Pedodiversity of southern African drylands [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Andreas Petersen
408 Pages
English
Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Pedodiversity of southern African drylands [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Andreas Petersen

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer
408 Pages
English

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 2008
Reads 28
Language English
Document size 19 MB

Exrait







Pedodiversity of
southern African drylands



Dissertation

zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften
im Department Geowissenschaften
der Universität Hamburg



vorgelegt von

Andreas Petersen
aus
Schmalenfelde


Hamburg
2008













Als Dissertation angenommen vom Department für Geowissenschaften
der Universität Hamburg


Auf Grund der Gutachten von Prof. Dr. Günter Miehlich
Prof. Dr. Eva Maria Pfeiffer Gabriele Broll

Hamburg, den 18.6.2008

Prof. Dr. Kay-Christian Emeis
Leiter des Departments für Geowissenschaften



Content

I. Content
II. Abbreviations and acronyms
III. List of figures
IV. List of tables

I Content


1 THEMATIC BACKGROUND AND GENERAL AIMS ................................................. 1
1.1 BIODIVERSITY, GLOBAL CHANGE AND ITS UNDERSTANDING..................................................... 2
1.2 THE BIOTA SOUTHERN AFRICA PROJECT.................................................................................. 7
1.3 AIMS OF THIS STUDY .................................................................................................................. 9


2 METHODS APPLIED.......................................................................................................13
2.1 SAMPLING SCHEME....................................................................................................................13
2.1.1 Overview of sampling strategies in landscape ecology....................................................14
2.1.2 Development of the sampling procedure in the BIOTA project........................................18
2.2 SOIL RELATED FIELD WORK23
2.3 LABORATORY ANALYSES ..........................................................................................................25
2.4 DATA PROCESSING28
2.4.1 Laboratory........................................................................................................................28
2.4.2 Satellite data, aerial photographs and digital elevation models (DEM)..........................30
2.5 SOIL CLASSIFICATION................................................................................................................31


3 SOIL INVENTORY AND SOIL VARIABILITY ON STUDIED AREAS .................. 33
3.1 OBSERVATORY 01 (MILE 46) & 02 (MUTOMPO) .......................................................................37
3.1.1 Regional overview ............................................................................................................37
3.1.2 Observatory description ...................................................................................................38
3.1.3 Soils ..................................................................................................................................39
3.1.3.1 Main soil units........... 39
3.1.3.2 Remarks on classification.......................................................................................................... 41
3.1.3.3 Description of reference profiles............................................................................................... 42
3.1.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ..................................................................................................... 46






IContent
3.2 OBSERVATORY 03 (SONOP).......................................................................................................49
3.2.1 Regional overview ............................................................................................................49
3.2.2 Observatory description ...................................................................................................50
3.2.3 Soils ..................................................................................................................................52
3.2.3.1 Main soil units........................................................................................................................... 52
3.2.3.2 Remarks on classification.......................................................................................................... 54
3.2.3.3 Description of reference profiles............................................................................................... 55
3.2.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ..................................................................................................... 58

3.3 OBSERVATORY 04 OMATAKO (TOGGEKRY)..............................................................................63
3.3.1 Regional overview63
3.3.2 Observatory description ...................................................................................................65
3.3.3 Soils ..................................................................................................................................66
3.3.3.1 Main soil units........................................................................................................................... 66
3.3.3.2 Remarks on classification.......................................................................................................... 67
3.3.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ................................................................................. 68
3.3.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ..................................................................................................... 75

3.4 OBSERVATORY 05 (ERICHSFELDE / OTJIAMONGOMBE) ............................................................81
3.4.1 Regional overview ............................................................................................................81
3.4.2 Observatory description ...................................................................................................81
3.4.3 Soils ..................................................................................................................................82
3.4.3.1 Main soil units........................................................................................................................... 82
3.4.3.2 Remarks on classification.......................................................................................................... 84
3.4.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ................................................................................. 85
3.4.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ..................................................................................................... 91

3.5 OBSERVATORY 06 (OKAMBORO) ..............................................................................................95
3.5.1 Regional overview ............................................................................................................95
3.5.2 Observatory description ...................................................................................................95
3.5.3 Soils........96
3.5.3.1 Main soil units........................................................................................................................... 96
3.5.3.2 Remarks on classification.......................................................................................................... 98
3.5.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ................................................................................. 99
3.5.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 102

3.6 OBSERVATORIES 39 (NAREIS) AND 40 (DURUCHAUS) ............................................................104
3.6.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................104
3.6.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................104
3.6.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................106
3.6.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 106
3.6.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 108
3.6.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 109
3.6.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 113
II Content
3.7 OBSERVATORIES 10 (GELLAP OST) AND 11 (NABAOS)...........................................................117
3.7.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................117
3.7.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................117
3.7.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................118
3.7.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 118
3.7.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 120
3.7.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 121
3.7.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 127

3.8 OBSERVATORY 16 WLOTZKASBAKEN.....................................................................................131
3.8.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................131
3.8.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................132
3.8.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................134
3.8.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 134
3.8.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 135
3.8.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 136
3.8.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 137

3.9 OBSERVATORY 17 ALPHA .......................................................................................................140
3.9.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................140
3.9.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................142
3.9.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................143
3.9.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 143
3.9.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 145
3.9.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 145
3.9.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 148

3.10 INTRODUCTION TO THE WINTER RAINFALL AREA ...................................................................151

3.11 THE RICHTERSVELD151

3.12 OBSERVATORY 18 KOEROEGABVLAKTE.................................................................................152
3.12.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................152
3.12.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................153
3.12.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................155
3.12.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 155
3.12.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 156
3.12.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 157
3.12.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 160







IIIContent

3.13 OBSERVATORY 20 NUMEES.....................................................................................................167
3.13.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................167
3.13.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................167
3.13.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................169
3.13.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 169
3.13.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 170
3.13.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 171
3.13.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 173

3.14 OBSERVATORY 21 GROOT DERM / YELLOW DUNE.................................................................177
3.14.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................177
3.14.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................177
3.14.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................178
3.14.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 178
3.14.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 178
3.14.3.3 Description of selected reference profile................................................................................. 179
3.14.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 181

3.15 OBSERVATORY 22 SOEBATSFONTEIN / QUAGGASFONTEIN.....................................................183
3.15.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................183
3.15.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................186
3.15.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................187
3.15.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 187
3.15.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 188
3.15.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 189
3.15.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 194

3.16 OBSERVATORIES 24 (LELIEFONTEIN/PAULSHOEK) & 25 (REMHOOGTE)................................199
3.16.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................199
3.16.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................200
3.16.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................201
3.16.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 201
3.16.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 203
3.16.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 204
3.16.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 209
IV Content

3.17 OBSERVATORIES 26 FLAMINKVLAKTE (GOODEHOP) & 27 LUIPERSKOP (RATELGAT) ..........214
3.17.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................214
3.17.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................215
3.17.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................216
3.17.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 216
3.17.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 218
3.17.3.3 Description of selected reference profiles ............................................................................... 219
3.17.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 224

3.18 OBSERVATORY 32 ELANDSBERG............................................................................................229
3.18.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................229
3.18.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................230
3.18.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................231
3.18.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 231
3.18.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 232
3.18.3.3 Description of selected reference profile................................................................................. 233
3.18.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 234

3.19 Observatory 33 CAPE PENINSULA NATIONAL PARK ............................................................237
3.19.1 Regional overview ..........................................................................................................237
3.19.2 Observatory description .................................................................................................238
3.19.3 Soils ................................................................................................................................240
3.19.3.1 Main soil units......................................................................................................................... 240
3.19.3.2 Remarks on classification........................................................................................................ 241
3.19.3.3 Description of selected reference profile................................................................................. 242
3.19.3.4 Discussion of soil properties ................................................................................................... 245


4 CONCLUDING DISCUSSION AND REMARKS OF THE SOIL INVENTORY
ALONG THE TRANSECT ............................................................................................. 247


5 THE CONCEPTS OF BIODIVERSITY AND PEDODIVERSITY............................ 255
5.1 BIODIVERSITY: DEVELOPMENT AND MEANING .......................................................................256
5.2 BY: THE PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT ...............................................................257
5.3 GEODIVERSITY: DEVELOPMENT, MEANING AND USE..............................................................269
5.4 PEDODIVERSITY: DMENT, MEANING AND APPLICATION.............................................273
5.4.1 Description and classification of soil heterogeneity ......................................................273
5.4.2 Literature review on pedodiversity.................................................................................275

VContent

6 QUANTIFICATION OF PEDODIVERSITY FOR THE STUDY AREAS WITH
DIFFERENT APPROACHES ........................................................................................ 283
6.1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................283
6.2 PEDODIVERSITY BASED ON TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO WRB ..................288
6.2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................288
6.2.2 Methods..288
6.2.3 Results.....289
6.2.4 Discussion of the taxonomic classification approach.....................................................293
6.3 PEDODIVERSITY BASED ON PARAMETRIC CLASSIFICATION.....................................................295
6.3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................................295
6.3.2 Methods ..........................................................................................................................295
6.3.3 Results.....301
6.3.4 Discussion of the parametric classification approach ...................................................309
6.4 PEDODIVERSITY DERIVED FROM PARAMETRIC SPACE (ENVIRONMENTAL ENVELOPE) ...........311
6.4.1 Introduction.311
6.4.2 Methods..313
6.4.3 Results.....315
6.4.4 Discussion of parametric space approach .....................................................................323
6.5 TOPODIVERSITY OF THE OBSERVATORIES ...............................................................................325
6.6 SOIL INVENTORY AREA CURVES..............................................................................................327
6.7 CORRELATION BETWEEN PEDO- AND BIODIVERSITY..............................................................329


7 CONCLUDING DISCUSSION OF APPLIED PEDODIVERSITY ANALYSES..... 333
7.1 DATA REQUIREMENT AND METHODOLOGY.............................................................................333
7.2 SENSITIVITY OF METHODS.......................................................................................................335
7.3 CORRELATION TO PHYTODIVERSITY .......................................................................................338
7.4 CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES............................................................................................343


8 SUMMARY....................................................................................................................... 349
9 ZUSAMMENFASSUNG.................................................................................................352
10 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.........................................................................................355
11 REFERENCES.............................................................................................................357
12 APPENDICES..............................................................................................................375


VI
II Abbreviations and acronyms

AM-extractable NH -acetate extractable 4
asl Above sea level
Biodiversity Monitoring Transect in Africa BIOTA
BSC Biological soil crust
CC Calcium carbonate
CEC Cation Exchange Capacity
DEM Digital elevation model
DGPS Differential GPS
DOC Dissolved organic carbon
EC Electric conductivity in 1:2.5 solution 2.5
EC y in 1:5 solution 5
EC y in saturated paste e
Dithionite soluble iron Fed
Fe Oxalate soluble iron o
GEOSS Global earth observation system of systems
GPS Global position system
GTOS Global terrestrial observing system
IGBP International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme
INSPIRE Infrastructure for spatial information in Europe
Mpa Mega-Pascal
n.a. Not analysed
OC Organic carbon
Osmotic potential OP
RS Rooting space (%)
SET Soil eco type
SRTM Shuttle radar topography mission
-1TRB Total reserve in bases (cmol kg ) c
WRB World Reference Base for Soil Resources



VIIList of figures
III List of figures
Figure 1 Pedodiversity as an integrative parameter for abiotic diversity......................................... 7
Figure 2 BIOTA Southern Africa transect with observatory locations............................................ 8
Figure 3 Major research fields and structural elements of this study............................................. 10
Figure 4 Result of the ranking procedure at the observatory „Toggekry“..................................... 22
Figure 5 Overview of texture classifications and abbreviations used in this study. ..................... 24
Figure 6 Overview of the BIOTA Southern Africa transect incl. the location of the
observatories relevant for this study............................................................................... 33
Figure 7 Topography of observatory #02 Mutompo...................................................................... 39
Figure 8 Soil map of obs. #02 Mutompo with ha-grid, position and number of soil profiles
and elevation model ....................................................................................................... 40
Figure 9 Frequency distribution of WRB (1998) soil units in observatory #02 (Mutompo) ......... 40
Figure 10 Description of profile 113................................................................................................ 42
Figure 11 Properties of profile 113.................................................................................................. 43
Figure 12 Description of profile 105 44
Figure 13 Properties of profile 105 45
Figure 14 Variability of selected soil properties for the obs. #01 and #02 ...................................... 46
Figure 15 Results of the texture analyses for the observatory #02 Mutompo.................................. 47
Figure 16 Elevation model by SRTM data of the area around Sonop observatory ......................... 50
Figure 17 Location of the observatory #03 (Sonop) and topographic situation............................... 51
Figure 18 Distribution of habitat types in observatory #03 (Sonop)................................................ 51
Figure 19 Frequency distribution of WRB (FAO 1998) soil units in observatory #03 (Sonop)...... 52
Figure 20 Soil map of obs. #03 Sonop with ha-grid, position and number of soil profiles ............. 53
Figure 21 DEM of the observatory Sonop with soil transect........................................................... 54
Figure 22 Description of profile 122................................................................................................ 55
Figure 23 Properties of profile 122.................................................................................................. 56
Figure 24 Description of profile 128 57
Figure 25 Properties of profile 128 58
Figure 26 Variability of selected soil properties for the observatory #03........................................ 59
Figure 27 Results of the texture analyses for the observatory #03 Sonop ....................................... 59
Figure 28 Soil moisture behaviour of two different sites over the rainy season 2005..................... 61
Figure 29 Scheme of soil water dynamics in the dune / interdune system ...................................... 62
Figure 30 Satellite picture of the region around the observatories #04 (Toggekry) and #05
(Otjiamongombe) with marked farm border .................................................................. 64
Figure 31 Extract of the geological map 1:250,000 (Okahandja) of the region around the
observatories #04 (Toggekry) and #05 (Otjiamongombe) ............................................. 64
Figure 32 Overview of the habitat types of the observatory #04 (Toggekry).................................. 65
Figure 33 Distribution of soil units on the observatory #04 (Toggekry) ......................................... 66
Figure 34 Frequency distribution of WRB soil units in observatory #04 (Toggekry)..................... 67
Figure 35 Description of profile 31.................................................................................................. 68
Figure 36 Properties of profile 31.................................................................................................... 69
Figure 37 Description of profile 39 70
Figure 38 Properties of profile 39 71
Figure 39 Description of profile 35 72
Figure 40 Properties of profile 35 73
Figure 41 Description of profile 50 74
VIII