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Shipwreck and providence [Elektronische Ressource] : the mission programme of acts 27-28 / vorgelegt von Dominic Mendonca

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SHIPWRECK AND PROVIDENCEThe Mission Programme of Acts 27-28InauguraldissertationZur Erlangung der Wurde eines DoktorsDer Katholisch- Theologischen FakultätDer Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität MünchenVorgelegt vonP. Dominic Mendonca O.P.München 2004 Thesis directed by: Prof. Hans-Joseph Klauck The second reader and the examiner: Prof. Haefner thDate of the Oral Examination: 26 January 2004 Preface"All flesh shall see the salvation of God". These words of Isaiah which Luke puts on the lips ofJohn the Baptist at the beginning of his Ministry provide a key to understanding Luke-Acts. Thesalvation which Jesus has brought in to the world must go beyond the confines of Jewish nationand reach the Gentiles as well. In the voyage narrative, the Gentiles benefit from the salvationwithout being converted to Christianity. The voyage narrative highlights the kind and hospitablebehavior between Paul and the Gentiles. Such relationship is important for the rescue of all fromthe death by shipwreck, and in a symbolic way, for the salvation of all humanity. Living with thepeople of other Faiths in India has inspired me to study this issue of universal salvation in Acts27-28. I am deeply grateful to Prof. Hans-Josef Klauck who encouraged me to explore thispossibility. It is because of his guidance and timely suggestions that I have been able to completemy work. My gratitude extends to my Dominican Brothers of both Indian and South-GermanProvince.

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Published 01 January 2004
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SHIPWRECK AND PROVIDENCE
The Mission Programme of Acts 27-28
Inauguraldissertation
Zur Erlangung der Wurde eines Doktors
Der Katholisch- Theologischen Fakultät
Der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Vorgelegt von
P. Dominic Mendonca O.P.
München 2004
Thesis directed by: Prof. Hans-Joseph Klauck
The second reader and the examiner: Prof. Haefner
thDate of the Oral Examination: 26 January 2004 Preface
"All flesh shall see the salvation of God". These words of Isaiah which Luke puts on the lips of
John the Baptist at the beginning of his Ministry provide a key to understanding Luke-Acts. The
salvation which Jesus has brought in to the world must go beyond the confines of Jewish nation
and reach the Gentiles as well. In the voyage narrative, the Gentiles benefit from the salvation
without being converted to Christianity. The voyage narrative highlights the kind and hospitable
behavior between Paul and the Gentiles. Such relationship is important for the rescue of all from
the death by shipwreck, and in a symbolic way, for the salvation of all humanity. Living with the
people of other Faiths in India has inspired me to study this issue of universal salvation in Acts
27-28. I am deeply grateful to Prof. Hans-Josef Klauck who encouraged me to explore this
possibility. It is because of his guidance and timely suggestions that I have been able to complete
my work. My gratitude extends to my Dominican Brothers of both Indian and South-German
Province. I wish and pray that the message of kindness which Luke brings out so emphatically in
the voyage narrative may reach all humanity.
Dominic Mendonca, OP.
Augsburg, July 2004Content
Chapter one: 1 Acts 27-28 within the Plan and Purpose of
Luke Acts
1.1 Introduction 1
1.1.1 The Unity of Luke-Acts 1
1.1.2 The Genre of Luke-Acts 4
1.1.2.1 The Aim of History 4
1.1.2.2 Different types of Historiography 6
1.1.2.3 Acts as Poetic History 6
1.1.2.4 Conclusion 7
1.1.3 The Purpose 8
1.1.3.1 Various Theories on the Purpose of Luke Acts 8
1.1.3.2 Conclusion 11
1.1.4 The Narrative Plot: Universal Mission as Fulfillment of Prophesy 14
1.1.4.1 Prophetic Structure of Luke-Acts 15
1.1.4.2 Universal Salvation as Foretold in the Scriptures 18
1.1.4.2.1 The Beginning of the Ministry of John the Baptist 19
1.1.4.2.2 The Inaugural Discourse of Jesus in the Synagogue of Nazareth 20
1.1.4.2.3 The Concluding Words of Jesus in the Gospel 22
1.1.4.2.4 The Inaugural Address of Peter 24
1.1.4.2.5 Peter's Final Speech 25
1.1.4.2.6 Paul's First Missionary Discourse 28
1.1.4.2.7 Paul's Final Address to the Jews of Rome 29
1.1.4.3 Conclusion 30
1.2 Acts 27-28 within the plan and purpose of Luke-Acts 31
1.2.1 Previous studies on Acts 27-28 31
1.2.1.1 Redactional analysis 32
1.2.1.1.1 Dibelius and Wellhausen 32
1.2.1.1.2 Haenchen and Conzelmann 32
1.2.1.1.3 Plümacher and Pervo 34
1.2.1.2 Artistic analysis 35
1.2.1.2.1 Rackham 35
1.2.1.2.2 Goulder 36
1.2.1.2.3 Radl 36
1.2.1.3 Ancient voyage-narratives and Acts 27-28 37
1.2.1.3.1 The Literary tradition of Homer 37
ii1.2.1.3.2 Acts 27-28 and the narratives of authentic Voyages 38
1.2.1.3.2.1 Odyssey of Isis 39
1.2.1.3.2.2 Plutarch's biography of Dion 40
1.2.1.3.2.3 Aelius Aristides 40
1.2.1.3.2.4 Arrian 40
1.2.2 Conclusion 41
Chapter Two: The Voyage up to Fair Havens (27:1-8)
2.1 Introduction 45
2.2 Textual Criticism 46
2.3 Unity and Structure 47
2.4 Exegetical Analysis 48
2.4.1 Immediate Preparations for the Voyage: departure (v. 1) 48
2.4.1.1 The Participants 48
2.4.1.2 The Decision 50
2.4.1.3 Handing over of Paul and Other Prisoners 52
2.4.1.3.1 paradi,dwmi in the OT 52
2.4.1.3.2 paradi,dwmi in the NT 52
2.4.1.3.3 paradi,dwmi and Jesus-Paul Parallelism 54
2.4.1.4 The Centurion Julius 56
2.4.2 The First Stage: Voyage up to Sydon (vv. 2-3) 59
2.4.2.1 The Ship of Adramyttium 59
2.4.2.2 Aristarchus 59
2.4.2.3 The Port of Sidon 60
2.4.2.4 The Kindness of Julius 61
2.4.2.5 The Friends of Paul 62
2.4.2.6 Being Cared for 64
2.4.2.7 The Function of Verse 3 66
2.4.3 Voyage up to Myra (vv.4-5) 66
2.4.3.1 Sailing under the Lee of Cyprus 66
2.4.3.2 Sailing across the Open Sea off Cilicia and Pamphylia 68
2.4.3.3 Myra 68
2.4.3.4 The Duration of the Voyage 69
2.4.4 The tedious and Effortful Voyage from Myra to Fair Havens. (vv. 6-8) 70
2.4.4.1 The Ship of Alexandria 71
2.4.4.2 Off Cnidus 73
2.4.4.3 Sailing under the Lee of Crete off Salmone 73
iii2.4.4.4 Fair Havens 74
2.5 Conclusion 75
Chapter Three: Paul's Prophesy and its Immediate Fulfillment
3.1 The First Intervention from Paul: (Acts 27:9-12) 77
3.1.1 Structure 77
3.1.2 Exegetical Analysis 78
3.1.2.1 The Context: (v. 9) 78
3.1.2.1.1 Much Time has Passed Voyage (v. 9a) 78
3.1.2.1.2 The Voyage Becoming Dangerous (v. 9b) 78
3.1.2.1.3 Fast had Already Gone (v. 9c) 78
3.1.2.2 The Intervention of Paul (v. 9d-l0) 81
3.1.2.2.1 Request (v. 9d) 82
3.1.2.2.2 Address Formula (v. l0a) 82
3.1.3.2.3 qewrw 83
3.1.2.2.4 Injury and Loss (v. 10 b) 84
3.1.2.3 The Response of the Centurion: (v. 11-12) 85
3.1.2.3.1 Captain and Owner of the Ship (v. 11) 85
3.1.2.3.2 Theboulh, of the majority (v. 12 a) 87
3.1.2.3.3 Phoenix: a Suitable Harbour for Passing Winter (v. 12 b) 89
3.1.2.4 Conclusion 89
3.2 The Storm at Sea 91
3.2.1 Introduction 91
3.2.2 Structure 91
3.2.3 Exegetical analysis 92
3.2.3.1 The First Stage: the Storm takes its Toll on the Ship's Course (vv. 13-15) 92
3.2.3.1.1 Sailing along Crete: (v. 13) 92
3.2.3.1.2 The Tempest (v. 14) 94
3.2.3.1.3 The Effect of the Tempest on the Course of the Ship (v. 15) 97
3.2.3.2 The Second Stage: The Storm Takes its Toll on the Part of the
Cargo and Trappings 99
3.2.3.2.1 Securing the Boat (v. 16) 99
3.2.3.2.2 Undergirding the Ship (v. 17a) 101
3.2.3.2.3 Lowering the Gear (v. 17b) 102
3.2.3.3 The Third Stage: The Storm Takes its Toll on the Emotional Part
of the Third and the First Person Plurals 104
3.2.3.3.1 Throwing the Cargo Overboard (v. 18) 105
iv3.2.3.3.2 Casting out the Tackle of the Ship (v. 19) 106
3.2.3.3.3 Abandoning the Hope of Being Saved (v. 20) 106
3.2.4 Conclusion 107
Chapter Four: Paul's Words of Comfort: Gentile Mission
a Divine Necessity
4.1 Introduction 110
4.2 Structure 110
4.3 Exegetical Analysis 111
4.3.1 The Circumstances 111
4.3.2 The Intervention from Paul 112
4.3.3 Words of Advice from Paul 112
4.3.3.1 The Reference to the Previous Action 113
4.3.3.2 Words of Courage 117
4.3.3.3 The Prophetic Declaration of Safety 118
4.3.3.4 The Reason for Prophetic Declaration: Angelic Vision 118
4.3.3.4.1 Temporal Qualification 118
4.3.3.4.2 The Messenger of God Standing Before Paul 120
4.3.3.4.3 Paul as the Servant of God:latreu,w 121
4.3.3.4.4 Words of the Messenger 124
4.3.3.4.4.1 Address of Comfort 124
4.3.3.4.4.2 The Message 125
4.3.3.4.4.2.1 Paul Must Stand Before the Emperor 125
4.3.3.4.4.2.2 The Salvation of All Because of Paul 125
4.3.3.5 The Reassurance through Faith 127
4.3.3.6 The Final Prophetic Declaration 130
4.3.3.7 Conclusion 130
4.4 The Genre of Acts 27:21-26: a Speech 131
4.4.1 Introduction 131
4.4.2 Speeches in Luke-Acts: Previous Investigations 131
4.4.2.1 J.G.Eichhorn and W.M.L. de Wette 132
4.4.2.2 Schneckenburger and Zeller 133
4.4.2.3 Overbeck, JUlicher and Moffatt 133
4.4.2.4 Dibelius 134
4.4.2.4.1 Speeches of Acts in Relationship to the Speeches of Ancient
Historiography 134
4.4.2.4.2 Missionary Sermons as Distinct from Speeches 136
v4.4.3 Speeches of Acts and the Speeches of Greco-Roman World 138
4.4.3.1 Introduction 138
4.4.3.2 Thucydides 139
4.4.3.3 Polibius 141
4.4.3.4 Tatius 141
4.4.3.5 Josephus 142
4.4.4 Speeches in the Septuagint 143
4.4.5 Conclusion 144
4.4.5.1 Speeches in Acts as Literary Creations of Luke 144
4.4.5.2 The Function of Speeches in Luke- Acts 146
4.4.6 Paul's Speech in 27:21-26 in Relationship with other
Two Gentile Speeches 149
4.4.6.1 Category 149
4.4.6.2 Context 152
4.4.6.3 Posture 153
4.4.6.4 Content 153
4.4.6.4.1 Address 153
4.4.6.4.2 Introductory Remark 154
4.4.6.4.3 Exhortation 156
4.4.6.4.4 Central doctrine 158
4.4.6.4.5 Conclusion 160
4.5 Gentile Mission: Divine Necessity Communicated Through Visions 161
4.5.1 Introduction 161
4.5.2 Divine Necessity: dei 162
4.5.2.1 Basic Meaning 162
4.5.2.2 Its Usage in Luke-Acts 163
4.5.3 Paul's Gentile Mission as a Divine Necessity 164
4.5.4 Paul's Gentile Mission: Divine Necessity and Human Co-operation 166
4.5.5 Gentile Mission: Divine Communication through Visions 168
4.5.5.1 Visions and Dreams in Acts 169
4.5.5.2 Basic Text: The Prophecy of Joel 170
4.5.5.3 The Important Visions in Acts: 172
4.5.5.3.1 Visions and Commissions at the Conversion of Paul: 172
4.5.5.3.2 Vision to Paul at the Beginning of his Second Mission Journey (16:9) 174
4.5.5.3.3 Vision to Paul at Corinth (18:9) 175
4.5.5.3.4 Vision to Paul Concerning his Witnessing in Rome (23:11) 177
4.6 Conclusion 179
viChapter Five: Shipwreck and Salvation (27:27-44)
5.1 Introduction 182
5.2 The Events of Fourteenth Night (vv. 27-32) 183
5.2.1 Structure 183
5.2.2 Exegetical Comments 184
5.2.2.1 The Actions of the Sailors 184
5.2.2.2 The Plot to Escape and Paul's Intervention 185
5.3 The Meal of Salvation (vv. 33-38) 186
5.3.1 Structure 186
5.3.2 Exegetical Analysis 188
5.3.2.1 Temporal Setting 188
5.3.2.2 Introducing the Exhortation 188
5.3.2.3 Reference to the Past 191
5.3.2.4 Paul's Advise 192
5.3.2.4.1 Statement of Reason 193
5.3.2.4.2 Statement of Assurance 194
5.3.2.4.2.1 OT Background 194
5.3.2.4.2.2 In Luke 195
5.3.2.5 Paul's Action 199
5.3.2.5.1 labw.n a;rton 199
5.3.2.5.2 Gave Thanks to God Before Them 202
5.3.2.5.3 He Broke It and Began to Eat 203
5.3.3 Theological Interpretation 205
5.3.3.1 Different Opinions 205
5.3.3.1.1 An Ordinary Jewish Meal 205
5.3.3.1.2 Eucharistic Meal 206
5.3.3.2 Comparison with Luke's Last Supper and Emmaus Meal 208
5.3.3.3 Comparison with the Feeding Miracles in Synoptics 209
5.3.3.3.1 Universalism 210
5.3.3.3.2 The Numbering of the Participants 211
5.3.3.3.3 Satiation 212
5.3.3.3.4 Conclusion 212
5.3.3.4 Acts 27:33-38 as a Meal of Salvation 213
5.3.3.4.1 The Meaning of Salvation in Luke-Acts 214
5.3.3.4.1.1 sw,|zw and swthri,a in Secular World 214
5.3.3.4.1.2 swthri,a and swz,| w in the LXX 215
5.3.3.4.1.3 sw,|zw and swthri,a in Luke- Acts 215
vii5.3.3.4.1.3.1 Salvation is a Divine Prerogative 216
5.3.3.4.1.3.2 Salvation in Jesus 217
5.3.3.4.1.4 sw,|zw and swthri,a in Acts 27-28 219
5.3.3.4.2 Meals of Salvation in Luke-Acts 219
5.3.3.4.2.1 Luke 7: 36-50 219
5.3.3.4.2.2 Luke 19:1-10 220
5.3.3.4.2.3 Acts 2: 42-47 222
5.3.3.4.2.4 Acts 10:1-11 :18 223
5.3.3.4.2.5 Acts 16:30-34 225
5.3.3.4.2.6 Acts 20: 7-12 226
5.3.3.4.2.7 Conclusion 226
5.4 The Deliverance of All (vv.39-44) 228
5.4.1 Structure 228
5.4.2 Exegetical Comments 230
5.4.2.1 The Recognition of the Bay 230
5.4.2.2 The Efforts to Reach the Beach 230
5.4.2.3 The Shipwreck 231
5.4.2.4 The Plot to Kill the Prisoners and Intervention of the Centurion 232
5.4.2.5 The Deliverance of All 233
5.5 Conclusion 233
Chapter Six: The Mission at Malta (28:1-10)
6.1 Introduction 236
6.2 Snake Bite and Rescue- The Innocence of Paul (28:1-6) 236
6.2.1 Structure 237
6.2.2 Exegetical Comments 238
6.2.2.1 Setting (vv. 1-2) 238
6.2.2.1.1 The Recognition of the Land 238
6.2.2.1.2 Malta 239
6.2.2.1.2.1 The Identification of the Place 239
6.2.2.1.2.2 Malta: Its History and Culture 240
6.2.2.1.2.3 The Natives of Malta 241
6.2.2.1.2.4 The Hospitality of the Islanders 242
6.2.2.1.3 The "We" Group 243
6.2.2.2 Exposition 243
6.2.2.2.1 Paul's Action 243
6.2.2.2.2 The Serpent on Paul's Hand 244
viii