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Plant Functional Types for Land Surface Modelling in South Ecuador [Elektronische Ressource] : Spatial Delineation, Sensitivity and Parameter Determination / Dietrich Göttlicher. Betreuer: Jörg Bendix

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137 Pages
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PlantrameterFyTDelineation,ypPesforrSpatialLandSensitivitSurfaceandMoadellingDeterminationinhSouthherEcuadoMarburgPlantderFdemThaftenypbesvfoausrderLandrer.SurfaceacMohdellingersit?tinvSouthEcuado(WrLahnSpatial(Dr.Delineation,nat)SensitivitFyhandPGeographieaPhilipps-UnivrameterMarburgDeterminationorgelegtKumonulativheherDissertationMarlzurestf.)Erlangung/des2010DoktorgradesDr.AlsDr.DissertationJuliveitgutacomagFter:acBendixhter:bNaussDisputation:hhGeographieProf.derJ?rgPhilipps-UnivZwersit?thMarburgProf.amThomas23.TJunider201014.angenommen.2010ailabilitPrefaceHomeierASctwledged.theandendusefulofathehallenginghtimehBanforumeroushaftshorteldwtripststotothetbat,eau-mantifulFmounthanktainstudiesforestsWoftSouththeEcuador,1780/15-1,Ihahawvbuteandtoappreciated.thankultiplethoseork.paersonswwhoVpaniedwmevonthethe816waIy(Univtohelpnishectrometerthisofwyork.theFirstwofasallorscImhaisvweeentoopthankymyyofsupusedervisorJ?rgeryBendix.thankHebrotherhaden-opofenIearsyathildrenalltimeshomeandrealwithoutmeJuneinPmanScyandscienIticthankfuldiscussions.

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Published 01 January 2011
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Exrait


Plant
rameter
F
y


T
Delineation,
yp
P
es

fo
r
r
Spatial
Land
Sensitivit
Surface
and
Mo
a
delling
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in
h
South
her
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Plant
der
F
dem


T
haften
yp
b
es
v
fo
aus
r
der
Land
rer.
Surface
ac
Mo
h
delling
ersit?t
in
v
South

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(W
r
Lahn


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(Dr.
Delineation,
nat)
Sensitivit
F
y
h
and

P
Geographie
a
Philipps-Univ
rameter
Marburg
Determination
orgelegt
Kum
on
ulativ
h
e
her
Dissertation
Marl
zur
estf.)
Erlangung
/
des
2010
DoktorgradesDr.
Als
Dr.
Dissertation
Juli
v
eitgutac
om
ag
F
ter:
ac
Bendix
h
ter:
b
Nauss

Disputation:
h
h
Geographie
Prof.
der
J?rg
Philipps-Univ
Zw
ersit?t
h
Marburg
Prof.
am
Thomas
23.
T
Juni
der
2010
14.
angenommen.
2010
ailabilit
Preface
Homeier
A
Sc
t
wledged.
the
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useful
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tic
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ecial
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life
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b
assistan
pursued
ts
a
Miriam



helaf,
Marburg,
Meik
2010
e
K?hnlein,3
Contents
.
1
.
Intro
.

.
1
.
1.1
.
Motiv
.
ation
.
.
.
.
.
.
Results
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
and
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Application
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
31
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
.
1.2
.
Aims
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
the
.
.
.
.
.
run
.
.
.
.
.
References
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
and
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
dology
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
37
.
.
.
.
.
.
2
3.3.2
1.3
hannel
Study
.
outline
3.3.3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
44
.
.
.
.
.
44
.
scene
.
.
.
in
.
.
.
48
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4
.
1.4
.
Study
References
Area
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Delineation
.
tro
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Study
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.3
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
.
References
.
.
.
.
Pre-pro
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
raining
.
thetic
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.3.4
.
t
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
43
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
7
.
2
.
Conceptual
.
Design
MLC
11
ETM+
2.1
.
Land
.
Surface
.
Mo
.
dels
Soft
.
Landsat
.
.
.
.
.
47
.

.
mo
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Conclusions
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
11
V
2.1.1
.
The
.
Role
.
of
.
Land
.
Surface
.
Mo
.
dels
.
.
19
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
11
.
2.1.2
.
Ev
.
olution
21
of
Spatial
Land
30
Surface
In
Mo

dels
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.2
11
area
2.1.3
data
Ov
.
erview
.
of
.
Land
.
Surface
.
Mo
.
dels
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
34
.
Metho
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
12
.
2.1.4
.
Characteristics
.
of
.
the
.
CLM
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.3.1
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
37
.
T
13
Sites
2.1.5
syn


Making
.
of
.
the
.
Land
.
Surface
.
Mo
.
del
.
.
39
.
Classication
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
17
.
2.2
.
Plan
.
t
.
F
.

42
T
A
yp
assessmen
es
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
17
.
2.2.1
.
The
.
Concept
.
of
3.4.1
PFT
of
.
Landsat
.
scene
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.4.2
.

.
the
.
ETM+
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3.5
.
of
.
results
.
a
17
del
2.2.2
.
PFT
.
s
.
for
.
the
.
Study
.
Area
3.6
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
52
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
19
.
2.3
.
Implemen
.
tation
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
52
.
.ectra
Con
.
ten
.
ts
.
4
egetation
Sensitivit

y
.
of
.
PFT
.
P
.
a
.
rameter
.
58
.
4.1
.
In
.
tro
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Prop
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.2
.
.
.
115
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
99
.
.
.
.
.
Prop
.
.
.
.
.
Conclusions
.
.
.
.
.
.
59
.
4.2
.
Sensitivit
.
y
and
study
.
setup
.
.
.
.
.
.
Mo
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
120
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
96
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Cluster
.
.
.
.
.
99
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
T
.
.
61
.
4.3
Clusters

.
of
.
v
CLM
egetation
.

.
and
F
soil
.
parameters
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
endix
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
62
.
4.3.1
.
Mon
.
thly
.
v
108
egetation
6.1
heigh
.
t
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
W
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
VI
62
.
4.3.2
.
Leaf
.
and
.
stem
.
area
.
index
.
.
Cluster
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
96
.
ersus
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Discussion
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
69
.
4.3.3
.
Soil

prop
V
erties
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.4.2
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.4.3
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
102
.
erties
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
106
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
69
.
4.4
.

5.6
of
.
the
.
parametrization
.
of
.
the
.
plan
.
t
.
functional
.
t
108
yp
.
es
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
76
.
4.5
.
Summary
Summa
and
ok

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ok
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.2.1
.
Runs
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
F
84
.
References
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
118
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Zusammenfassung
.
Sp
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.3.2
.
Analysis
.
.
.
.
.
.
85
.
5
.
Quantication
.
of
.

.
Prop
.
erties
.
87
.
5.1
.
In
.
tro
5.3.3

v
.
V
.
Unit
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.4.1
.
and
.

88
alues
5.2
.
Metho
.
ds
.
and
.
Material
.
.
.
.
99
.

.
erties
.
the
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
101
.

.
erties
.
the
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
90
5.4.4
5.2.1
Prop
Study
of
site
ORMIND
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.5
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
106
.
App
.
.
.
.
90
.
5.2.2
.
Measuremen
.
ts
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
References
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
90
.
5.2.3
.
Collected
.
Plan
6
ts
ry
and
Outlo
V
113
egetation
Summary
Units
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
93
.
5.2.4
.

113
.
Outlo
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
115
.
Preliminary
.
del
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
94
.
5.3
.
Results
6.2.2
.
uture
.
ork
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
References
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
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.
.
.
.
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.
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.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
96
7
5.3.1
121
Plan
tfrom
List
w
of
of
Figures
.
1.1
.
Study
.
outline
for
.
.
.
egetation
.
at
.
.
.
and
.
.
.
at
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.2
.
.
.
the
.
.
.
Results
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
66
.
.
.
.
4
.
1.2
.
Study
from
area
.
.
.
.
.
.
erimen
.
.
.
97
.

.
.
.
.
.
97
.
ear
.
rate
.
3.9
.
single
.
.
.
.
.
daily
.
individual
.
temp
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
64
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ap
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ux
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
Air
2.1
o
Sc
.

.
o
68
v
and
erview
.
of
.
the
.
CLM
.
.
.
.
setup
.
.
.
.
.
measuring
.
.
.
of
.
.
.
the
.
di-
.
the
.
ecies
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
48
.
a
.
del
.
y
.
.
14
.
2.2
lo
Sc
w


o
.
v
.
erview
.
of
.
the
3.10
nested
y
subgrid
w
system

of
4.1
the
.
CLM
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
15
.
2.3
T
Sc
egetation

.
distribution
.
of
.
PFT
.
s
.
and
4.3

from

.
traits
.
to
.
describ
.
e
.
mixed
.
biomes
Sensible
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
67
.
umidit
.
m
.
e
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Lo
.
study
.
egetation
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
erimen
.
measuring
18
.
2.4
.
Conceptual
.
design
5.3
of
setup
the
.
study
.
.
.
.
5.4
.
single
.
sp
.
.
.
Dendrogram
.
analysis
.
data.
.
heigh
.

.
b
.
the
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
20
I
3.1
3.8
Study
of
site
1-y
.
mo
.
run
.

.
transpiration
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
50
.
Close-up
.
ok
.
t
.
o
.
grid
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
50
.
Aggregated
.

.
transpiration
.
t
.
o
.
grid
.
.
.
51
.
Air
.
erature
35
.
3.2
.
Flo
.
w
.

.
hart
.
of
.
the
.
pro
.

.
steps
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.2
.
ranspiration
.
v
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
65
.
Ev
38
oration
3.3
v

.
and
.

.

.

.
osites
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.4
.
heat
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
39
.
3.4
.
Lo
.

.
of
.
the
.
training
.
sites
.
.
.
.
4.5
.
h
.
y
.
2
.
ab
.
v
.
ground
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5.1
.

.
the
.
site
.
v
41
units
3.5
satellite
Classication

result
.
of
.
the
.
ETM+
.
scene
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
91
.
Exp
.
tal
.
for
.

45
.
3.6
.
P
.

.
tages
.
of
.
land-co
93
v
Exp
er
tal

for
.
transmittance.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
93
.
Example
.
three
.

.
transmittance
.
ectra.
.
.
.
.
.
5.5
.
of
.

.
of
.

.
The
.
mensionless
46
t
3.7
the
Results
of
of
links
the
et
soft
een

sp
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
VI
.
..
List
.
of
air
Figures
del
5.6
preliminary
Dendrogram
the
of
105
the
.

preliminary
analysis
.
of
and
the
v
transmittance
.
data.
whic
The
.
dimensionless
.
heigh
Distribution
t
.

.
the
Changes

2
of
from
the
data
of
in
the
.
links
.
b
PFT
et
in
w
.
een
.
the
.
sp
.
ecies
.
.
v
.
.
.
6.3
.
for
.
119
.
103
.
for
.
erature
.
heigh
.
sensible
.
egetation
.
CLM
.
the
.
presen
.
study
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Distribution
.
v
.
are
.
preliminary
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
116
98
PFT
5.7
in
Dendrogram
del
of
.
the
.

of
analysis
del
of
y
the
.

I
bined
.

5.10
and
in
transmittance
the
data.
temp
The
in
dimensionless
m
heigh
t
t
the

heat
the
v

using
of
original
the

links
and
b
measured
et
alues
w
ted
een
this
the
.
sp
.
ecies
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
6.1
.
of
.

.
er
.
h
.
stable
.
the
.
mo
.
runs
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
98
.
5.8
.
V
.
alues
.
of
.

.
in
.
the
.
visible
.
and
.
near
.
infrared
.

6.2
.
of
.

.
er
.
the
.
mo
.
runs
102
.
5.9
.
V
.
alues
117
of
Results
transmittance
the
in
mo
the
runs
visible

and
transpiration
near
.
infrared
.

VI
.
I
.from
List
.
of
.
T
.
ables
.
3.1
and
Land-co
of
v
.
er
.

from
and

training
near
sites
.
.
endency
.
the
.
.
.
.
.
from
.
.
.
.
.
t
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
4.8
.
.
.
.
.
Mean
.
for
.
.
40
4.11
3.2
ariables
Con
.

4.12
matrix
ariables
.
.
.
4.13
.
ariables
.
.
.
5.1
.
ectrometer.
.
.
.
deriv
.
.
.
of
.
the
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
to
.
%
.
.
.
output
.
.
.
.
.
relativ
.
of
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
and
44
alues
3.3
.
Comparison
.
of
.
the
.

and

alues
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
and
.
alues
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
sp
.
from
.
of
.
v
.
5.3
.

.
the
.
frequency
.
.
46
5.4
3.4
in
P
all
arameters
v
for
.
the
.
plan
.
t
.
functional
.
t
.
yp
.
es
.
.
parameters
.

.
than
.
.
.
.
.
4.9
.
the
.
alues
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
78
.
alues
.
deviations
.
v
.
v
49
.
4.1
.
Mo
.
dication
.
of
.
input
.
parameters
.
.
.
.
v
.
e
.
mean
.
output
.
shrubs
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
v
.
e
.
mean
.
output
.
C3
.
.
.
.
63
.
4.2
.
T
.
endency
.
of
.
the
v

e
.
mean
.
output
.
C4
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
ec
.
of
.
o
.
used
.
5.2
.
ecies,
.
and
.
units.
.
.
.
b
.
ecies
.
b
.
PFT
70

4.3
relativ
Absolute
.
v
.
alues
.
and
.
relativ
v
e
and
deviation
visible
from

the

mean
standard
v
.
alue
.
for
.
the
.
air
.
temp
.
erature
.
.
.
.
.
.
104
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
75
.
PFT
.
leading
.
a
.
hange
.
more
.
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
77
.
Dep
.
of
.

.
v
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
71
.
4.4
.
Absolute
.
v
4.10
alues
v
and
and
relativ
e
e
from
deviation
mean
from
alues
the
output
mean
ariables
v
trees
alue
.
for
.
the
.
sp
.

.
air
.
h
.
umidit
.
y
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
80
.
Mean
.
alues
.
relativ
.
deviations
.
the
.
v
.
of
.
v
.
for
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
72
.
4.5
.
Absolute
81
v
Mean
alues
alues
and
relativ
relativ
deviations
e
the
deviation
v
from
of
the
v
mean
for
v
grass
alue
.
for
.
the
.
sensible
.
heat
.
ux
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
82
.
Mean
.
alues
.
relativ
.
deviations
.
the
.
v
.
of
.
v
.
for
.
grass
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
73
.
4.6
.
Absolute
83
v
T
alues
hnical
and

relativ
the
e
w
deviation
sensors
from
the
the
sp
mean
92
v
List
alue
sp
for
referring
the
des
ev
dominate
ap
egetation
oration
.
from
.
v
95
egetation
Num
.
er
.
sp
.
of
.
h
.
otanically
.
ed
.
against
.

.

.
their
.
e
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
100
.
Calculated
.
alues
.

.
transmittance
74
the
4.7
and
Absolute
infrared
v
for
alues
trees
and
to
relativ
CLM
e
input
deviation
alue
from
.
the
.
mean
.
v
.
alue
.
for
.
the
.
transpiration
.
from
.
v
.
egetation
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
IX
.v
List

of
.
T
and
ables
.
5.5
.
Calculated
alues
v
and
alues
all
of
.

.
in
107
the
transmittance
visible
the
and
infrared
near
dominan
infrared
unit

sp
for
108
the
.
b
.
otanically
.
deriv
.
ed
5.6
PFT
and
s
v
.
in
.
visible
.
near
.

.
the
.
t
.
egetation
.
for
.
measured
.
ecies
.
.
.
X
.