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Peer-to-peer networking in heterogeneous communication environments [Elektronische Ressource] / Stefan R. Zöls

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173 Pages
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Technische Universitat Munchen¨ ¨Lehrstuhl fur Kommunikationsnetze¨Peer-to-Peer Networking in HeterogeneousCommunication EnvironmentsStefan R. Zo¨lsVollstandiger Abdruck der von der Fakultat fur Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik¨ ¨ ¨der Technischen Universita¨t Mu¨nchen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades einesDoktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.)genehmigten Dissertation.Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. sc. techn. Andreas HerkersdorfPru¨fer der Dissertation: 1. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. J¨org Eberspa¨cher2. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Wehrle,Rheinisch-Westfa¨lische Technische Hochschule AachenDie Dissertation wurde am 18.06.2008 bei der Technischen Universita¨t Mu¨ncheneingereicht und durch die Fakultat fur Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik¨ ¨am 26.11.2008 angenommen.DEDICATED TO MY WONDERFUL WIFE SUSIAbstractThis thesis analyzes requirements and develops solutions for the efficient use of the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) principle in heterogeneous communication environments. These are char-acterized by a large diversity in the resources of participating devices, in the appliednetwork access technology, and in the user behavior. In this context we focus on struc-tured P2P systems that are based on a distributed hash table (DHT).Wepresentmeasurementsshowingthatstate-of-the-artDHTscanhardlybeappliedinheterogeneous communication environments, and thus propose a hybrid design schemefor DHTs. In addition, we analyze different hierarchical DHT architectures.

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Technische Universitat Munchen¨ ¨
Lehrstuhl fur Kommunikationsnetze¨
Peer-to-Peer Networking in Heterogeneous
Communication Environments
Stefan R. Z¨ols
Vollstandiger Abdruck der von der Fakultat fur Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik¨ ¨ ¨
der Technischen Universit¨at Mu¨nchen zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.)
genehmigten Dissertation.
Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. sc. techn. Andreas Herkersdorf
Pru¨fer der Dissertation: 1. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. J¨org Eberspa¨cher
2. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Wehrle,
Rheinisch-Westfa¨lische Technische Hochschule Aachen
Die Dissertation wurde am 18.06.2008 bei der Technischen Universita¨t Mu¨nchen
eingereicht und durch die Fakultat fur Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik¨ ¨
am 26.11.2008 angenommen.DEDICATED TO MY WONDERFUL WIFE SUSIAbstract
This thesis analyzes requirements and develops solutions for the efficient use of the Peer-
to-Peer (P2P) principle in heterogeneous communication environments. These are char-
acterized by a large diversity in the resources of participating devices, in the applied
network access technology, and in the user behavior. In this context we focus on struc-
tured P2P systems that are based on a distributed hash table (DHT).
Wepresentmeasurementsshowingthatstate-of-the-artDHTscanhardlybeappliedin
heterogeneous communication environments, and thus propose a hybrid design scheme
for DHTs. In addition, we analyze different hierarchical DHT architectures. For this
purpose, we develop an analytical cost model for system optimization. Based on this
model, wecomparedifferentarchitecturesandprovideafullsetofdistributedalgorithms
to achieve and maintain an optimal system operation.
vZusammenfassung
Diese Arbeit analysiert Anforderungen und entwickelt Losungen zur effizienten Nutzung¨
desPeer-to-Peer(P2P)PrinzipsineinemheterogenenKommunikationsumfeld. Letzteres
zeichnetsichdurchUnterschiedeindenRessourcenderbeteiligtenGerate,inderverwen-¨
deten Netzzugangstechnologie und im Nutzerverhalten aus. Dabei wird der Fokus auf
strukturierte P2P-Systeme gelegt, die auf einer verteilten Hashtabelle (DHT) basieren.
Auf Grundlage von Messungen, die zeigen, dass herk¨ommliche DHTs kaum in einem
heterogenen Kommunikationsumfeld verwendet werden k¨onnen, wird ein hybrides Sys-
temkonzept fur DHTs vorgeschlagen. Ferner werden verschiedene hierarchische DHT-¨
ArchitekturenanalysiertunddazueinanalytischesKostenmodellzurSystemoptimierung
erstellt. Basierend auf diesem Modell werden verschiedene Architekturen verglichen und
einkompletterSatzverteilterAlgorithmenentwickelt,umeinenoptimalenSystembetrieb
zu gewahrleisten.¨
viiAcknowledgements
When I started my doctoral studies in the area of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems in 2004,
I quickly noticed that P2P networking means much more than just file sharing. The
sophisticated algorithms, necessary to operate a continuously changing system without a
central coordination entity, aroused my interest. At that time, the mainstream research
on P2P systems focused on fixed IP networks and usually assumed functionally equal
peers. Nevertheless, Prof. Dr. J¨org Ebersp¨acher suggested to investigate the possibilities
and challengesof extendingthe P2P paradigmto heterogeneouscommunicationenviron-
ments, characterized by a large diversity of the participating peers. Today, four years
later, I hope this thesis can make a considerable contribution to this research field and
propose suitable solutions for future communication networks.
During my research activities, I had the pleasure of working with many great people.
First and foremost, I would like to thank my advisor Prof. Dr. Jorg Eberspacher for his¨ ¨
continuous support, his great confidence and the fantastic working atmosphere at the
Lehrstuhl fur Kommunikationsnetze (LKN). The“Spirit of LKN”is not just a phrase, it¨
really exists! I am also very pleased that Prof. Dr. Klaus Wehrle is the second examiner
of this thesis. At several conferences and workshops, I got to know him not only as a
great scientist but also as a very nice person.
Theresultspresentedinthisthesiswouldnothavebeenpossiblewithouttheoutstand-
inglongtimecooperationbetweenourinstituteandNTTDoCoMoEuro-LabsinMunich,
Germany. During my whole time at LKN, I enjoyed the excellent collaboration with
Dr. Wolfgang Kellerer, Dr. Zoran Despotovic, Anthony Tarlano and Maximilian Michel,
our fruitful technical discussions and, not to forget, all our nice conference travels.
The working environment at LKN was very motivating and inspiring for me and made
me always feel at home. Therefore, I thank all my current and former colleagues at
LKN. In particular, I would like to thank Dr. Martin Maier, Sabine Strauß and Thomas
Kurzhalsfortheirgreatorganizationalandtechnicalsupport. Furthermore,thetechnical
discussions with Dr. Ru¨diger Schollmeier, Dr. Ingo Gruber, Gerald Kunzmann, Quirin
Hofstatter, Christoph Spleiß, Oliver Hanka, Michael Eichhorn, Stephan Eichler, Robert¨
Nagel,RobertVilzmann,SimonSchubertandmanyotherswerealwayshighlyinteresting
and resulted in numerous ideas for my work.
Last but not least, I would like to thank my beloved family and all my friends for their
continuous and unconditional support. A very special thanks goes to my wonderful wife
Susi. You are always there whenever I need you, you support me wherever possible, and
you make – by far – the most delicate cakes in the world! Thank you so much!
Munich, Germany, June 2008 Stefan Zols¨
ix