison – crossing levels.....................................................................85
Table 35: Example projects of IUWSs...................................................................................91
Table 36: Uncertainty of water usage along with city vicissitudes .........................................93

Appendix.Table 1: Information of urban planning – for water entity of ZONE type (CA and
UD)................................................................................................................................107
Appendix.Table 2: Information of urban planning – for water entity of GROUP type (WUU
and WUC) .....................................................................................................................107
Appendix.Table 3: Information of water resources.............................................................108
Appendix.Table 4: Information of treatment trains108
Appendix.Table 5: Information of package plants ..............................................................108
Appendix.Table 6: Information of pipes..............................................................................109
Appendix.Table 7: Information of ancillary works...............................................................109
Appendix.Table 8: Information of the detailed EUWUP .....................................................110
Appendix.Table 9: Summation of the detailed EUWUP112
Appendix.Table 10: General information of water standards .............................................113
Appendix.Table 11: Controlled parameters and values of water standards.......................113
Appendix.Table 12: Basic information of CA and UDs.......................................................123
Appendix.Table 13: Basic information of WUUs and WUCs123
Appendix.Table 14: Water demands and water sources of WUCs ...................................130
Appendix.Table 15:WUUs138
Appendix.Table 16: Used water amounts of WUUs ..........................................................140
Appendix.Table 17: Determination of the water system for WUUs (Scenario 1)...............142
Appendix.Table 18:CA and UDs..........................144
Appendix.Table 19: Used water amounts of CA and UDs ................................................144
Appendix.Table 20: General end-user’s water usage profiles (general EUWUPs) ...........145