Radiation protection research programme
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English

Radiation protection research programme

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Synthesis of results 1981-84
Nuclear energy and safety

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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
EURATOM
RADIATION PROTECTION
Research programme
Synthesis of results
1981-84
EUR 10394 EN Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation
Bâtiment Jean Monnet
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on
behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1986
ISBN 92-825-6377-4
Catalogue number: CD-NP-86-005-EN-C
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1986
Printed in Luxembourg COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
DIRECTORATE-GENERAL DIRECTORATE-GENERAL
SCIENCE, RESEARCH AND EMPLOYMENT, SOCIAL AFFAIRS
DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION
Biology, Radiation Protection Health and Safety
and Medical Research
RADIATION PROTECTION
RESEARCH PROGRAMME
SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS
1981 - 1984
PARL [I
N.C./EU,
XII/10/86 JANUARY 1986 CL J EUR 10394 CONTENTS
Page
PREFACE Ill
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY V
SYNTHESIS OF RESULTS OF THE RADIATION PROTECTION
PROGRAMME 1981-1984
1. Introduction
1.1. Importance of Radiation Protection Research 1
1.2. Achievements of the Commission's Radiation
Protection Programme 2
1.3. Present State of the Programme 6
2. Results
A. Radiation Dosimetry and its Interpretation 11
B. Behaviour and Control of Radionuclides in the
Environment 33
C. Short-term Somatic Effects of Ionizing Radiation .... 5
D. Late Somatic Effects of Ionizing Radiation 7
E. Genetic Effects of Ionizing Radiation 95
F. Evaluation of Radiation Risks 119
3. Management Aspects 14
4. Annexes
I. Members of the Advisory Committee on Programme
Management "Biology - Health Protection" 1981-1984 .. 152
II.s and Experts of the Management and
Coordination Advisory Committee (CGC)
"Radiation Protection" 1985 '. 153
III. List of Contracts 154
IV. Geographical Distribution of Contracts 161
V. List of Proceedings of Scientific Meetings and other
Publications on Radiation Protection5
VI. Budgetary Situation of the Radiation Protection
Programme 1981-1984 17III
PREFACE
The research carried out by the Radiation Protection Programme of the
Commission during the period 1981-1984 has been reviewed and evaluated
by the Management and Coordination Advisory Committee (CGC) "Radiation
Protection" and the services of the Commission. The outcome of the
review is presented in this report. It gives a critical synthesis of
results achieved and an overview of problems in radiation protection, as
well as some essential features of the management of the programme.
This review also reflects the progress of cooperation within the
Community made in radiation protection research as a consequence of the
efforts of the Commission over many years. Radiation Protection remains
an issue of great public concern, and it is hoped that this report will
be useful in putting the problems into perspective and will thus help
the competent authorities in decision making.
The collaboration of the following members or experts of the CGC in
preparing this report is gratefully acknowledged: B. Boenjakovic,
A. Cigna, R.J. Cole, V. Covelli, J.D. Cunningham, J.A. Dennis,
W. GOssner, H.L. Gjørup, H.J. Hardt, Α. Lafontaine, H. Jammet,
Κ.Α. Jessen, Ρ. Lejeune, A.M. Kellerer, N.O. Kjeldgaard, D. Maintas,
A.T. Natara jan, P. Pellerin, E.D. Rubery, J. Schneider, E.G. Sideris,
A.N.B. Stott, D.W. van Bekkum, J. Visfeldt.
F. VAN HOECK E. BENNETT
DirectorDirector
Biology,RadiationProtectionHealthandSafety
and MedicalResearchEXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The Commission of the European Communities and the Management and
Coordination Advisory Committee (CGC) "Radiation Protection" have
prepared a review synthesizing the scientific results of the Radiation
Protection Programme obtained during the period 1981-1984. The
objective of the programme, the fifth of a series initiated on the basis
of the Euratom Treaty, had been to evaluate objectively effects and
hazards arising from ionizing radiation and thus to contribute to the
protection of man and his environment. Thereby it has
- integrated radiation protection research in Europe and stimulated
cooperation in this field, and
contributed to the scientific background for the Community "Basic
Safety Standards for the Health Protection of the General Public
and Workers against the Dangers of Ionizing Radiation".
The Radiation Protection Programme corresponds to a significant and
relevant share of worldwide efforts to Improve scientific knowledge and
practice in radiation protection. The programme spanned a wide range of
topics and required constant interaction amongst them as well as amongst
scientific developments occurring outside radiation protection research.
Examples are: Movement of radionuclides in the environment and in man,
reduction of man-made exposure including that from medical diagnostics,
exposure and effects of natural radioactivity, risk assessment from the
nuclear fuel cycle, treatment of radiation accidents, definition of
somatic and genetic radiation risks, mechanisms and prevention of
radiation-induced cancer.
The 1980-1984 programme had been endowed with a budget of 59 MioECU,
including 10 MioECU for the year 1980. In fact, 1980 was an overlapping
year between this and the preceding programme. Therefore this report
covers the period from 1981 to 1984, only during which time 49 MioECU
were spent, mainly in cost-shared contracts. More than 500 projects
were executed, in which nearly all relevant national institutions and
universities of the Community participated. The impact of these
contracts can be seen from about 4.500 scientific publications which
appeared during this period. Cost-sharing has been an effective means
of attracting interest and funds on the national level, and the
Commission covered thus 35-45X of all pertinent research in the
Community. About 80Z of all such research was associated with the
programme by scientific contacts, cooperation and information exchange.
Workshops, symposia, study groups and expert meetings represented an
indispensable instrument for cost-efficient cooperation and a large
dissemination of knowledge. During the 1981-1984 period, 144 meetings
dealing with topical subjects and involving more than 4.000 participants VI
were organized by the Commission. Å total of 66 proceedings of these
meetings, or reviews on various aspects of practical radiation
protection, have been published during the period considered.
Short-term study visits by contractors in other laboratories and grants
to young scientists served to strengthen cooperation and to improve
training in radiation protection. Relations were also maintained with
relevant international organizations and with radiation research
programmes of countries outside the Community.
The present synthesis puts these results into the general frame of
radiation protection research and allows comparison of different
projects dealing with a given problem. Conclusions and recommendations
drawn on the basis of the results obtained and of new developments in
research have been implemented in the 1985-1989 programme, allowing for
continuous adaptation to the changing needs and progress of radiation
protection.
Research in radiation dosimetry and its interpretation had the objective
to develop and implement new concepts and quantities in radiation
protection, to improve radiation protection instruments and dosemeters,
to interpret risks in terms of dosimetric quantities and to collect and
evaluate basic data fornn dosimetry.
- Attempts were successful in assimilating the concept of effective
dose equivalent and in laying down the scientific grounds for the
new estimations of dose equivalent recommended by ICRU at the
beginning of 1985.
- Individual dosemeters and survey instruments were developed and
calibration for neutron and beta radiation was performed. The
measurement of plutonium in the lungs of workers was improved.
Accident detectors based on human hair, human desiccated tissue,
natural and synthetic fibres of clothes were investigated.
- Microdoeimetric data were provided and applied for the
interpretation of related biological studies with respect to an
increase of the neutron quality factor. Experimental studies
suggest a larger biological efficiency of neutrons at low doses.
Such results have become an important issue since existing human
data now appear unreliable.
- New data have been collected, evaluated and published on stopping
power, kerma and conversion factors, ionization potential,
microdosimetric and secondary particle distributions. Detector
materials were investigated which enabled the development of
improved personal dosimeters.
Research on the behaviour and control of radionuclides in the
environment was performed in order to acquire and improve data on the