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Searching in lists while driving [Elektronische Ressource] : identification of factors contributing to driver workload / vorgelegt von Julia Körner

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Searching in Lists While DrivingIdentification of Factors Contributing to Driver WorkloadInaugural-Dissertationzur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophiean der Ludwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMünchenFakultät für Psychologie und Pädagogikvorgelegt vonJulia KörnerausMünchen2006Referent: Prof. Dr. Edmund Wascher Korreferent: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Prinz 27. Juli 2006 AcknowledgementsI wish to express my thanks to everyone who helped me during the various phases of writing this dissertation. I am thankful to Martina Rieger and Edmund Wascher who gave me the opportunity for this work in the first place and their support during all stages of the thesis, even as physical distances increased. I also wish to thank them and Wolfgang Prinz for their willingness to act as review-ers.This work could not have been realized without the help of Wolfgang Klier who programmed the electronic interface of the experimental apparatus and Robert Körner who supported me in creat-ing a java application which permitted data analysis. THANK YOU! Jacq, many thanks for proofreading! Martina, thank you very much for guiding me through the last weeks of this dissertation!! Andrea, thank you very much for your support and patient question-answering during all stages of the dissertation! Special thanks go to my family for support and encouragement!

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Published 01 January 2006
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Searching in Lists While Driving
Identification of Factors Contributing to Driver Workload
Inaugural-Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophie
an der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
München
Fakultät für Psychologie und Pädagogik
vorgelegt von
Julia Körner
aus
München
2006Referent: Prof. Dr. Edmund Wascher
Korreferent: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Prinz
27. Juli 2006 Acknowledgements
I wish to express my thanks to everyone who helped me during the various phases of writing this
dissertation.
I am thankful to Martina Rieger and Edmund Wascher who gave me the opportunity for this
work in the first place and their support during all stages of the thesis, even as physical distances
increased. I also wish to thank them and Wolfgang Prinz for their willingness to act as review-
ers.
This work could not have been realized without the help of Wolfgang Klier who programmed the
electronic interface of the experimental apparatus and Robert Körner who supported me in creat-
ing a java application which permitted data analysis. THANK YOU!
Jacq, many thanks for proofreading!
Martina, thank you very much for guiding me through the last weeks of this dissertation!!
Andrea, thank you very much for your support and patient question-answering during all stages
of the dissertation!
Special thanks go to my family for support and encouragement!
Martin, sorry for having to forbear from doing a lot of things together, and THANKS for bear-
ing me during difficult phases and for your support and encouragement in all respects! Content
Content
List of tables ............................................................................................................vii
List of figures..........................................................................................................viii
Summary....................................................................................................................x
Preface .....................................................................................................................xii
CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Determinants of dual task performance............................................................5
1.1.1 Task similarity and performance..................................................................5
1.1.2 Task difficulty and performance...................................................................6
1.1.3 Effort and performance ................................................................................7
1.1.4 Divided attention, timesharing and performance..........................................9
1.1.5 Practice and performance..........................................................................10
1.2 Reasons for dual task performance decrements............................................11
1.2.1 Structural constraints .................................................................................12
1.2.2 Switch costs and limits of divided attention................................................13
1.2.3 Speed-accuracy trade-off15
1.3 Task demands and driving performance.........................................................17
1.3.1 Driving task demands ................................................................................17
1.3.2 In-vehicle system task demands................................................................18
1.3.2.1 Design of lists and menu structure..................................................18
1.3.2.2 Display and control of information...................................................19
1.4 Capability of the driver and driving performance...........................................21
1.4.1 Biological factors........................................................................................21
1.4.2 Knowledge and skills .................................................................................22
1.4.2.1 Level of practice and experience.....................................................23
1.4.2.2 Time-sharing skills ..........................................................................24
1.4.2.3 Task priority management...............................................................25
1.4.2.4 Situation awareness........................................................................27
1.4.2.5 Perceptual-motor skills....................................................................28
iContent
1.5 Workload level and driving performance ........................................................29
1.5.1 Workload – possible definitions .................................................................29
1.5.2 Compensation of suboptimal workload levels............................................30
1.5.2.1 Investing more effort .......................................................................33
1.5.2.2 Adoption of more or less demanding working strategies.................34
1.5.2.3 Skipping subsidiary tasks................................................................35
1.5.3 Modulating variables of driving performance .............................................37
1.5.3.1 Personality and attitudes towards driving........................................37
1.5.3.2 Motivation........................................................................................39
1.5.3.3 Emotion and stress .........................................................................40
1.5.4 Assessment of mental workload43
1.6 General aims of this dissertation.....................................................................45
CHAPTER 2: GENERAL METHODS 46
2.1 Simulating reality...............................................................................................46
2.2 Participants........................................................................................................48
2.3 General experimental setup .............................................................................48
2.3.1 Apparatus ..................................................................................................49
2.3.2 Stimuli50
2.3.2.1 Primary task and track setup...........................................................50
2.3.2.2 Secondary task and list setup .........................................................53
2.3.2.3 Task prompts ..................................................................................55
2.3.3 Controls .....................................................................................................55
2.4 General procedure.............................................................................................56
2.5 Data analysis57
2.5.1 Driving performance (primary task)............................................................59
2.5.2 List performance (secondary task).............................................................60
2.5.3 Subjective ratings of workload ...................................................................62
CHAPTER 3: LIST LENGTH AND POSITION IN THE LIST 63
3.1 Theoretical background....................................................................................63
3.2 Pilot experiment.................................................................................................67
3.2.1 Participants................................................................................................67
3.2.2 Experimental setup68
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3.2.3 Procedure ..................................................................................................69
3.2.4 Pilot results and discussion .......................................................................69
3.2.4.1 Driving task .....................................................................................69
3.2.4.2 List selection task............................................................................70
3.3 Experiment 1: List position ..............................................................................71
3.3.1 Introduction................................................................................................71
3.3.2 Method.......................................................................................................71
3.3.2.1 Participants71
3.3.2.2 Experimental setup .........................................................................72
3.3.2.3 Procedure .......................................................................................72
3.3.3 Results72
3.3.3.1 Driving performance (primary task).................................................72
3.3.3.2 List performance (secondary task)..................................................74
3.3.3.3 Subjective ratings............................................................................75
3.3.4 Discussion experiment 177
3.4 Experiment 2: List length..................................................................................79
3.4.1 Introduction................................................................................................79
3.4.2 Method.......................................................................................................79
3.4.2.1 Participants .....................................................................................79
3.4.2.2 Experimental setup .........................................................................80
3.4.2.3 Procedure .......................................................................................80
3.4.3 Results81
3.4.3.1 Driving performance (primary task).................................................81
3.4.3.2 List performance (secondary task)..................................................82
3.4.3.3 Subjective ratings............................................................................83
3.4.4 Discussion experiment 285
3.5 Experiment 3: Short list ....................................................................................88
3.5.1 Introduction................................................................................................88
3.5.2 Method.......................................................................................................88
3.5.2.1 Participants .....................................................................................88
3.5.2.2 Experimental setup .........................................................................89
3.5.2.3 Procedure .......................................................................................89
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3.5.3 Results.......................................................................................................90
3.5.3.1 Driving performance (primary task).................................................90
3.5.3.2 List performance (secondary task)..................................................91
3.5.3.3 Subjective ratings............................................................................92
3.5.4 Discussion experiment 395
3.6 Discussion experiments 1, 2, and 3.................................................................96
CHAPTER 4: CONTROL LOCATION 102
4.1 Theoretical background..................................................................................102
4.2 Experiment 4: Steering-wheel-mounted controls.........................................105
4.2.1 Introduction..............................................................................................105
4.2.2 Method.....................................................................................................105
4.2.2.1 Participants ...................................................................................105
4.2.2.2 Experimental setup .......................................................................105
4.2.2.3 Procedure .....................................................................................106
4.2.3 Results106
4.2.3.1 Driving performance (primary task)...............................................106
4.2.3.2 List performance (secondary task)................................................108
4.2.3.3 Subjective ratings..........................................................................109
4.2.4 Comparative statistical analysis between experiments 3 and 4...............112
4.2.4.1 Driving performance (primary task)...............................................112
4.2.4.2 Secondary task performance ........................................................113
4.2.4.3 Subjective ratings113
4.2.5 Discussion experiment 4114
4.3 Discussion experiments 3 and 4....................................................................115
CHAPTER 5: DISPLAY LOCATION 119
5.1 Theoretical background..................................................................................119
5.2 Experiment 5: One monitor ............................................................................122
5.2.1 Introduction..............................................................................................122
5.2.2 Method.....................................................................................................122
5.2.2.1 Participants ...................................................................................122
5.2.2.2 Experimental setup .......................................................................122
5.2.2.3 Procedure .....................................................................................123
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5.2.3 Results.....................................................................................................123
5.2.3.1 Driving performance (primary task)...............................................123
5.2.3.2 List performance (secondary task)................................................125
5.2.3.3 Subjective ratings..........................................................................126
5.2.4 Comparative statistical analysis between experiments 4 and 5...............129
5.2.4.1 Primary task performance .............................................................129
5.2.4.2 Secondary task performance ........................................................130
5.2.4.3 Subjective Ratings ........................................................................130
5.2.5 Discussion experiment 5..........................................................................131
5.3 Discussion experiments 4 and 5....................................................................133
CHAPTER 6: GENERAL DISCUSSION 138
6.1 Summary of results.........................................................................................138
6.1.1 Driving performance ................................................................................139
6.1.2 Menu selection performance142
6.1.3 Subjective experience..............................................................................143
6.2 Reaction to primary task demands................................................................144
6.2.1 Direction of curvature...............................................................................144
6.2.2 Curve radius ............................................................................................145
6.2.3 Driving speed...........................................................................................146
6.3 Reaction to secondary task demands ...........................................................146
6.3.1 List length ................................................................................................146
6.3.2 Location of secondary task controls.........................................................148
6.3.3 Display proximity......................................................................................148
6.3.4 Searching period149
6.4 Subjective experience.....................................................................................149
6.5 Speed-accuracy trade-offs and task prioritisation .......................................150
6.6 Workload levels ...............................................................................................151
6.7 Generalizability to real driving situations .....................................................153
6.8 Directions for future research ........................................................................156
6.9 Conclusions.....................................................................................................158
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APPENDIX 159
Appendix A: Questionnaires ................................................................................159
Appendix B: Instructions......................................................................................162
Appendix C: Track Setup163
Appendix D: List Setups.......................................................................................165
DEUTSCHE ZUSAMMENFASSUNG 166
REFERENCES 174
CURRICULUM VITAE 189
viList of tables
List of tables
Table 2.1 Overview of independent primary task variables ...................................................53
Table 2.2dependent secondary task variables...............................................54
Table 2.3 Minimum and maximum values of dependent variables ........................................58
Table 2.4 Dependent variables..............................................................................................61
Table 3.1 Factors investigated in experiments 1-3 ................................................................67
Table 3.2 Overview of experimental design of the pilot experiment ......................................69
Table 3.3xdesign of experiment 1 .................................................71
Table 3.4 Results of Experiment 1. Mean values of lane deviation (pixel), misses (%),
secondary task duration times (sec), error rate, subjective ratings of effort,
secondary task interference, and attention allocation (with standard deviation in
parenthesis)...........................................................................................................76
Table 3.5 Overview of experimental design of exp. 2............................................................79
Table 3.6 Results of Experiment 2. Mean values of lane deviation (pixel), misses (%),
secondary task duration times (sec), error rate, subjective ratings of effort,
secondary task interference, and attention allocation (with standard deviation in
parenthesis)...........................................................................................................84
Table 3.7 Overview of experimental design of experiment 3 .................................................88
Table 3.8 Results of Experiment 3. Mean values of lane deviation (pixel), misses (%),
secondary task duration times (sec), error rate, subjective ratings of effort,
secondary task interference, and attention allocation (with standard deviation in
parenthesis)...........................................................................................................93
Table 4.1 Factors investigated in experiment 4 ...................................................................104
Table 4.2 Results of Experiment 4. Mean values of lane deviation (pixel), misses (%),
secondary task duration times (sec), error rate, subjective ratings of effort,
secondary task interference, and attention allocation (with standard deviation in
parenthesis).........................................................................................................111
Table 5.1 Factors investigated in experiment 5121
Table 5.2 Results of Experiment 5. Mean values of lane deviation (pixel), misses (%),
secondary task duration times (sec), error rate, subjective ratings of effort,
secondary task interference, and attention allocation (with standard deviation in
parenthesis)128
Table 6.1 Overview of factors investigated..........................................................................156
Table 6.2 Overview of factors still open for investigation.....................................................157
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