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Simulation of autonomous robot teams with adaptable levels of abstraction [Elektronische Ressource] / von Martin Friedmann

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Simulation of AutonomousRobot Teams with AdaptableLevels of AbstractionVom Fachbereich Informatik derTechnischen Universität Darmstadtzur Erlangung des akademischen Grades einesDoktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.)genehmigteDissertationvonDipl.-Inform. Martin Friedmann(geboren in Groß-Gerau)Referent: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Oskar von StrykKoreferent: Prof. Dr. Eng. Enrico Pagello(Universität Padua, Italien)Tag der Einreichung: 19.10.2009Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 30.11.2009D17Darmstadt 2010Please cite this document asURN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-21132URL: http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/2113This document is provided by tuprints,E-Publishing-Service of the TU Darmstadthttp://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.detuprints@ulb.tu-darmstadt.deFür meine Frau, die mir den Mut ge-geben hat, diese Arbeit zu beginnen,und die Kraft, sie zu Ende zu führen.AcknowledgementsThis thesis was created during my time as research assistant at the Simulation, Systems Op-timization and Robotics Group (SIM) at the Department of Computer Science of the TechnischeUniversität Darmstadt.I wish to express my gratitude to my supervisor Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Oskar von Stryk. Withouthim I never would have started working in the field of humanoid robots. During many discus-sions he helped me to shape this thesis. When I was in need of advice, he never was more thanan email away (and often just one door).Likewise I want to thank Prof. Dr. Eng.

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Published 01 January 2010
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Simulation of Autonomous
Robot Teams with Adaptable
Levels of Abstraction
Vom Fachbereich Informatik der
Technischen Universität Darmstadt
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines
Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.)
genehmigte
Dissertation
von
Dipl.-Inform. Martin Friedmann
(geboren in Groß-Gerau)
Referent: Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Oskar von Stryk
Koreferent: Prof. Dr. Eng. Enrico Pagello
(Universität Padua, Italien)
Tag der Einreichung: 19.10.2009
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 30.11.2009
D17
Darmstadt 2010Please cite this document as
URN: urn:nbn:de:tuda-tuprints-21132
URL: http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/2113
This document is provided by tuprints,
E-Publishing-Service of the TU Darmstadt
http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de
tuprints@ulb.tu-darmstadt.deFür meine Frau, die mir den Mut ge-
geben hat, diese Arbeit zu beginnen,
und die Kraft, sie zu Ende zu führen.Acknowledgements
This thesis was created during my time as research assistant at the Simulation, Systems Op-
timization and Robotics Group (SIM) at the Department of Computer Science of the Technische
Universität Darmstadt.
I wish to express my gratitude to my supervisor Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Oskar von Stryk. Without
him I never would have started working in the field of humanoid robots. During many discus-
sions he helped me to shape this thesis. When I was in need of advice, he never was more than
an email away (and often just one door).
Likewise I want to thank Prof. Dr. Eng. Enrico Pagello for becoming second referee of my
thesis. I am grateful for his interest in my work and for his supportive comments.
Thanks go to all my current and former colleagues at the SIM group. They have contributed
to my thesis in many ways: sharing thoughts and coffee, demanding new features from my
simulations, or simply being there when a second pairs of eyes was needed when debugging.
I also wish to thank all members of the Darmstadt Dribblers RoboCup Team. Many of them
have been beta testers for parts of the software I developed for this thesis. Likewise I wish to
thank the members of the Research Training Group 1362 Cooperative, Adaptive and Responsive
Monitoring in Mixed Mode Environments for stimulating discussions, especially in the context of
search-and-rescue-robots.
Most of all I wish to thank my family. Without their constant support and patience, I would
not have been able to finish this thesis.
iContents
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Contents and Contribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 State of Research 5
2.1 Robot Control Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1.2 Components of Robot Control Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.2 Robot Motion Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.1 Algorithms for Multi-Body-Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.2.2 Dynamics Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.3 MBS Simulation Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3 Simulations for Autonomous Mobile Robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3.1 General Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3.2 Specialized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.3.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3.4 Validation of Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3 Proposed Methodology for Robot Simulations with Different Levels of Abstraction 25
3.1 Requirements for Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.1 Typical Use Cases for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.1.2 Levels of Detail and Abstraction for Robot Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.2 Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.1 Validation of Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.2 V of Simulation Methods and Modeling Parameters . . . . . . . . . 34
3.2.3 Selection of an Adequate Simulation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.3 Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.3.1 General Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.3.2 Execution of Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.3.3 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4 Adaptable Modeling of Robots 39
4.1 Modeling Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1.1 Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1.2 Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.1.3 Compound Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.2 Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
4.3 Modeling of Robot Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.3.1 Multi Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.3.2 Robot Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.3.3 Defining Robot Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
iii5 Computational Methods for Simulation on Different Levels of Abstraction 51
5.1 Robot Motion Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.1.1 Basic Algorihms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.1.2 Specialized Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.1.3 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
5.1.4 Scalability and Adaptability of Motion Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.2 Collision Detection and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.2.1 Selection of Object Pairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.2.2 Collision Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.2.3 Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.2.4 Scalability and Adaptability of the Collision Detection Subsystem . . . . . . 67
5.3 Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.3.1 General Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.3.2 Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5.3.3 Adaptability and Extendability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.4 Sensor Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.4.1 of Internal Sensors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.4.2 Simulation of Cameras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.4.3 Laser Range Finders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
5.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6 Integration and Execution of Models and Simulation Methods 77
6.1 Definition of a Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.2 Executing a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.3 Connecting to Robot Control Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.4 Data Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
7 Applications and Results 81
7.1 Simulation of Humanoid Robots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.1.1 The Robot Bruno 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
7.1.2 Structure of the Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.1.3 Simulation Model of the Humanoid Robot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
7.1.4 Validation of the Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
7.1.5 Applications of the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.1.6 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
7.1.7 Full Multi Body Dynamics Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.1.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.2 Simulation of a Search-and-Rescue-Robot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.2.1 Theescue Robot Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.2.2 Structure of the Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
7.2.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
7.2.4 Performance of the Laser Scanner Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
7.2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.3 Simulation of a Team of Heterogeneous Robots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
iv Contents7.4 Further Application Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.4.1 Prototyping of a New Four Legged Robot Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
7.4.2 Collision Detection for a Pipe-Bending Robot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
8 Conclusions 115
9 Zusammenfassung (Abstract in German) 117
Bibliography 119
Contents v