Social partnership in the school based vocational education and training system ; Socialinė partnerystė mokyklinėje profesinio rengimo sistemoje

Social partnership in the school based vocational education and training system ; Socialinė partnerystė mokyklinėje profesinio rengimo sistemoje

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Lina Kaminskienė SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE SCHOOL BASED VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING SYSTEM Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Education Sciences (07 S) Kaunas, 2008 The dissertation was prepared during the period of 2002-2008 at Vytautas Magnus University. Scientific supervisor: prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Lauţackas (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) The dissertation will be defended at the Education Science Council of Vytautas Magnus University: Chairman: prof. habil. dr. Margarita Teresevičienė (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) Members: prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Ţelvys (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) prof. dr. Sigitas Daukilas (Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) prof. dr. Jonas Ruškus (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) doc. dr. Vidmantas Tūtlys (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) Opponents: prof. dr. Asta Pundzienė (ISM University of Management and Economics, Social Sciences, Management and Administration – 03S) prof. dr. Vilma Ţydţiūnaitė (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences, Education Science – 07S) The defence of the dissertation will be held at 10 a.m.

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VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY          Lina Kaminskien   SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP IN THE SCHOOL BASED VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING SYSTEM        Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social Sciences, Education Sciences (07 S)                      Kaunas, 2008
The dissertation was prepared during the period of 2002-2008 at Vytautas Magnus University.   Scientific supervisor:  prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Lauţackas (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S)   The dissertation will be defended at the Education Science Council of Vytautas Magnus University:  Chairman: prof. habil. dr. Margarita Teresevičien (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S)  Members: prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Ţelvys (VilniusPedagogical University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) prof. dr. Sigitas Daukilas (Lithuanian University of Agriculture, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) prof. dr. Jonas Ruškus (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S) doc. dr. Vidmantas Ttlys (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Education Science - 07S)  Opponents: prof. dr. Asta Pundzien (ISM University of Management and Economics, Social Sciences, Management and Administration03S) prof. dr. Vilma Ţydţinait (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences, Education Science07S)  The defence of the dissertation will be held at 10 a.m. on November 14, 2008, at the public session of Education Science Council of Vytautas Magnus University, Small Hall.  Address: Daukanto str. 28, Kaunas, Lithuania  The summary of the doctoral dissertation was sent out on October 14, 2008. The dissertation is availablefor public reading at the Martynas Maţvydas National Library of Lithuania (Gedimino av. 51, Vilnius) and the library of Vytautas Magnus University.     
 
VYTAUTO DIDŢIOJO UNIVERSITETAS               Lina Kaminskien  SOCIALIN PARTNERYST MOKYKLINJE PROFESINIO RENGIMO SISTEMOJE      Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija (07 S)                    Kaunas, 2008
Disertacija rengta 2002-2008 metais VytautoDidţiojo universitete.   Mokslinis vadovas:  prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Lauţackas (Vytauto Didţiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija07S)   Disertacija ginama VytautoDidţiojo universiteto Edukologijos mokslo krypties taryboje:  Pirmininkas prof. habil. dr.Margarita Teresevičien (Vytauto Didţiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija07S)   Nariai: prof. habil. dr.Rimantas Ţelvys pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai (Vilniaus mokslai, edukologija07S) prof. dr. Sigitas Daukilas (Lietuvosţms kio universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija07S) prof. dr.Jonas Ruškus (Vytauto Didţiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija07S)  doc. dr.Vidmantas Ttlys (Vytauto Didţiojo universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija07 S)  Oponentai: prof. dr.Asta Pundzien(Ekonomikos ir vadybos universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas03S) prof. dr. Vilma Ţydţinait (Kauno Technologijos universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, edukologija 07S)  Disertacija bus ginama viešame Edukologijos mokslo krypties tarybos posdyje 2008 m. lapkričio14 d. 10val. Vytauto Didţiojo universiteto Maţojoje salje.  Adresas: Daukanto g. 28, Kaunas  Disertacijos santrauka išsiuntinta 2008 m. spalio14 d. Disertaciją galima perţirti nacionalinje Martyno Maţvydo bibliotekoje (Gedimino per. 51, Vilnius) irVytauto Didţiojo universiteto bibliotekoje.   
INTRODUCTION  Social partnership, as interaction between the state, employees and employers, functions in all the democratic states. With the start of the educational reform in Lithuania, social partnership was declared as one of the principles striving for the quality in education, and was integrated into the strategic documents and laws (The White Paper, 1998). A big impulse for the development of social partnership was made by the integration to the EU processes, educational development programmes such as PHARE and Leonardo da Vinci, which allowed transferring the best practices to Lithuania for the reformation of vocational education and training system (VET), for strengthening cooperation with social partners in various VET processes: development of VET standards, organisation of qualification examinations, practical training, VET counselling and information. The increasing local and international competition, which made actors from the activity system to look anew at vocational education and training system, was the third major impulse for the social dialogue. This situation opened possibilities of cooperation to solve the problems of training and development of the skilled labour force. The White book on VET set the main principles of the development and (1998) constant renewal of the vocational education and training system. Those principles comprised flexibility in the labour market, compatibility with other VET systems in the European Union, constant renewal and development aspects. The principles set inThe White book became objectives for cooperated efforts of the state, employers and employees in the VET system. A new approach to the education, as a process taking place not only at school, but also outside it, in the family, at work, in society in general, expanded the concept of the educator (Bitinas, 2000): at different stages of VET processes employers or employees can become educators (during practical training of VET pupils or in projects activities). For the same purpose there has been a lot of discussion in the recent years about the Renaissance of practical training (Van den Berghe, 1997). In the European Union strategic and Lithuanian national documents (Copenhagen Declaration, 2000; Maastricht Communiqué, 2004; Lithuanian Education Strategic Guidelines for 2003-2012) the principles of social partnership are stressed striving for a more intensive cooperation between representatives of activity and education systems. Social partnership became one of the important quality assurance factors in VET, which make influence on the change, innovation and renewal processes in the VET system. On the one hand, social partners have been involved into the identification of the curriculum aims, implementation and evaluation processes; on the other hand, they have been also involved into the VET policy-making. All these ongoing processes actuate research on social partnership in vocational education and training system, so that participation of social partners would be effective in terms of more favourable environment and conditions for the person„s professional growth and development. The research problem.For Lithuania, with the dominating school-based VET model, it is characteristic that for a long time the interaction between the activity and education systems was influenced by the supply principle: training of specialists was organised according to the decisions and possibilities of the educational system not taking into consideration demands from the labour market. This situation particularly
 
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applies to the VET system, where a number of unmotivated young people were forced to go. Such situation influenced the poor image of the VET system, which still remains a big issue for VET practitioners, scientists and politicians. Not going into details why VET was so unpopular in Lithuania, one should bear in mind that Lithuania as well as other Eastern and Cent e ntries went thro process in education asr awl eEllu raos pVaEn Tc osuystem (Beresneviučigehn a, t1h9o9r9o;u gŢhe lrveyfso,rm19at9i9o)n. Gurskien (2004, p. 44),while characterising the Lithuanian VET system before the regaining of independence, has distinguished its main features: influence of the planned economy, centralised administration, tight relations with the largest soviet enterprises, monolithic curriculum, lack of unemployment, poor image of VET“.Social dialogue in Lithuania had to be born in extremely difficult situation. Initiatives of social partners were blocked by the centralised system; there was no culture and tradition of social dialogue, labour relations were affected by the soviet regime. The research problem is defined by still fragmented relations and interaction between the activity and education systems, vocational education and training sub-system, and vocational education and training quality assurance processes, influencing social partnership. The research focuses on the questions of social partnership forms in the school based VET system, the preconditions for the development of social partnership and its model in the school-based VET system. The relevance of the research.The problem of social partnership in VET is relatively new but it has received much attention from researchers. Research on social partnership in VET is usually carried out in several directions: social partnership is analysed in the context of the relations and interaction between the two systems activity (work, labour market) and education (Winterton, 1998, 2003, 2006; Lassnigg, 2001a, 2001b); research on peculiarities of social partnership in different VET models (Олейникова, 2006; Winterton 2007a), research on different social partnership parameters: activities, roles, forms of expression (Bertrand, 1998; Seddon, Billet, 2004); social partnership is analysed from the perspective of the continuous curriculum improvement (Lauţackas, 1999, 2000, 2005a; Šileikis, 1999, 2002; Ruškus, 2002; Ttlys, 2006),social partnership as phenomenon of civic society (Putnam, 2001). The doctoral dissertation continues the tradition of research, which analyses peculiarities of social partnership, caused by the school-based VET system; however, the dissertation also explores possibilities for applying coordination principles for the social partnership model in such type of VET system. Social partnership, cooperation between employers, employees and VET institutions representatives, is a new phenomenon in the Lithuanian VET system. The way society understands and accepts social partnership and the amount of efforts and attention paid by all members of society depends on how social partnership is developed. Unfortunately, social partnership in Lithuania still is not conceived as an instŠ at,a s y wa cofrnemuooepartrosksiw haring responsibinoa dns ish ugho ndou f.seitilit sihT  hic admihierarcnoh retiintsarit mhetaene ag tonel l lev inileik (2007, p. 99): for many persons has deeply rooted and this makes some people wait for the command from the top“, while initiatives from the bottom“ have been frustrated by such thinking or simply by fear of responsibility“.For this reason, the dissertation also focuses on the problem of understanding social partnership, and applying the phenomenographic method, the author tries to investigate different understandings of social partnership, what kind of problems are envisaged, what are development
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perspectives and possibilities from the point of view of schools, companies representatives and policy makers. The research objectis social partnership in the school-based VET system. The aim of the researchis to construct a theoretical social partnership model for the school-based VET system and empirically test parameters of the constructed model. The objectives of the research 1. To reveal the conception of social partnership in vocational education and training. 2. To distinguish the main social partnership parameters in vocational education and training system. 3. To characterise social partnership in various VET systems. 4. To disclose links between social partnership and quality in VET. 5. To identify and highlight interaction between the activity and education systems, vocational education and training sub-system and vocational education and training quality assurance processes, influencing social partnership. Statements to be defended in the dissertation: 1. The school-based VET system dictates specific conditions for the development of social partnership. This encourages the construction of social partnership model applying the principles of coordination between the activity and education systems. 2. training is related to the qualitySocial partnership in vocational education and issue in VET, which implies the application of quality assurance procedures (planning, implementation, assessment, evaluation and feedback) at all levels of the VET system. Theoretical and methodological research concepts:  Activity and VET system interaction theory (Lauţackas, 1999, 2005a; Reisse, 2000; Lassnigg 2000a, 2001), which allowed to distinguishing the main principles of coordination between the two systems;  The theory of subjective and objective aspects of vocation (Lauţackas, 1997; 1999, 2005a) allowed to investigating social partnership in the context of constant interaction of the subjective and objective aspects of the vocation;  The curriculum conception(Tyler, 1949; Bloom, 1956; Pukelis, 1998; 1999; Bitinas 2000; Lauţackas, 2000), empowered the investigation of social partnership impact on the vocational education and training in all stages of curriculum development and renewal;  The qualification and competence concept (Lauţackas, 1997, 1999, 2005a; Maţeikis, 2007 and others) grounded the importance of the interrelation between social partnership and VET opened for demands from the activity system;  The quality concept den Berghe, 1997b; Bitinas, 2000; Van (Van Damme, 2004; Seyfried, 2007 and others.), allowed to relate participation of social partners in vocational education and training to the quality in VET. This relation is based on the following definitions of the quality concept: quality asfitness for purpose, quality asfitness of purpose, quality of design
 
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and quality of conformance. In the doctoral dissertation the author followed the main quality assurance model and quality assurance stages (planning, implementation, evaluation / assessment and feedback) suggested by Oliveira (2004) and Seyfried (2007). The empirical research was organised according to the mixed methods design, which allowed combining the qualitative and quantitative researches. Following the phenomenographic methodology, the qualitative research was carried out, which helped to diagnose different understandings of social partnership in VET and to compose the model of these understandings (categories). The quantitative research was based on the survey method. The scientific novelty of the dissertation.In the doctoral dissertation social partnership is analysed by not only investigating its forms of expression (formal and informal structures, levels), forms of activity (relations, sources of initiative, activities) in the school-based VET system. The dissertation also focuses on the issue of how social partnership becomes a precondition for the quality improvement and assurance in VET as well as investigates a possibility to apply the coordination principles for the social partnership model in the school-based VET system. The phenomenographic research allowed the author to reveal how different people with different experiences understand the same phenomenonsocial partnership in VET. Research methods.was based on numerous research methods,The research which helped to analyse the problem of social partnership in VET: Comparative method- used for the comparison of various forms and ways social partnerships exist in different VET systems. Modelling method- used to construct a theoretical social partnership model in the VET system. Data analysis method used to analyse the quantitative research data. Scientific literature analysis method used to ground theoretically the importance of social partnership and distinguish the main social partnership parameters. Systemic analysis method  to investigate the phenomenon of social used partnership affected by different VET models; to investigate peculiarities of the VET models (systems) and their relation to the activity system. Semi - structured interview used during the interview with experts. Questionnaire survey method carry out quantitative research in order toused to reveal opinion, attitudes towards the distinguished parameters of the social partnership model (structures, activities, etc.). Phenomenographic qualitative research method  to investigate different used understandings of the social partnership in VET. Experts interview method to evaluate the social partnership problem in used VET. Statistical analysis methods(descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha, Wilcoxon criteria, Mann-Witney U test, Spearman correlation coefficient). SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) and STATISTICA 6.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. The empirical research was carried out in several stages: First stage  of the scientific literature. The results of this stage analysis a constructed theoretical social partnership model in the VET system.
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Second stage  qualitative research, trying to understand the phenomenon of social partnership in the VET system, was carried out during JanuaryJune 2007. The analysis of the qualitative research data was made during September 2007June 2008. Third stage  collecting qualitative research data, the quantitative research after was launched. During June 2007 a questionnaire was developed for the pilot study. During the pilot study it was important to test the questionnaire (its structure, also if the questions were ethical and clear). The pilot study was carried out in two target groups: (1) employers and employees and (2) VET schools teachers. After the analysis of the pilot study data1, the questionnaire was corrected and improved2 prepared for the and main quantitative research. Fourth stage  the main quantitative research was carried out during November 2007 January 2008. The analysis of the quantitative research was made during FebruaryApril 2008. The empirical research was organised in two directions. The results of the qualitative research helped to supplement the theoretical social partnership model in the VET system, while the quantitative research was organised in order to get the opinion and attitude of the two groupstowards the distinguished social partnership model‟s parameters: (structures, source of initiative, forms of expression, levels, etc.). The results from the qualitative and quantitative research allowed the author to make the final conclusions for the dissertation. Approbation of the research results. The author of the doctoral dissertation presented the main findings of the research in the following national and international conferences:  1. International IVETA conference in Moscow (2006). A presentation “Social partnership development: responding to the changes in the Lithuanian VET system“. 2. International conference New Partnerships and Lifelong Learning” in  Helsinki (2008). Apresentation “Social partnership development: responding to the changes in the Lithuanian VET system“. 3. National conference "Participation of social partners in Carreer Counselling" in Vilnius (2007). Apresentation “Social partners in the Career Counselling Activities”. 4. National conferenceSocial partnership as a precondition for successful activitydevelopment” in Kaunas (2007). An articleNew challenges for social partnership and its change . 5. International conference in Vilnius (2007)EULLearN contribution to LLL in Europe. A presentationSME„s approach tolifelong learning: cases from 5 EU countries . The scientific problem analysed in the dissertation was published in the following scientific articles: 1. Kaminskien L. Šileikis V. (2006). Socialin partneryst kvalifikacij pripaţinimo srityje.Profesinis rengimas: tyrimai ir realijos, 12, 54-63, Kaunas: VDU.                                                  1 % of questions 5058 questionnaires received , 51 out of which were valid for analysis no less than (i.e were answered). 2Some questions were replaced and the 7 points scale was developed.
 
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2. Lauţackas R., Gedvilien G., Kaminskien L., Boţelyt V. (2006). Bendrj ir profesini kompetencij poreiki kaita kvalifikacijos struktroje. Profesinis rengimas: tyrimai ir realijos, 12, 126-139, Kaunas: VDU. 3. Lauţackas R., Kaminskien L. (2004). Neformalaus mokymosi pripaţinimas organizuojant profesin rengimą: socialins partnerysts aspektas.Acta Paedagogica Vilnensia, 12,19-27, Vilnius.  The structure of the dissertation.The dissertation consists of introduction, glossary of the main concepts, three parts, as well as discussion part on the research results, conclusions, recommendations, references and annexes. The theoretical and empirical part of the dissertation is illustrated by 45 pictures and 14 tables. The dissertation is based on the analysis of 195 scientific references. In the annexes the author presents a sample of the questionnaire used in the quantitative research, as well as the results from statistical calculations. The amount of the work is around 354 thousand symbols and 48 thousand words.  THE CONTENT OF THE DISSERTATION INTRODUCTION 1. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF THE SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING 1.1 The concept of social partnership and the main parameters 1.2 Social partnershipprecondition of the quality improvement in VET 1.3 The models of the interaction between the activity and education systems: principles of coordination 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN 2.1 The conceptual background of the research 2.2 Research design 2.3 Methodology of the qualitative research 2.4 Methodology of the quantitative research 3. EDUCATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS OF THE SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP MODEL PARAMETERS 3.1 Results of qualitative educational diagnostics 3.2 Results of quantitative educational diagnostics DISCUSSION OF RESULTS CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS REFERENCES ANNEXES  The concept of social partnership and the main parameters Social partnership is a complex concept. Despite various social partnership characteristics, found in the scientific literature (social partnership as a sociological ethical concept and organisational form, which implies collective relations and cooperation (Petrylait, 2006);social partnership as a question of sharing power (Genevičit, Vasiljevas, 2007);social partnership, as interaction of different social groups for the development of the state or regional policy (Lauţackas, 2005a)), one could distinguish several main social partnership features: coordination of activity, search for the compromise, cooperation, sharing responsibilities, striving to achieve the
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goals set for all participants of social partnership. These goals, however, are defined by the general state interests, market interests, the existing possibilities and resources. Social partners and stakeholders.The concept of social partnership is closely related to the concept of stakeholders. Social partnership is an organisational principle, form, whilst stakeholders are associated with interest. The stronger the interest grows, the more possibilities there are for stakeholders to start partnership. Stakeholders (such as employees, employers, their representing structures) become social partners, when relationships characteristic to partnership are developed, when there is a common goal, joint efforts, activities and resources to achieve it. Actors of social partnership. In Lithuania vocational education and training schools, which represent state institutions, are the active part and initiators of social dialogue. This proves that the state plays an active role in the organization of VET system. On the one hand, it is a positive approach, which shows that the state is responsible for education; on the other hand, this rather a centralised approach creates barriers for social partners to get more functions and responsibilities in the educational system. Moreover, the state has a role of a coordinator or a moderator, being responsible for the effective and balanced role of the above-mentioned structures. While delegating concrete functions and responsibilities for social partners, the state has to find the appropriate financial resources. Enterprises, employers‟ and employees‟ organisationsare the other side of the social dialogue. The majority of Lithuanian enterprises according to their size are small and medium ones. Vocational education and training for them, however, did not become a priority area. This attitude was influenced by the transitional period in politics and economy, as well as a strong orientation of such business organisation to lobbying and representation issues. Another important aspect employers organisations were not capable to recruit the major part of enterprises(Gruţevskis, Blaţien, 2005).Ţ Elymployees organisat iloinkse  teomdpalyo yaerres  raenpdr etsheenirt erde pbreystehnrtienee adtrn iams, gs rtcuuter unions centres s,( u 2005).Sirly,mila trade unions did not pay much attention to vocational education and training issues. Social partnership in different VET systems. The social partnership model in the VET system very much depends on the existing VET model(Lauţackas, 1999).There are typically distinguished three types or three VET models: market-based (or liberal), school (state) based and the dual one. The weakest state intervention to VET is noticed in the market-based VET systems. The market is the dominant force, which allows social partners, particularly employers to undertake a big share in VET policy and its organisation. The school-based model is attractive in terms of implementation strategic educational goals, however it is not very flexible for involving social partners in various VET activities, their participation in various VET processes is often formal and limited to consultations. The dual model seems to be the most relevant for social partnership development, however, it also faces many problems in terms of financial organisation, human resources development problems in small companies and others. In the countries with neo-corporativemodel (Netherlands, Denmark) associated structures (employers and employees organisations) are empowered with many responsibilities in VET with particular focus on regional development. Social partnership in the Lithuanian VET system. current research on social The partnership in VET(Šileikis, 1999, 2002; Sysas,2002; Lauţackas, 1999, 2005; Ruškus, Juozaitien, Tiškut, 2005; Ttlys,2006, Mickien, 2007)shows that: the interaction between the activity and education system isinclined to stagnate“ (Ruškus, Juozaitien, Tiškut, 2005, p. 74),the initiative comes usually from the state educational
 
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