Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in broadband radio over fiber systems [Elektronische Ressource] / Ignacio González Insua

Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in broadband radio over fiber systems [Elektronische Ressource] / Ignacio González Insua

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Ignacio González InsuaOptical generation of mm-wave signals for use inbroadband radio over fiber systemsBeiträge aus der InformationstechnikIgnacio González InsuaOptical generation of mm-wave signals for use inbroadband radio over fiber systemsVOGT Dresden 2010Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutsch enNationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet überhttp://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar.Bibliographic Information published by Die Deutsche BibliothekDie Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliogr afie;detailed bibiograpic data is available in the internet at http://dnb.ddb.de.Zugl.: Dresden, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2010Die vorliegende Arbeit stimmt mit dem Original der Dissertation „Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use inbroadband radio over fiber systems“ von Ignacio González Insua überein.© Jörg Vogt Verlag 2010Alle Rechte vorbehalten. All rights reserved.Gesetzt vom AutorISBN 978-3-938860-40-3Jörg Vogt VerlagNiederwaldstr. 3601277 DresdenGermanyPhone: +49-(0)351-31403921Telefax: +49-(0)351-31403918e-mail: in fo @vogtverlag.deInternet : www.vogtverlag.

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Ignacio González Insua Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in broadband radio over fiber systems
Beiträge aus der Informationstechnik
Ignacio González Insua
Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in broadband radio over fiber systems
VOGT Dresden 2010
Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar.
Bibliographic Information published by Die Deutsche Bibliothek Die Deutsche Bibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibiograpic data is available in the internet at http://dnb.ddb.de.
Zugl.: Dresden, Techn. Univ., Diss., 2010
Die vorliegende Arbeit stimmt mit dem Original der Dissertation „Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in broadband radio over fiber systems“ von Ignacio González Insua überein.
© Jörg Vogt Verlag 2010 Alle Rechte vorbehalten. All rights reserved.
Gesetzt vom Autor
ISBN 978-3-938860-40-3
Jörg Vogt Verlag Niederwaldstr. 36 01277 Dresden Germany
Phone: +49-(0)351-31403921 Telefax: +49-(0)351-31403918 e-mail: info@vogtverlag.de Internet : www.vogtverlag.de
Technische Universität Dresden
Optical generation of mm-wave signals for use in
broadband radio over fiber systems
Ignacio González Insua
von der Fakultät Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik der
Technischen Universität Dresden
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktoringenieurs
(Dr.-Ing.)
genehmigte Dissertation
Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr.-Ing. E. Jorswieck Gutachter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. C.G. Schäffer  Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. D. Jäger
Tag der Einreichung 4. September 2009 Tag der Verteidigung 4. Februar 2010
Table of Contents
1
2
3
4
Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1
General system requirements for mobile broadband communication systems.......... 5
2.1
Gigabit wireless communications ....................................................................................... 5
2.2 Millimetre wave propagation .............................................................................................. 7 2.2.1 Free space propagation.................................................................................................................... 7
2.3
Channel capacity .................................................................................................................. 9
2.4 Technical challenges .......................................................................................................... 14 2.4.1 Channel propagation ..................................................................................................................... 14 2.4.2 Antenna technology ...................................................................................................................... 15 2.4.3 Integrated circuit technology......................................................................................................... 17 2.4.4 Modulation schemes...................................................................................................................... 19
2.5 Signal transport schemes: radio over fiber architectures .............................................. 21 2.5.1 Downlink transmission.................................................................................................................. 21 2.5.2 Uplink transmission ...................................................................................................................... 24
Optical methods for microwave signal generation...................................................... 27
3.1 Heterodyned laser techniques ........................................................................................... 27 3.1.1 Mode-locking ................................................................................................................................ 28 3.1.2 Injection-locking ........................................................................................................................... 29 3.1.3 Phase locked loops ........................................................................................................................ 29
3.2
External optical modulators.............................................................................................. 30
Propagation of mm-wave signals in optical waveguides............................................. 33
4.1 Chromatic dispersion......................................................................................................... 34 4.1.1 Chromatic dispersion impaired system ......................................................................................... 37
4.2 IM/DD fiber optic mm-wave links .................................................................................... 41 4.2.1 Unmodulated mm-wave carrier..................................................................................................... 43 4.2.2 Modulated carrier with an intermediate frequency fIF................................................................... 47
4.3 Effects of transmitter chirp ............................................................................................... 51 4.3.1 Directly modulated IF links........................................................................................................... 51 4.3.2 Externally modulated IF links ....................................................................................................... 54
V
Table of Contents
5
6
7
8
4.4
4.5
4.6
Remote heterodyne detection fiber optic mm-wave links .............................................. 57
Phased induced intensity noise ......................................................................................... 63
Polarization mode dispersion ............................................................................................ 65
Electrooptical upconversion methods........................................................................... 69
5.1 Mach-Zehnder modulator................................................................................................. 69 5.1.1 Mach-Zehnder modulator biased at MIN ...................................................................................... 75
5.2 Fiber loop............................................................................................................................ 82 5.2.1 Fiber loop with a phase modulator ................................................................................................ 84 5.2.2 Fiber loop with a semiconductor optical amplifier........................................................................ 96
Comparison of optical heterodyne receiver architectures........................................ 109
6.1 Amplitude shift keying (ASK)......................................................................................... 109 6.1.1 Receivers with coherent demodulation ....................................................................................... 113 6.1.2 Receivers with incoherent demodulation .................................................................................... 115
6.2
6.3
6.4
Phase shift keying (PSK) ................................................................................................. 119
Linewidth effects .............................................................................................................. 121
Overview ........................................................................................................................... 122
System experiments...................................................................................................... 125
7.1 Fiber loop setup................................................................................................................ 125 7.1.1 Fiber loop with phase modulator................................................................................................. 125 7.1.2 Fiber loop with SOA ................................................................................................................... 129
7.2 Broadband radio over fiber wireless access .................................................................. 133 7.2.1 Optical double sideband data modulation ................................................................................... 134 7.2.2 Optical single sideband data modulation..................................................................................... 141 7.2.3 Comparison ODSB vs OSSB ...................................................................................................... 150
7.3 Heterodyned uncorrelated lasers.................................................................................... 153 7.3.1 RF bandwidth .............................................................................................................................. 155 7.3.2 Laser linewidth............................................................................................................................ 156 7.3.3 Simple remote heterodyne with diode detector ........................................................................... 158
7.4
VI
Overview ........................................................................................................................... 163
Summary ....................................................................................................................... 165
Literature .............................................................................................................................. 171
Acknowledgments................................................................................................................. 183
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D
Phase modulation index measurements of PM...................................... 187
Phase modulation index measurement of SOAs.................................... 193
SOA datasheets ......................................................................................... 199
VPI simulation schematics....................................................................... 205
Curriculum Vitae ................................................................................................................. 208
VII
Table of Contents
VIII
List of Constants, Variables and Acronyms
Constants c h kBπq Symbols ααeffαint αLEαMZMa0β B Bnβ2BjC C/NpenCSelCSoptd d0δ D DMDWΔfΔφΔφFM,IMΔgΔLΔL0ΔLpathΔnΔPΔθ ΔTΔ TN ΔλΔτΔτdispΔτpath
Light speed in vacuum Planck’s constant Boltzmann constant pi Electron charge
6 299.7910 m/s -34 2 6.62·10 Ws -23 1.3807·10 J/K 3.1416-19 1.6022·10 As
Fiber loss parameter Effectiveα-factor SOA internal loss Linewidth enhancement factor Chirp parameter of a Mach Zehnder modulator Average optical intensityPropagation constant Bandwidth Noise bandwidth Group velocity dispersion parameter Oscillator strength Channel capacity Carrier to noise penalty Electrical carrier suppression Optical carrier suppression Distance (general) Reference distance Dirac impulse Dispersion parameter Material dispersion Waveguide dispersion Frequency separation Optical phase difference Phase offset between frequency and intensity modulationGain variation Length difference Repetition length of transmission zeros Optical path length difference Birefringence index Power variation Electrical phase difference Pulse broadening Normalized pulse broadening Wavelength spectral width Differential propagation delay Dispersion induced differential propagation delay Path difference induced differential propagation delay
IX