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Preparing students for success in blended learning environments [Elektronische Ressource] : future oriented motivation and self regulation / vorgelegt von Joel T. Schmidt

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Preparing Students for Success in Blended Learning Environments: Future Oriented Motivation & Self-Regulation Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades Doktor der Philosophie (Dr. phil.) an der Fakultät für Psychologie und Pädagogik der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München vorgelegt von Joel T. Schmidt J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation Evaluators: stProf. Dr. Rudolf Tippelt (1 Reader) Chair for General Education and Educational Research ndProf. Dr. Hartmut Ditton (2 Reader) Chair for General Education / Developmental and Socialisation Research Date of the Oral Defence: January 15, 2007 2 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation Acknowledgements After my daughter asked me what I was doing on the computer all the time, I explained to her that I was writing a big story about how to help my students want to do better at school. She thought about this for a while and then came to me again with an idea: “Why don’t you just get a big bucket of suckers. And then every time they do something good, they can have a sucker.” – this, from a five year old. For increasing my motivation on this project, I extend my thanks and appreciation to many special people… To my wife, Dorothy whose love and encouragement, probing questions, and awesome management skills carried me along over the complete process.

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Published 01 January 2007
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Preparing Students for Success in Blended Learning Environments:
Future Oriented Motivation & Self-Regulation













Inaugural-Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Grades
Doktor der Philosophie (Dr. phil.)
an der Fakultät für Psychologie und Pädagogik
der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München


vorgelegt von
Joel T. Schmidt J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation

Evaluators:
stProf. Dr. Rudolf Tippelt (1 Reader)
Chair for General Education and Educational Research
ndProf. Dr. Hartmut Ditton (2 Reader)
Chair for General Education / Developmental and Socialisation Research

Date of the Oral Defence: January 15, 2007











2 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation
Acknowledgements
After my daughter asked me what I was doing on the computer all the time, I explained
to her that I was writing a big story about how to help my students want to do better at
school. She thought about this for a while and then came to me again with an idea:
“Why don’t you just get a big bucket of suckers. And then every time they do
something good, they can have a sucker.” – this, from a five year old.
For increasing my motivation on this project, I extend my thanks and appreciation to
many special people…
To my wife, Dorothy whose love and encouragement, probing questions, and awesome
management skills carried me along over the complete process. To my daughters,
Magdalena and Sara who always came running with a hug, listened for a while, and
then continued with their playing, giving me the space and love I needed for my project.
To my supervisor (doctor-father – what a great way to say it) and mentor, Dr. Rudolf
Tippelt, for his constant encouragement, support, guidance and expertise. No obstacle
was insurmountable, and his patience and flexibility helped to ensure my success.
To my “family” at the University of Applied Management (myfham), especially Dr. Dr.
Christian Werner, I am grateful for his mentorship and friendship. And to all of my
colleagues, for being excellent examples of life-long learning – your support allowed
me to reach my goals.
To Dr. Ditton and Dr. Fischer, my readers and evaluators, for providing a community of
knowledge and excellence where I could share my gifts and talents. And to the extended
community of fellow students and peers, I am thankful for the exchange of ideas and
motivated exploration of knowledge, both during our colloquium and afterwards.
To my family (in Canada and Germany), thank you for your love, encouragement, and
for knowing when not to talk about my project. And thanks to Paula for being a
sounding-board of common sense and straight forward argumentation.
To my friends around the globe, thanks for motivating me through your own pursuit of
excellence in many different fields. And special thanks to the Friday night choir –
Jubilation Singers – for sharing the gift of song.
To all the students who participated in the research project – your willingness and
commitment to open reflection and exploration of your learning over two semesters
enabled me in the completion of my project.

All of you are the secrets to my success.

3 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................10
1.1 Statement of the Problem.....................................................................................10
1.1.1 Supporting Students in Online Learning Environments 11
1.2 State of the research on future time perspective in blended learning programs.13
1.3 Purpose................................................................................................................15
1.4 Research Questions .............................................................................................16
1.5 Structural Overview.............................................................................................16
2 Future Time Perspective (FTP)...............................................................................18
2.1 Background and History......................................................................................19
2.2 Time Perspective .................................................................................................20
2.3 Future Time Perspective......................................................................................21
2.3.1 Instrumentality 23
2.4 New Developments ..............................................................................................25
2.4.1 Social Cognitive Model for Future Orientation 27
2.5 Summary..............................................................................................................30
3 Motivational Theory...............................................................................................32
3.1 Background and History......................................................................................32
3.1.1 Motivation and Instincts 33
3.1.2 Motivation and Traits 33
3.1.3 Motivation and Volition 34
3.1.4 Motivation and Operant Conditioning 35
3.2 New Developments ..............................................................................................37
3.2.1 Competence and Motivation 37
3.2.2 Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation 38
3.3 Motivation – A Research Framework..................................................................44
3.3.1 Definition 44
3.3.2 Goal Orientation 48
3.3.3 Intrinisc Value & Task Value 57
3.4 Summary..............................................................................................................59
4 Self-Regulated Learning (SRL)..............................................................................60
4.1 Definition.............................................................................................................60
4.2 Background and History......................................................................................61
4 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation
4.2.1 SRL & Behaviourism 61
4.2.2 SRL & Cognitivism 63
4.2.3 Learning Strategies 66
4.3 New Developments ..............................................................................................67
4.4 Summary..............................................................................................................69
5 Blended Learning....................................................................................................72
5.1 Definitions ...........................................................................................................72
5.1.1 Terminology 73
5.2 Education and Technology: A Brief Introduction ...............................................74
5.2.1 Learning Environments 76
5.2.2 New Didactics and Pedagogical Development 77
5.2.3 Instructional Design Theories and ICT environments 86
5.3 Development of Online Learning ........................................................................87
5.3.1 Nodes, Networks and Links 87
5.3.2 Online Learning – A Country Overview 90
5.4 Online Technology and Media ............................................................................92
5.5 Differences Between Online and Traditional Learning ......................................99
5.6 Current Issues in Online Learning....................................................................101
5.6.1 Expanding Definitions 101
5.6.2 Pedagogy 103
5.6.3 Participation 108
5.6.4 Access – Ethics and Tech-Specs 112
5.7 Blended Learning – Best of Both Worlds ..........................................................115
5.7.1 Definitions and Complexities 117
5.7.2 Advantages of Blended Learning 119
5.8 Summary: The Need for Learner Support .........................................................121
6 Theoretical Summary............................................................................................124
6.1 Future-Orientation – A Vehicle for Support .....................................................124
6.1.1 Fostering Motivation in Online Learning 124
6.1.2 Relationship Between FTP and Goal Orientation 127
6.1.3 Promoting Self-Regulation 128
7 Research Questions and Hypotheses ....................................................................131
7.1 Research Questions ...........................................................................................131
5 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation
7.2 Hypotheses.........................................................................................................131
8 METHOD.............................................................................................................134
8.1 Research Design................................................................................................134
8.2 Population and Sample......................................................................................134
8.2.1 Description of Institutional Partner 134
8.2.2 Student Sample 135
8.3 Procedure ..........................................................................................................137
8.3.1 Pre-Instruction 138
8.3.2 Instruction 139
8.3.3 Post-Instruction 140
8.3.4 Transfer (post-post) 140
8.4 Development of a Future Oriented Instruction .................................................142
8.4.1 Future Oriented Instruction 145
8.5 Instruments ........................................................................................................151
8.5.1 Student Achievement 151
8.5.2 Self-report Questionnaires 152
8.5.3 Qualitative Interviews 158
8.6 Statistical Measures...........................................................................................160
8.6.1 Investigation 1 161
8.6.2 Investigation 2 163
8.6.3 Investigation 3 165
9 RESULTS.............................................................................................................167
9.1 Investigation 1 ...................................................................................................167
9.1.1 Effects of Instruction 169
9.1.2 Effects of FTP 170
9.2 Investigation 2173
9.2.1 Predicting Achievement - Regression Series 1 174
9.2.2 The Role of Time Perspective in Learning – Regression Series 2 178
9.2.3 Repeated Measures (FTP and gender/age interactions) 182
9.2.4 Summary of Investigation 2 191
9.3 Investigation 3 ...................................................................................................193
9.3.1 Description of Interview Participants 193
9.3.2 Understanding & Expression of Learning Processes 193
6 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation
9.3.3 Interpretation of Quantitative Results 199
10 DISCUSSION.......................................................................................................203
10.1 Future Oriented Instruction ..............................................................................204
10.2 FTP & Achievement ..........................................................................................205
10.2.1 Goal Orientation Predicts Achievement 207
10.2.2 SRL Predicts Achievement 208
10.3 FTP & Processes Affecting Learning................................................................210
10.3.1 Relationship Between FTP & Goal Orientation 210
10.3.2 Relationship Between FTP, Motivation & SRL 214
10.4 FTP & Learning – A Longitudinal Perspective ................................................217
10.5 Implications .......................................................................................................219
10.6 Limitations.........................................................................................................221
10.7 Future Research ................................................................................................222
11 REFERENCES.....................................................................................................227
12 APPENDICES......................................................................................................263
12.1 APPENDIX A – Instruments..............................................................................263
12.1.1 Self-Report Questionnaire (paper-based version) 264
12.1.2 Survey Feedback for Students (Learning Profile) 271
12.1.3 Semi-structured Interview 275
12.1.4 Example Interview 276
12.1.5 Detailed Coding Overview (with anchor examples) 279
12.2 APPENDIX B – Future Oriented Instruction (course-level).............................289
nd rd12.2.1 Coaching Review Document (for 2 and 3 sessions) 290
12.2.2 Worksheet for System of Proximal Sub-Goals 291
12.2.3 Worksheet for Future & Proximal Goal Connection 292
12.3 APPENDIX C – Future Oriented Education (program-level) ..........................294
12.3.1 Future oriented design methods 294
12.3.2 Future Oriented Teaching Techniques 297
12.3.3 Future Considerations 300
List of Tables
Table 2.1: Fundamental concepts found in foundational literature on FTP ................... 21
Table 3.1: Elliot’s 2x2 Framework and Competence Factors ........................................ 56
7 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation
Table 5.1. Terminology used in online learning............................................................. 73
Table 5.2. Behaviourist insights for designing learning environments .......................... 80
Table 5.3. Cognitivist principles for designing learning environments 83
Table 5.4. Constructivist principles for designing learning environments ..................... 85
Table 5.5. Forms of online learning (adapted from OECD, 2005)............................... 118
Table 6.1. Matching pedagogies with motivation (Metros, 2003)................................ 126
Table 7.1. Overview of hypotheses in terms of innovation and verification of theory 133
Table 8.1. Summary of employed MSLQ scale/subscale reliability ............................ 155
Table 8.2. Summary of employed Achievement Goal scale/subscale reliability ......... 156
Table 8.3. Summary of employed ZTPI scale/subscale reliability ............................... 158
Table 8.4. Summary statistics for dependent variables (Investigation 1)..................... 162
Table 8.5. Summndent variables (Investigation 2) 164
Table 8.6. Summary information for interview participants ........................................ 165
Table 9.1. Summary statistics for MANOVA series .................................................... 168
Table 9.2. Correlation matrix of task value and reason for course participation.......... 172
Table 9.3. Zero-order correlations for dependent variables.......................................... 175
Table 9.4. Multiple regression prediction of student achievement by time perspective,
goal orientation, motivational beliefs and SRL and learning strategies ....................... 176
Table 9.5. Strategy frequency and percentages for contributing students.................... 197
List of Figures
Figure 1.1. Pasteur's Quadrant (adapted from Pintrich, 2000c)...................................... 15
Figure 2.1. Strands of time perspective – a historical overview..................................... 19
Figure 2.2: Five distinct time perspectives according to Zimbardo and Boyd (1999) ... 20
Figure 2.3. Model of future oriented motivation and self-regulation (adapted from
Miller & Brickman, 2004) .............................................................................................. 28
Figure 2.4: Influence of future goals and instrumentality .............................................. 30
Figure 3.1. Social cognitive model of student motivation applied to current study
(adapted from Pintrich & Schrauben, 1992)................................................................... 46
Figure 3.2: Overview of goal terminology on a timeline ............................................... 52
Figure 4.1. Phases of self-regulated learning (adapted from Zimmerman, 2002).......... 60
Figure 4.2. TOTE Method (adapted from O’Connor & Van der Horst, 2006) .............. 63
8 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation
Figure 4.3. Multi-stage model of help seeking (adapted from Karabenick & Sharma,
1994) ............................................................................................................................... 70
Figure 5.1. A unified definition of didactics (adapted from Klisma, 1993). .................. 78
Figure 5.2. Types of memory and basic pattern of flow (adapted from Ally, 2004)...... 82
Figure 5.3. Comparison of “Key Rationales” in institutional online learning strategies in
2004 and 2002 (OECD, 2005). ....................................................................................... 91
Figure 5.4. Educational media in Web based learning (Anderson, 2004a) .................... 94
Figure 5.5. Degree of synchronicity in onsite and online learning............................... 104
Figure 5.6. Community of Inquiry Model (from Anderson, 2004b) ............................ 106
Figure 5.7. Reported computer and Internet connection at home (1999-2000)............ 113
Figure 5.8. Educational media in blended learning – advantages of flexibility and
interactivity (adapted from Anderson, 2004a).............................................................. 116
Figure 5.9. Extending the learning experience over time (Douglis, 2003)................... 121
Figure 6.1. Antecedents, operations, and outcomes of goal orientation....................... 128
Figure 8.1. Sample description (gender, age, work)..................................................... 136
Figure 8.2. Research Timeline...................................................................................... 137
Figure 8.3. 5 Phases of inquiry-based instruction......................................................... 150
Figure 9.1. Hypothesised model of dependent variable categories .............................. 175
Figure 9.2. Hypothesized model and resultant adjusted model .................................... 178
Figure 9.3. Perceived FTP as predictor of goal orientation and SRL........................... 181
Figure 9.4. Present time perspective as predictors of goal orientation and SRL strategy
...................................................................................................................................... 182
Figure 9.5. Interaction effects of effort-regulation and age (Time 3)........................... 185
Figure 9.6. Interaction effects of peer-learning with age.............................................. 186
Figure 9.7. Interaction effects of mastery-approach with gender and age.................... 188
Figure 9.8. Interaction effects of task-value with gender and age................................ 189
Figure 12.1. UAM Milestones Educational Model....................................................... 295
Figure 12.2. Gantt Scheduling Chart (adapted from Dessler 2005, p. 90) ................... 299

9 J. Schmidt Future Oriented Motivation and Self-Regulation
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Statement of the Problem
The reason for this study arises out of the increasing focus on key competences
that are inter-disciplinary in nature and affecting many facets of life. The growing body
of literature on competence indicates a need for instructional measures. There is a large
emphasis upon personal skills of self-regulation, goal-setting, and being actively
engaged in what one does. These qualities have become the “requirements” for success
in many situations and social contexts, perhaps none so more as in educational
environments. New trends and developments are finding ways to incorporate and foster
these concepts in practice.
Advances in educational theory – two major advances have impacted the
rationale for this study: multi-dimensional theories and the marriage of competence and
achievement. Multi-dimensional theories encourage the inclusion of multiple factors
when examining the complexities of education, learning and instruction. Bandura’s
(1986) social cognitive theory incorporates the factors of person, behaviour and
environment, and their interactions which will provide the theoretical basis for this
study. A recent work by Andrew J. Elliot and Carol S. Dweck (2005) reconfigures the
canon of research on achievement motivation under the term “competence”. This
generic, but powerful term has significance in areas of performance, ability, expertise,
and intelligence. The use of such a term connects achievement motivation to a longer
time continuum that extends past the specific task, project, course, program etc. into the
future. Motivation to learn is connected to a future more distant than task completion,
and the term competence helps to solidify this connection.
10