Printed circuit board-based electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters [Elektronische Ressource] / by Emmanuel Bouendeu
176 Pages
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Printed circuit board-based electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters [Elektronische Ressource] / by Emmanuel Bouendeu

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Printed Circuit Board-Based Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters by Emmanuel Bouendeu Laboratory for Simulation Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK) Faculty of Engineering Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg im Breisgau A thesis submitted for the Doctor degree in Engineering June 2010 Address Albert-Ludwig University of Freiburg Faculty of Engineering Department of Microsystems Engineering Laboratory for Simulation Georges-Koehler Allee 103, DG, Zi. 03.29 79110 Freiburg Germany Author Emmanuel Bouendeu thExamination date 20 July 2010 Supervisor Prof. Jan G. Korvink Co-supervisors Dr. Andreas Greiner Dr. Patrick J. Smith Referees Prof. Jan G. Korvink Prof. Oliver Paul Dedication This work is dedicated to the lighting stars of mine. Their Highnesses my Beloved Parents: Tiemeni and Mbouende! Acknowledgements I would like to thank Prof. Jan G. Korvink, my supervisor, for his entire support, encouragement and friendship throughout my research within his Laboratory. Special thanks to Dr. Andreas Greiner and Dr. Patrick J. Smith, my co-supervisors. The guidance, patience, trust and freedom they gave me to explore in my own way, are really appreciated. I would also like to express my gratitude to Prof.

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Published 01 January 2010
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Printed Circuit Board-Based Electromagnetic Vibration
Energy Harvesters



by
Emmanuel Bouendeu



Laboratory for Simulation
Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK)
Faculty of Engineering
Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg im Breisgau



A thesis submitted for the Doctor degree in Engineering
June 2010

Address Albert-Ludwig University of Freiburg
Faculty of Engineering
Department of Microsystems Engineering
Laboratory for Simulation
Georges-Koehler Allee 103, DG, Zi. 03.29
79110 Freiburg
Germany


Author Emmanuel Bouendeu



thExamination date 20 July 2010





Supervisor Prof. Jan G. Korvink
Co-supervisors Dr. Andreas Greiner
Dr. Patrick J. Smith




Referees Prof. Jan G. Korvink
Prof. Oliver Paul


Dedication

This work is dedicated to the lighting stars of mine. Their
Highnesses my Beloved Parents: Tiemeni and Mbouende!

















Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Prof. Jan G. Korvink, my supervisor, for his entire support,
encouragement and friendship throughout my research within his Laboratory.

Special thanks to Dr. Andreas Greiner and Dr. Patrick J. Smith, my co-supervisors. The
guidance, patience, trust and freedom they gave me to explore in my own way, are really
appreciated.

I would also like to express my gratitude to Prof. Oliver Paul, Head of the Laboratory of
Microsystems Materials, to Prof. Jürgen Wöllenstein, Head of the Laboratory of Gas
Sensors, for accepting to co-examine my thesis, to Prof. Peter Woias, Head of the
Laboratory of Micro-Construction and Prof. Ulrike Wallrabe, Head of the Laboratory of
Micro-Actuators for the great opportunity they gave me to work in their laboratory.

Thanks also to the wonderful team of the IMTEK’s workshop for the fabrication of many
mechanical components indispensable for my research.

My Thanks also go to all members of the Laboratory for Microsystems Simulation,
Micro-Actuators and Micro-Construction to have shared with me during this research
work.

I will never forget the sincere support and encouragement of Prof. Michael Brunner,
Sister Franziska Hopmann, Sister Isa Vermehren and Dr. Eric de Saventhem during my
entire stay in Germany. To them I express my particular thanks.

As this research was consuming my energy, I was lucky to have around me Ursula and
Heinz Nikola to refuel the dissipated energy. To them, I express my entire gratitude.

This research work would have not been possible without the funding of the German
Research Foundation (DFG) and the Elisabeth-Frickenhaus Foundation. I express my
sincere thanks to them for their financial support.

The unique real constant in nature and life is change!
Tiemeni & Mbouende


















Table of Contents

Abstract................................................................................................................................i
Zusammenfassung.............................................................................................................iii
Résumé.v
CHAPTER 1.......................................................................................................................1
Introduction........................................................................................................................1
1.1 Outline of the thesis....................................................................................................1
1.2 Overview of micro-energy harvesting........................................................................3
1.2.1 Trigger for mi .................................................................. 3
1.2.2 Conventional power sources for portable devices and impacts ......................... 4
1.2.3 Energy sources and domains for micro-energy harvesting ................................ 6
1.2.3.1 Human Sources of energy...............................................................................6
1.2.3.2 Environmental sources of energy ...................................................................7
1.2.3.2.1 Radiant energy .........................................................................................................................7
1.2.3.2.2 Thermal energy........................................................................................................................8
1.2.3.2.3 Magnetic energy......................................................................................................................9
1.2.3.2.4 Chemical energy9
1.2.3.2.5 Kinetic energy ..........................................................................................................................9
1.2.4 Market and power requirement of energy harvesting devices ......................... 10
1.2.5 Micro-energy harvesting module.....................................................................10
1.3 Review of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters ..........................................12
1.3.1 Commercial electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters ............................... 12
1.3.2 Macro-implemented electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters .................. 13
1.3.3 Micro-implema................... 16
1.4 Motivation for the thesis and problem statement .....................................................18
1.4.1 or the thesis................................................................................... 18
1.4.2 Problem statement............................................................................................19
1.5 Deliverables and methodology.................................................................................20
CHAPTER 2.....................................................................................................................23
Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters...............................23
2.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................23
2.2 Operation principle and lumped parameter model ...................................................23
vi 2.3 Equation of motion...................................................................................................24
2.4 Characteristics of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters...............................28
2.4.1 Transfer function and transient behaviour........................................................ 28
2.4.2 Electrical current and voltages ......................................................................... 30
2.4.3 Electromagnetic damping factor and ratio ....................................................... 31
2.4.4 Absorbed mechanical power and electrical output power................................ 32
2.4.5 Efficiency.........................................................................................................36
2.4.6 Overall bandwidth............................................................................................37
2.5 General optimisation theorie of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters.........38
2.5.1 Optimum load resistance .................................................................................. 39
2.5.2 Optimum electromagnetic damping ratio and optimum overall bandwidth..... 39
2.5.3 Power maximisation.........................................................................................41
2.6 Sizing guide..............................................................................................................41
2.7 Summary...................................................................................................................42
CHAPTER 3.....................................................................................................................45
Basics of Printed Circuit Board Technology.................................................................45
3.1 Brief history45
3.2 Components of PCB.................................................................................................46
3.3 Classification of PCB ...............................................................................................47
3.4 Fabrication process of PCB.....................................................................................49
3.5 Layout and processing guidelines ............................................................................51
CHAPTER 4.....................................................................................................................53
Building Elements of PCB-Based Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters ...53
4.1 Housing of the PCB-based EM-VEHs .....................................................................53
4.2 Permanent Magnet of the PCB-based EM-VEHs ....................................................53
4.3 Mechanical resonator of the PCB-based EM-VEHs ................................................57
4.3.1 Introduction......................................................................................................57
4.3.2 Mechanical resonator for small area applications ............................................ 60
4.3.2.1 PCB-based-mechanical resonator for the standard configuration ................60
4.3.2.2 PCB-based-mechanical resonator for the inverse configuration ..................62
4.3.3 Mechanical resonator for large area applications............................................. 64
4.4 Coil of the PCB-based EM-VEHs............................................................................65
4.4.1 Wire wound coil ............................................................................................... 65
4.4.1.1 Magnet wire..................................................................................................66
vii 4.4.1.2 Design of wire wound coil............................................................................67
4.4.1.3 Scaling effect on wire wound coil ................................................................71
4.4.2 Planar coil.........................................................................................................72
4.4.2.1 Fabrication technique of planar coil .............................................................72
4.4.2.2 Design of planar coil.....................................................................................73
4.4.2.3 Scaling effect on planar coil .........................................................................78
CHAPTER 5.....................................................................................................................79
Metrology of PCB-Based Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters .................79
5.1 Characterisation method of PCB-based EM-VEHs .................................................79
5.2 Characterisation setup of PCB-based EM-VEHs .....................................................81
CHAPTER 683
PCB-Based EM-VEHs for Small Area Applications ....................................................83
6.1 Harvester in the standard configuration ...................................................................83
6.2 Harvester in the inverse configuration .....................................................................83
6.3 Experimental results and discussions .......................................................................84
6.3.1 Open circuit voltage ......................................................................................... 84
6.3.2 Electrical output power .................................................................................... 88
6.3.3 Load resistance.................................................................................................89
6.3.4 Validation of the general optimisation theory of electromagnetic vibration
energy harvesters .............................................................................................................. 92
CHAPTER 7.....................................................................................................................95
PCB-Based Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters for Large Area
Applications......................................................................................................................95
7.1 Device description and fabrication...........................................................................95
7.2 Experimental results and discussions .......................................................................96
CHAPTER 899
PCB-Based Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters with Beam-like
Resonators...99
8.1 Description of the prototype.....................................................................................99
8.2 Simulation results and discussions .........................................................................100
8.2.1 Eigenfrequency analysis.................................................................................100
8.2.2 Static analysis.................................................................................................101
8.2.3 Fatigue analysis..............................................................................................
8.3 Experimental results and discussions .....................................................................105
viii 8.3.1 Open circuit voltage and model parameters ................................................... 106
8.3.2 Electrical output power .................................................................................. 107
CHAPTER 9...................................................................................................................111
Broadband PCB-Based Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters..................111
9.1 Basic theory and principle......................................................................................111
9.2 Experimental results and discussions .....................................................................112
CHAPTER 10.................................................................................................................115
Performance measures of Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesters ..............115
10.1 Introduction............................................................................................................115
10.2 Review of performance metrics..............................................................................115
10.2.1 Efficiency.......................................................................................................115
10.2.2 Output power density ..................................................................................... 116
10.2.3 Normalised output power density................................................................... 116
10.2.4 Effectiveness..................................................................................................116
10.2.5 Harvester effectiveness...................................................................................117
10.3 Power yield.............................................................................................................117
10.4 Practical performance metrics................................................................................118
10.4.1 Harvester sensitivity.......................................................................................118
10.4.2 Performance weight........................................................................................118
10.5 Harvester quality....................................................................................................119
10.6 Performance metrics of the PCB-based EM-VEHs in the inverse configuration ..119
CHAPTER 11.................................................................................................................121
Conclusions.....................................................................................................................121
11.1 Conclusions............................................................................................................121
11.2 Summary of contributions ......................................................................................124
11.3 Future research.......................................................................................................125
Appendix A.....................................................................................................................127
Characteristics of commonly occurring vibration sources...............................................127
Appendix B128
Publications......................................................................................................................128
Appendix C129
Layout of the PCB-Based EM-VEH in the inverse configuration...................................129
Appendix D.....................................................................................................................132
Setup for the characterisation...........................................................................................132
ix Appendix E .....................................................................................................................133
Drawings of the housings and spacer of the PCB-based electromagnetic vibration energy
harvesters....133
Appendix F134
Cost of the PCB-based electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters..............................134
Appendix G135
Gantt diagram of the research project..............................................................................135
Bibliography ...................................................................................................................137
List of symbols................................................................................................................145
List of abbreviations ......................................................................................................149
List of figures..151
List of tables....................................................................................................................157





















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