416 Pages
English

Plant parasitic Asterinaceae and Microthyriaceae from the Neotropics (Panama) [Elektronische Ressource] / submitted by Tina A. Hofmann

Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

Description

Plant parasitic Asterinaceae and Microthyriaceae from the Neotropics (Panama) Dissertation for the degree as a doctor of sciences The Faculty of Biological Sciences at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University submitted by Tina A. Hofmann from Karl-Marx-Stadt Frankfurt am Main Germany 2009 vom Fachbereich Biowissenschaften der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität als Dissertation angenommen Dekan Prof. Dr. Volker Müller Gutachter Prof. Dr. Meike Piepenbring PD Dr. Roland Kirschner Datum der Disputation Table of contents Table of contens .................................................................................... I-V 1 Introducion ......................................................................................................... 1 1.1 The bitunicate ascomycetes ........................................................................ 1 1.1.1 The ascomata .................................................................................. 1 1.1.2 The hamathecium ........................................................................... 3 1.1.3 The bitunicate ascus ....................................................................... 3 1.1.4 The ascospores ................................................................................ 5 1.1.5 Anamorphs of bitunicate ascomycetes ...........................................

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 2009
Reads 94
Language English
Document size 19 MB







Plant parasitic Asterinaceae and
Microthyriaceae from the Neotropics
(Panama)




Dissertation
for the degree as a doctor of sciences



The Faculty of Biological Sciences
at the
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University



submitted by
Tina A. Hofmann
from Karl-Marx-Stadt

Frankfurt am Main
Germany
2009


















vom Fachbereich Biowissenschaften der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-
Universität als Dissertation angenommen



Dekan
Prof. Dr. Volker Müller

Gutachter
Prof. Dr. Meike Piepenbring
PD Dr. Roland Kirschner

Datum der Disputation
Table of contents

Table of contens .................................................................................... I-V

1 Introducion ......................................................................................................... 1
1.1 The bitunicate ascomycetes ........................................................................ 1
1.1.1 The ascomata .................................................................................. 1
1.1.2 The hamathecium ........................................................................... 3
1.1.3 The bitunicate ascus ....................................................................... 3
1.1.4 The ascospores ................................................................................ 5
1.1.5 Anamorphs of bitunicate ascomycetes ........................................... 5
1.1.6 Classification of bitunicate ascomycetes ........................................ 6
1.2. Asterinaceae, Microthyriaceae and other thyriothecioid ascomycetes ....... 7
1.2.1 Families of thyriothecioid ascomycetes ......................................... 7
1.2.2 Ecology ........................................................................................... 8
1.2.3 Morphology .................................................................................... 9
1.2.4 Life cycle of plant pathogenic Asterinaceae .................................. 15
1.2.5 Anamorphs of thyriothecioid ascomycetes .................................... 16
1.2.6 History of the classification of Asterinaceae and Microthyriaceae. 18
1.2.7 Molecular phylogenetic studies of thyriothecioid ascomycetes ..... 21
1.2.8 Thyriothecioid ascomycetes in Western Panama ........................... 21
1.3. Plant parasitic micromycetes of Panama (ppMP Project) 23
2 Material and methods ........................................................................................ 24
2.1 Field work in Western Panama ................................................................... 24
2.1.1 The country Panama ....................................................................... 24
2.1.2 Field work in Western Panama ....................................................... 25
2.2 Identification of host plants ........................................................................ 26
2.3 Fresh leaf material ....................................................................................... 29
2.4 Light microscopy 31
2.4.1 Reagents for light microscopy ........................................................ 31
2.5 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 32
2.6 Transmission electron micrscopy (TEM) ................................................... 32
2.7 Cultivation experiments .............................................................................. 33
2.7.1 Culture media ................................................................................. 33
2.8 Herbaria ....................................................................................................... 34
2.9 Molecular analysis ...................................................................................... 34
I Table of contents
2.9.1 Material used for molecular analysis .............................................. 34
2.9.2 Isolation of genomic DNA ............................................................. 34
2.9.3 PCR ................................................................................................. 38
2.9.4 DNA sequencing ............................................................................ 39
2.9.5 Analysis of sequence data .............................................................. 39
2.10 Drawings/Illustrations ................................................................................. 42
2.11 Abbreviations and symbols ......................................................................... 42
3 Results ................................................................................................................. 45
3.1 Collections .................................................................................................. 45
3.2 New species, records and illustrations ........................................................ 52
3.2.1 New species .................................................................................... 52
3.2.2 New records for Panama, Central America and the American
Continent ........................................................................................ 52
3.2.3 New records of host plants ............................................................. 54
3.2.4 New teleomorph-anamorph connections ........................................ 55
3.2.5 First-time illustrations .................................................................... 56
3.3 Taxonomy, morphology and discussion of species .................................... 57
3.3.1 Asterinaceae ................................................................................... 57
Asterina ....................................................................................... 60
Asterina cestricola 66
Asterina ciferriana ................................................................... 69
Asterina consobrina ................................................................. 73
Asterina corallopoda ................................................................ 76
Asterina davillae ...................................................................... 80
Asterina diplocarpa .................................................................. 87
Asterina diplopoda ................................................................... 92
Asterina ekmanii ....................................................................... 94
Asterina fuchsiae 97
Asterina gaiadendricola ........................................................... 99
Asterina manihotis..................................................................... 103
Asterina phenacis 106
Asterina radiofissilis ................................................................ 110
Asterina schlegeliae ................................................................. 115
Asterina siphocampyli .............................................................. 119
II Table of contents
Asterina sponiae ....................................................................... 123
Asterina stipitipodia with anamorph ........................................ 127
Asterina styracina .................................................................... 131
Asterina tonduzii with anamorph ............................................. 135
Asterina weinmanniae .............................................................. 139
Asterina zanthoxyli ................................................................... 142
Asterina sp. 1 ............................................................................ 145
Asterina sp. 2 150
Asterina sp. 3 153
Asterina sp. 4 158
Asterina sp. 5 163
Asterina sp. 6 166
Asterina sp. 7 ............................................................................ 169
Asterina sp. 8 174
Asterolibertia ............................................................................... 181
Asterolibertia licaniicola .......................................................... 183
Asterolibertia nodulosa ............................................................ 187
Asterolibertia sp. ...................................................................... 192
Asterostomella ............................................................................. 197
Asterostomella dilleniicola........................................................ 198
Cirsosia ....................................................................................... 202
Cirsosia splendida with anamorph ........................................... 204
Halbanina .................................................................................... 211
Halbanina sp. ........................................................................... 213
Mahanteshamyces ....................................................................... 218
Mahanteshamyces sp. ............................................................... 219
Prillieuxina .................................................................................. 223
Prillieuxina winteriana with anamorph ................................... 224
3.3.2 Microthyriaceae .............................................................................. 230
Maublancia 232
Maublancia uleana ................................................................... 233
Platypeltella ................................................................................. 240
Platypeltella irregularis ........................................................... 242
Platypeltella smilacis ............................................................... 245
III Table of contents
Xenostomella ............................................................................... 253
Xenostomella tovarensis ........................................................... 254
3.3.3 Anamorph with uncertain placement (‘Pycnothyriales’) ................ 260
Hemisphaeropsis ......................................................................... 262
Hemisphaeropsis magnoliae .................................................... 263
3.4 Taxonomic changes .................................................................................... 268
3.4.2 Excluded species and bad material ................................................. 269
3.5 Cultivation experiments .............................................................................. 270
3.6 Molecular results ......................................................................................... 271
3.7 Thyriothecioid ascomycetes in the ppMP project ....................................... 273
3.7.1 Collections ...................................................................................... 273
3.7.2 The Asterinaceae in the ppMP project ........................................... 275
3.7.3 Plant diversity and fungal diversity ................................................ 277
4 Discussion ............................................................................................................ 281
4.1 Ecology ....................................................................................................... 281
4.1.1 Distribution ..................................................................................... 281
4.1.2 Host plant families .......................................................................... 282
4.1.3 Host specificity ............................................................................... 284
4.1.4 Diversity of Asterinaceae and plant parasitic Microthyriaceae in
Panama ........................................................................................... 285
4.1.5 Adaptations to the habitat leaf ........................................................ 286
4.1.6 Hyperparasites ................................................................................ 289
4.2 Morphological features 291
4.2.1 Colony and macroscopical aspects ................................................. 291
4.2.2 Surface mycelium ........................................................................... 293
4.2.3 Structures for host infection ........................................................... 293
4.2.4 Thyriothecium 297
4.2.5 Scutellum ........................................................................................ 299
4.2.6 Ascocarp center .............................................................................. 301
4.2.7 Asci ................................................................................................. 302
4.2.8 Hamathecium .................................................................................. 305
4.2.9 Ascospores ...................................................................................... 306
4.3 Teleomorph-anamorph connections ............................................................ 307
4.3.1 Asterina-Asterostomella/Mahanteshamyces ................................... 307
IV Table of contents
4.3.2 Cirsosia-Homalopeltis .................................................................... 308
4.3.3 Hemisphaeropsis-unnamed teleomorph ......................................... 308
4.4 Phylogeny of Asterinaceae ......................................................................... 309
4.5 Analysis of the ppMP data focussing on thyriotehcioid ascomycetes ........ 311
5 Summaries ........................................................................................................... 313
5.1 Summary ..................................................................................................... 313
5.2 Zusammenfassung ....................................................................................... 315
5.3 Resumen ...................................................................................................... 320
6 References ............................................................................................................ 322
7 Appendix ............................................................................................................. 342
7.1 The genera of Asterinaceae and Microthyriaceae and similar families ...... 342
7.2 Morphology and ecology of thyriothecioid ascomycetes ........................... 347
7.3 Index of host plants of Asterinaceae and Microthyriaceae presented in
this study ..................................................................................................... 348
7.4 Sequences used for molecular phylogenetic analysis ................................. 351
7.5 Species of Asterina ..................................................................................... 354
7.6 Species of Asterostomella ........................................................................... 391
7.7 Species of Asterolibertia ............................................................................. 395
7.8 Species of Cirsosia 397
7.9 Species of Maublancia ................................................................................ 398
7.10 Species of Platypeltella ............................................................................... 399
7.11 Species of Prillieuxina 400
7.12 Species of Xenostomella 404
8 Acknowledgements ............................................................................................. 405
Curriculum Vitae ...................................................................................................... 407


V




1 Introduction


Asterinaceae and Microthyriaceae are two families of inconspicuous and poorly
studied fungi assigned to the Dothideomycetes (Ascomycota, Dikarya), one of the
classes of ascomycetes with bitunicate asci. The bitunicate ascus is a meiosporangium
with two distinct wall layers that separate from each other during spore release. The
unitunicate ascus, present in members of Sordariomycetes, differs from the bitunicate
ascus by the presence of a single functional wall layer. Members of Asterinaceae,
Microthyriaceae and few other families produce a special type of fruitingbody called
thyriothecium, a small shield-shaped (dimidate) and flat structure developing
superficially on the substrate. Thyriothecia-producing ascomycetes, or thyriothecioid
ascomycetes, are assigned to different families of Dothideomycetes and are
characterized by variable ecological and morphological characteristics. Asterinaceae
and Microthyriaceae are the most species-rich families of thyriothecioid ascomycetes.

1.1 The bitunicate ascomycetes
Bitunicate ascomycetes are a large group of lichenized and non-lichenized fungi
with more than 7300 species in over 800 genera (Barr and Huhndorf 2001). The group
contains many important plant pathogens, superficial epiphytes, saprotrophs on dead
leaves, wood, dung, and plant debris and hyperparasites on superficial fungi and insects.
They are characterized by bitunicate asci and ascomata with ascolocular development.

1.1.1 The ascomata
Ascoma formation in bitunicate ascomycetes is initiated with the development of
an undifferentiated stroma composed of a mass of compact hyphae or pseudoparenchy-
matic cells (Eriksson 1981). Within the stromatic tissue cavities or locules are formed
1 Introduction
via lysis of stromatal cells and inside the locules bitunicate asci develop. No additional
wall structures separate the locules from the stromatic tissue and, therefore, the entire
structure can be called ascostroma (Kirk et al. 2001, Sierra Lopéz 2006). During
ascolocular development the ascomata or locules within the stroma are formed prior to
nuclear pairing in the diakaryon. On the contrary, for ascomycetes with ascohymenial
development the ascoma formation is initiated after nuclear pairing (Barr and Huhndorf
2001, Schoch et al. 2006a).
The most common type of ascostroma among bitunicate ascomycetes is the
pseudothecium which can vary in shape from globose, ovoid, obpyriform, conical to
flask-shaped (Sierra Lopéz 2006). Pseudothecia are closed structures that liberate their
ascospores through a periphysate ostiole (Pleosporales), a lysigenous, non-periphysate
pore (= pseudopore, Dothideales), an operculum, by cracks, or by slimy disintegration
of the ascomal wall (Englerulaceae) (Eriksson 1981). Apothecioid asco-stromata are
orbicular, cup-shaped or discoidal in outline. Elongated, lip-shaped apothecioid
ascostromata that open with longitudinal slits are called hysterothecia and are typical for
members of Hysteriaceae. The cleistothecium is a non-ostiolate globose ascostroma that
rupures at maturity with irregular fissures (Zopfiaceae). The thyriothecium is a strongly
flattened ascoma with a dark upper wall called scutellum and with or without a lower
wall. The scutellum is composed of radially arranged cells, or more irregularly
meandrical cells and opens with a central pore or with star-shaped or irregular fissures
(Microthyriaceae, Asterinaceae and others).
In general the ascostromata of bitunicate ascomycetes are small and dark pig-
mented, although bright coloured ascomata occur as well, e.g. within Tubeufiaceae
(Eriksson 1981). The ascostromata are glabrous or setose and uni- or multilocular.
Unilocular ascostromata are solitary or grouped together above a stroma, or embedded
in a pseudostroma (= synascoma). Ascostromata with uniascal locules occur as well and
are typical for members of Myriangiales. The position of the ascostromata can be
completely superficial, erumpent, more or less immersed or completely immersed in the
substrate. Sometimes the ascostromata show indeterminate growth and can extend and
enlarge even though the original ascus-bearing region has developed asci and
ascospores (Seuratiaceae, Barr and Huhndorf 2001).
Ascostroma morphology together with the type of centrum development is an
important criterion to separate families in the bitunicate ascomycetes (Crous et al.
2003).
2