Pradinių klasių mokinių kūrybingumo ugdymas pasakomis ; The development of creativity of primary school pupils by fairy-tales
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Pradinių klasių mokinių kūrybingumo ugdymas pasakomis ; The development of creativity of primary school pupils by fairy-tales

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ŠIAULIAI UNIVERSITY Nijolė Bražienė THE DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS BY FAIRY – TALES Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Education Studies (07 S) Šiauliai, 2004 The dissertation was prepared between 1999 and 2003 at Šiauliai University. Research supervisor: Prof. Habil. Dr. Ona Danutė Klumbytė (Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S). The defence of the dissertation will take place in the Direction Council of Education Studies of Šiauliai University: Chairman: Prof. Habil. Dr. Academician of Russian Academy of Pedagogical and Social Sciences Vytautas Gudonis (Šiauliai University, Social sciences, Psychology – 06 S) Members: Prof. Habil. Dr. Ona Danutė Klumbytė (Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S) Prof. Habil. Dr. Academician Leonardas Sauka (Institute of Lithuanian Folklore and Literature, the Humanities, Philology – 04 H, Ethnology – 07 H, Folk-lore – H 400) Prof. Habil. Dr. Kęstutis Kardelis (Academy of Physical Education, Social Sciences, Education Studies) Doc. Dr. Regina Norkevičienė (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S) Official opponents: Doc. Habil. Dr. Audronė Juodaitytė (Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S) Prof. Habil. Dr.

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Published 01 January 2005
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ŠIAULIAI UNIVERSITY               NijolBražien   THE DEVELOPMENT OF CREATIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS BY FAIRY – TALES  Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Education Studies (07 S)                     Šiauliai, 2004
The dissertation was prepared between 1999 and 2003 at Šiauliai University.  Research supervisor: Prof. Habil. Dr. Ona DanutKlumbyt(Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S).  The defence of the dissertation will take place in the Direction Council of Education Studies of Šiauliai University:  Chairman:  Prof. Habil. Dr. Academician of Russian Academy of Pedagogical and Social Sciences Vytautas Gudonis (Šiauliai University, Social sciences, Psychology – 06 S)  Members:  Prof. Habil. Dr. Ona DanutKlumbyt(Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S) Prof. Habil. Dr. Academician Leonardas Sauka (Institute of Lithuanian Folklore and Literature, the Humanities, Philology – 04 H, Ethnology – 07 H, Folk-lore – H 400) Prof. Habil. Dr. Kstutis Kardelis (Academy of Physical Education, Social Sciences, Education Studies) Doc. Dr. Regina Norkeviien (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S)  Official opponents: Doc. Habil. Dr. Audron Juodaityt (Šiauliai University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S) Prof. Habil. Dr. Gediminas Merkys (Kaunas Technological University, Social Sciences, Education Studies – 07 S)  The defence of the dissertation will take place in an open meeting of the Direction Council of Education Studies of Šiauliai University at 2 p.m. on June 29th, 2004 in room 401 of Šiauliai University.  Address: 25 P. Višinskio Str., LT – 5400, Šiauliai, Lithuania  The summary of the dissertation was sent out on May 28th, 2004. The dissertation is available for review at the library of Šiauliai University.  Reviews should be sent at the following address: Academic Department, Šiauliai University, 88 Vilniaus Str., LT – 76285 Šiauliai. Tel.: (8-41) 595-821, fax: (8-41) 595-809 E-mail of Academic Department:r.susk@cslo.moktl. E-mail oft.lasak@traibn   
 
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ŠIAULIVIRE NUS TATESI        NijolBražien 
  PRADINIKLASIM KONIIKRYBINGUMO UGDYMAS PASAKOMIS  
 
  
      
 
Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija (07 S)   
      Šiauliai, 2004
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Disertacija rengta 1999 – 2003 metais Šiaulietet ersiuniv  Mokslinvadov prof. habil. dr. Ona Danut Klumbyt (Šiauli universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S)  Disertacija ginama Šiauliuniversiteto Edukologijos mokslo krypties taryboje:  Pirmininkas prof. habil. dr., Rusijos pedagoginiir socialinimokslakademijos akademikas Vytautas Gudonis (Šiauli socialiniai mokslai, psichologija – 06 universitetas, S)  Nariai: prof. habil. dr. Ona Danuttumby Kl(Šiauliuniversitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S) prof. habil. dr., akademikas Leonardas Sauka (LMA Lietuvi tautosakos ir literatros institutas, humanitariniai mokslai, filologija – 04 H, etnologija – 07 H, folkloras – H 400) prof. habil. dr. Kstutis Kardelis (Kno kultros akademija, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S) doc. dr. Regina Norkeviien (Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S)  Oponentai: doc. habil. dr. Audron Juodaityt (Šiauli universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S) prof. habil. dr. Gediminas Merkys (Kauno technologijos universitetas , socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S)  Disertacija bus ginama viešame Edukologijos mokslo krypties tarybos posdyje 2004 m. birželio 29 d. 14 val. Šiauliuniversiteto 401 auditorijoje Adresas: P. Višinskio g. 25, LT – 5400, Šiauliai, Lietuva  Disertacijos santrauka išsiuntinta 2004 m. gegužs mn. 28 d. Disertacijgalima peržirti Šiauliuniversiteto bibliotekoje  Atsiliepimus sisti adresu: Mokslo skyrius, Šiauliuniversitetas, Vilniaus g. 88, LT-76285 Šiauliai Telef. (8-41) 595-821, faks. (8-41) 595-809 Mokslo skyriaus el. pašto adresas: mokslo.sk@cr.su.lt Disertants el. pašto adresas:nibra@takas.lt         
 
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INTRODUCTION  The topicality of the theme.InThe Education Conception(1993) andThe Overall Programs of the Lithuanian School of General Education(1997) – the documents which regulate the Lithuanian education system – it is noted that one of the most topical objectives of contemporary pedagogy is the education of a creatively thinking individuality possessing firm ethical and esthetical values and capable to prevail against the inconsistence of life as well as finding its own place in the modern-day haste world. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a creative capability of pupils to experience beauty and rejoice at it, to cultivate their feelings, to nurture their ability to be amazed, surprised and raise new questions, a wish to explain various phenomena, that is their curiosity which is an essential component in the formation of lifelong learning motivation. According to the investigator of childhood pedagogy A. Juodaityt, cognitive means of the world typical to the childhood of a man nowadays embody the basis of the cognitive – interactive teaching and learning on which the humanistic education system oriented towards a man as an active social individual, his interests, needs, experience and natural interaction with the frame is namely grounded on (Juodaityt, 2002). However, recently children grow in the emphatically realistic and rationalistic world where their intuitive and often non-verbal images and speculations are left unemployed. In accordance with a German educator and psychologist E. Blatman (Blatman, Kiškinas, 2000), the mover of the today’s civilization is will and reason; as a result in various ways it is hastened to invade a wonderful world of childhood – children are occupied and controlled by grown-ups, they are prepared for life by proposing them the intellect and not imagination and feelings cultivating games almost since their cradle age. It is because the logical thinking is particularly valued in the European Community and the intuition together with pictorial thinking is purportedly forgotten (, 1997). The analogous idea is cultivated in the book Training Creative Thinking(1997) where it is pointed out that through the fantasy and ingenuity the creative abilities of a child grow since his birth, but only till he accesses to the frame regulated by the teaching system. Only order and logic is recognised there; practically there are no possibilities left for the display of imagination figments if the objects exist not in such intellectual contexts which the teaching system is proud of. From the primary school to the school of higher education the creative abilities of each person are most often pent-up; there is nothing to say of the s timulation of creativity – the educators strive to outline and determine the way a child or teenager should develop. Consequently during the preparation of a pupil to life the school sort of boxes up a child into the frame of real and practical living herewith disorganizing his balance of mind and deranging his creativity (Lepeškien, 1996; Žilien, 1997; , 1997), which, first and foremost, unfolds through hobbies, fantasies, sense of humour, possession of one’s own opinion, free and independent thinking and self-confidence” (Petrulytto a child usually is not a new, 2001, p. 25). What is new culture; however, the new subjects discovered by his intellection during the process of creative activity are immeasurably important to the spiritual culture of a child and creative biography of an activity (Jovaiša, 2001; Juodaityt, 2003). In consequence it is not important what a child creates but how he is capable of expressing himself, his fantasies and dreams through the creative work. Various methods of creativity cultivation of children are presented in the pedagogical and psychological literature; fairy tales and their creation are distinguished (Jones, Buttrey, 1990;, 1992; Dumien, 2001; Petrulyt,
 
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2001; Rodaris, 2001;, 2001;, 2002). Fairy tales coincide with the children nature – the dynamics, naivety and imagery of it are these stimuli which beguile a child. As a pre-war Lithuanian educator J. Skrebys has stated, “the world knowledge acquired by a child is very little but his desire to acknowledge it is so great that the child runs everywhere he thinks he can find the answer to one or another question. A fairy tale displays the unfamiliar horizons which, however, has a realistic abutment in a child himself. The action of described events and emotions are the realistic features of a fairy tale which make the fairy tale understandable” (refer to Kariauskien, 1997, p. 184). Namely in the structure of the fairy tale a chi ld envisages the structure of his imagination herewith cultivating it and thus creating one of the most essential means of world acknowledgement and reality manipulation; this enables him hereafter “to apply the same method in every stage of his experience where the creative intervention is necessary” (Rodaris, 2001, p. 165). M. Brdikyt (2000) was one of the first educators in Lithuania who validated theoretically and practically the possibilities of creativity development with fairy tales in children of pre-school age, and V. Schoroškien – in I and II (2001) forms. Considering the capabilities of linguistic expression of the children of these age ranges the investigations of the scientists mentioned above are connected with the development of verbal self-expression and the nurturance of creative motivation. Meanwhile, one of the objectives of the education of the Lithuanian language and literature in III and IV forms is to teach children to express their mind and emotions in written form (The Overall Programs of the Lithuanian School of General Education, 1997). Therefore, working with elder primary school pupils more potentialities of fairy tale employment into the development of children creativity occur: verbal activity may be combined with the creation of fairy tales in written form because the creation and recording of a fairy tale is one of the most valuable methods of creative self-expression (Stein, Glenn, 1979; Sutton – Smith, 1979; Kempers, Edwards, 1986; , 1997;the creation of a fairy tale, 1998). During in writing a child is capable of more unbound fantasy and deeper absorption into his contemplations because he is not limited by the attention and opinions of others; thus he thinks in a more creative way and develops variant ideas more colourfully. However, combining the intuitive and conscious perception of a fairy tale every pupil must gain a considerable amount of theoretical knowledge which is essential in the appeasement of self-expression motivation and creation of the fairy tale. This problem connected with the nurturance of a creative personality is solved by invoking the concrete criteria of the evaluation of children works because the life experience of primary form pupils is moderate and the theoretical knowledge about the structure, personages of the fairy tale, conflict solution methods and other aspects are exiguous. The theoretical foundations of the fairy tale reading in the Lit huanian primary school were laid by J. Budzinskis, J. Martynaitis and P. Naujokaitis (1963). By projecting the contents and structure of concrete activities the didactic recommendations of Lithuanian scientists (Jakubauskien, 1973, 1974; Masiulis, 1996, 1999, 2001; Schoroškien, 1997, 1998, 2000) and educators practitioners (Grevien, 1995; Mejerien, 1995; Vyien, 1995; Vinickien, 1996, 1997; Vaicenaviien, 1997; Vaiekauskien, 1999; Visockien, 1999) were considered in the thesis work. Also the experience of the employment of fair-tales during the lessons of the Latvian (akl, 1982; Rudztis, 1988; Jansons, 1988; Lie!inace, 1992; Andersens, 1995; Mi"elsone, 1997; Freiberga, 1997), Russian (#, 1986, 1987, 1990, 1991, 1996;$, 1991;, 1992;%&, 1993;', 1997;(*), 1997;+#, 1999;,, 2001;(, 2001;
 
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, 2001;-', 2001;., 2001) and the western countries’ (Applebee, 1973, 1975; Sachs, 1974; Rumelhart, 1975; Sutton-Smith, 1975; Bergold, 1976; Favat, 1977; Kuczaj, 1977, 1981, 1983; Stein, 1979, 1982; Gould, 1982; Beck, 1989; Smith, 1991, 2000; Bryk, 1992; Goldstein, 1995; Debra, 2000; Louis, 2000; Wells, 2000; Dim Sum, 2002; Teale, 2002; Bernson, 2003; UT AH LESSON PLANS, 2000) scientists and practitioners were taken into consideration. Notwithstanding many didactic recommendations of the fairy tale subject of the above mentioned authors are not directly associated with the development of creativity; thus, it can be stated that potentialities of fairy tales employment into the development of creativity of pupils are not fully applied.  Research subject -the creativity development of III – IV form pupils on the basis of the mother-tongue teaching textbooks “Šaltiniai” and othe r alternative  material.    Research object –the reciprocity of the nurturance of creativity, variable divergent thinking, development of imagination and sense of humour of III – IV form pupils and cognitive complexity of created fairy tales.  Research problem –the unexplored pedagogical-psychological conditions of the creativity development of primary school pupils with the help of fairy tales.  Research hypothesis –the positive improvements of creativity are obtained by broadening and deepening the knowledge of fairy tales of primary school pupils in the theoretical and practical level, and by the realization of potentialities rendered by the teaching means of Lithuanian language for the development of divergent thinking and imagination of pupils and nurturance of sense of humour, emotionali ty and empathy purposefully employing additional educational activities.  Research aim –to investigate the effect of creative works connected with fairy tales on the creativity alternation of II – IV form pupils.  Research objectives:  1. To analyse the conception of creativity and psychological components stimulating the creativity of pupils of younger school age. 2. To ground statistically the topicality of the problem concerning the creativity development of primary school pupils with the help of fairy tales: to investigate the factual possibilities of primary school pupils of the second stage of education to comprehend and create fairy tales. 3.  theTo find out the way the theme of fairy tale is presented in teaching means of Lithuanian language for the primary school pupils, and the assumptions for the nurturance of pupil’s creativity with the help of fairy tales presented in the teaching material of Lithuanian language.  4. To compose the program of creativity development of personality with the help of fairy tales; to check and evaluate the effectiveness of the program employing it in the teaching process and to ground the hypothesis statistically.
 
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5. To formulate the theoretical conclusions and practical recommendations.     Research methods:  1. Theoretical: the analysis and generalisation of educational, psychological, literaturological and methodical literature; the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the teaching means of Lithuanian language for lower classes made it possible to define the paradigm of the creativity development of primary school pupils with the help of fairy tales and to exclude main dimensions. 2. Empirical:  P lacigogaderesboon vatiandnteri ivwein natural conditions in order to qualitatively evaluate the effect of creative works connected with fairy tales on the individual changes of children.   Testingduring which the level of quantitative expression of individual pupils’ characteristics was relatively evaluated on the grounds of standard tasks designed and based in advance.  and systematic analysis of narrative textsAspectual created by pupils. 3. Pedagogical experiment. 4. Statistical evaluation of data.  Research organization stages: During the first stage(between academic year 2000 and 2001) after the problems of creativity development of primary school pupils with the help of fairy tales were defined alongside with the study of scientific literature the measurement parameters and methodology of creativity development of pupils of younger school age were prefigured; the identification and evaluation methodology of fairy tales created by pupils was also designed. By the accomplishment of primary evaluation of pupils’ created fairy tales it was pursued to find the information about the stories created by the primary school pupils at the second stage of education noting what lacks in order pupils could distinguish between a fairy tale and a story. 357 IV form pupils going to comprehensive schools from different Lithuanian regions (towns and districts) participated in the research. The bank of didactic models of analysis of fairy tales and teaching to create fairy tales was established. The second stage(between academic year 2001 and 2002) was devoted to the analysis of tasks of teaching means of Lithuanian language for lower class in the aspect of education of creativity potential, the preparation of pedagogical project of the creativity development of pupils with the help of fairy tales, the preparation of experimental teaching plans. During the third stage academic year 2002 and 2003) the (between pedagogical experiment was carried out. The inspection of experimental program and development of methodology was implemented.
 
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Three III form classes (68 pupils) of a Šiauliai primary school “Saul” where teachers worked according to the prepared experimental teaching p rogram participated in the experiment. The experiment was carried out usinga liner method (Merkys, 1999; Kardelis, 2002) ora serial method (Jakaviius, 1998) which is characterised by the fact that the auditorial group is not formed during the experiment. With the help of the experiment of creativity development of primary school pupils by fairy tales following the statements of B. Bitinas (1998) it was aspired to realize and substantiate our project as one of the alternatives of creativity education. During the fourth stage(between academic year of 2003 and 2004) the experimental program of creativity development with the help of fairy tales and the examination of its effect were completed. The investigation was carried out in October when in accordance with the teaching program of the Lithuanian language fourth-formers, or the third-formers who participated in the rese arch, had to generalize the gained knowledge about a fairy tale. The statistic analysis of the collected data was executed, the scientific conclusions were formulated, and the practical recommendations were worked out. The detailed system of thesis research is presented in picture 1.
 
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Scientific novelty and importance of practical results.As the orientation of contemporary school towards a creative personality is understood, and the situation how and how much the objectives posed to school are realized is known, it can be possibly stated that in specific cases there is a lack of knowledge of what to do and how to reach the most effective result. The pedagogical information concerning the education of creative personality very often is of general character, in rear cases even superficial. In this work referring to the psychological and pedagogical material the paradigm of the creativity development with the help of fairy tales of primary school pupils of second education stage is grounded, the effect of experimental program on the dynamics of pupils’ creativity is cleared up. Not only cognitive but also psycho emotional aspects of child’s development are emphasized by orientation towards humanistic principles of education. In theoretical aspectthe scale of components which outline the creativity of pupils was worked out. It should help the authors of textbooks and teachers who are searching for more effective teaching methods and more efficient education trends. It could also be practicable in developing the educational programs of L ithuanian language for primary school and educational means as well. In practical aspectnew departure shows that those tasks of “Šaltina liai” and “Šaltiniai” are emphasised which have the greatest effect on the nurturance of a creative personality; the proposed system of creative textual works will allow to develop the education of the language of lower school pupil, will promote the expansion of creative textual works and will help to develop the traditions of their employment. Usually the activities educating the creative potential of a child are omitted during the lesson as more objectives of listening and speaking, reading and writing are pursued to realize. The tasks developing the metaphorical thinking as often as not are simplified because of their complexity and time diseconomy. Taking into consideration the content of the educational means of the Lithuanian language some additional methods how to activate imagination, divergent thinking, sense of humour, etc. of primary school pupils with the help of fairy tales collectively correcting the positive emotional development of a child are proposed in this thesis work. The conclusions and recommendations of dissertation are associated with two levels of novelty that is concretization and replenishment. The conclusions ofthe concretization levelspecify and actualize familiar statements about the possibility to nurture the resources of pupils’ creativity and the potentiality to develop their metaphorical thinking through reading and creating fairy tales. The results ofthe replenishment levelexpand familiar theoretical and practical statements of the topic under consideration with new elements, whereas the analysis of specific literature and educational means allows formulating the theoretical grounds of the researched problem more objectively.  Dissertation survey statements for defence:  1. The components forming a creative personality improve if the potentialities of pupils’ creativity development provided by educational means of the Lithuanian language are employed at the maximum and the additional tasks are purposefully formulated. 2. The cognitive complexity of a fairy tale that is the quantitative and qualitative indicators and the parameters of general creativity are correlated.
 
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3. Simple and coherent presentation of theoretical knowledge about the structure of folklore fairy tale to the primary school pupils is necessary in order to labour for more efficient dynamics of the cognitive complexity of the fairy tales created by pupils.  Approbation of research results.The approbation of research results took place while the author organized the experimental teaching. The re sults and conclusions of experiment were discussed with the teachers of Šiauliai primary school “Saul itywho participated in the experiment. The questions of the creativ development of primary school pupils with the help of fairy tales were discussed with educators during the following republican theoretical and practical conferences which took place in the Centre primary school of Šiauliai: “The methods and ways of reading teaching and engagement into reading in the lower classes” (1999); “The problems and experience of literacy education of the Lithuanian language” (2000); “The integration of educational subjects in the lower classes” (2001); “Folklore in the world of a child” (2002). The announcements concerning the theme of dissertation were presented in the following international conferences: “Today’s reforms for tomorrow’s school’s” (2002) in Klaipda; “Text as the reflection of the world” (2000) and “Teacher education in XXI century: changing and perspectives” (2002) in Šiauliai; “Language and literature in context of culture” (2000; 2001; 2002; 2003) in Ryga; the fif th republic scientific conference of graduate students (2001) in Kaunas; “Learning languages: problems and perspectives” (2002; 2004) in Liepoja; “The History of the World Literature and Culture” (2004) in Daugpilis.  The publications concerning the topic of dissertation announced in the Lithuanian scientific editions inscribed in the special list certified by the Scientific Council:  1. Bražien (2002). The aspects of analysis of pupils’ created fairy N. tales.daPegigoak :Scientific works, 61. Vilnius. P. 33-38 (in Lithuanian). 2. Bražien(2003). Some of the questions concerning the creativityN. of primary school pupils.Ugdymas. Kno kultra. Sportas: Scientific works, 2 (47). Kaunas. P. 12-18 (in Lithuanian).  Other significant publications:  3. Bražien N.Using didactic models for reading and writing (2000). fairy tales in primary school.Today’s reforms for tomorrow’s schools. ATEE Spring University:the material of the international conference. Klaipda. P. 29-34 (in English). 4. Bražien Ramaneckien N., I. (2002). Art therapy as a positive occurrence in the supplementary education system. ercheaT education in XXI century: changing and perspectives:Material of international conference. Šiauliai. P. 227-230 (in English). 5. Bražien N.the children`s abilities of reading and (2001).Training creating fairy-tales at elementary school.Language and literature in context of culture:Scientific papers. Riga. P. 144-150 (in Latvian).
 
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