Sources of authority [Elektronische Ressource] : quotational practice in Chinese communist propaganda / vorgelegt von Jennifer May

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Sources of Authority Quotational Practice in Chinese Communist Propaganda Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde an der Philosophischen Fakultät der Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Institut für Sinologie Vorgelegt von Jennifer May Dezember 2008 Erstgutachterin: Prof. Dr. Barbara Mittler Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Rudolf Wagner Table of Contents Table of Contents Acknowledgements III List of Figures V Notes VII Introduction: Quoting Authority 1 1. Quoting in China: Theoretical and Historical Consideration 9 2. Lifecycles of Quotations 57 2.1 The Lifecycle of a Quotation Chameleon 59 2.2 “Smash the Confucian shop” or the Lifecycle of a Half-forgotten Quotation 96 2.3 “The Working Class Has to Lead Everything” or the Lifecycle of a Quotation Star 125 3. A Source of Authority 145 4. (De-)Contextualising Quotations 229 Conclusion 295 Appendix 1: Categorization of Journals 301 Appendix 2: “Reform Our Study” divided into sentences 303 Literature 307 I Acknowledgements Acknowledgements My interest in the subject of quotation in the Chinese culture was awoken by Michael Schimmelpfennig who taught a seminar on quotation in classical Chinese literature at the Institute of Chinese Studies back in 2001. Since then, the idea of introducing this subject into modern Chinese studies and especially media studies never left my imagination.

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Sources of Authority
Quotational Practice in Chinese Communist Propaganda


Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde
an der Philosophischen Fakultät der Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
Institut für Sinologie





Vorgelegt von
Jennifer May
Dezember 2008


Erstgutachterin: Prof. Dr. Barbara Mittler
Zweitgutachter: Prof. Dr. Rudolf Wagner


Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Acknowledgements III
List of Figures V
Notes VII

Introduction: Quoting Authority 1

1. Quoting in China: Theoretical and Historical Consideration 9
2. Lifecycles of Quotations 57
2.1 The Lifecycle of a Quotation Chameleon 59
2.2 “Smash the Confucian shop” or the Lifecycle of a Half-forgotten Quotation 96
2.3 “The Working Class Has to Lead Everything” or the Lifecycle of a Quotation Star 125
3. A Source of Authority 145
4. (De-)Contextualising Quotations 229

Conclusion 295

Appendix 1: Categorization of Journals 301
Appendix 2: “Reform Our Study” divided into sentences 303
Literature 307
I
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
My interest in the subject of quotation in the Chinese culture was awoken by Michael
Schimmelpfennig who taught a seminar on quotation in classical Chinese literature at the Institute of
Chinese Studies back in 2001. Since then, the idea of introducing this subject into modern Chinese
studies and especially media studies never left my imagination. With the ever-growing number of
databases and digitized resources, this endeavour became not only accomplishable, but provided me
with the opportunity to follow a second interest of mine: the development of smooth little computer
programs to enhance the work of the Geisteswissenschaftler.
I foremost want to thank Barbara Mittler for a long list of reasons. To name but a few, she
kindly agreed to become my supervisor and subsequently spent hours of her time discussing my
ideas, reading drafts of all chapters, contesting my arguments, and bringing further primary and
secondary literature to my knowledge. Moreover, Barbara Mittler encouraged my idea to write a
computer program to find quotations, and most importantly she helped me to attain funding to
develop the QuotationFinder, first by supporting my application for a Karl-Steinbuch scholarship of
the Stiftung Baden-Württemberg, then by helping me to apply for a project at the Cluster of
Excellence “Asia and Europe in a Global Context”. I am also indebted to Rudolf Wagner, my second
supervisor, for reading and commenting on a chapter draft, for patiently answering a multitude of
questions, and for investing much of his time in establishing both a traditional and digital library
worthy of that name.
A number of friends and colleagues contributed to my work by discussing ideas, reading drafts,
criticising my argumentation or methodology, providing me with information, and correcting my
faulty English expressions, or curious Chinese translations. I especially want to thank Lena
Henningsen for her unceasing motivation, Nicolai Volland for his honest criticism, and Thomas
Kampen for hours spent talking about Chinese history. I also want to thank my colleagues Jennifer
Altehenger, Matthias Arnold, Edoardo Carlesi, Sven Eigler, Peter Gietz, Laura Jehl, Daniel Leese,
Sun Liying, Michael Lüdke, Mareike Ohlberg, Leon Rocha, Miriam Seeger, and Shi Yun.
I was given the opportunity to present and discuss my work at several occasions: a scholarship
from the European Union enabled my participation at the 2006 Postgraduate Summer School “China
in the World” in Nanjing and my subsequent visit to libraries in Beijing; the Faculty of Philosophy of
the University of Heidelberg generously funded my participation at the 2006 conference of the
III
Acknowledgements
European Association of Chinese Studies (EACS) in Ljubljana; and the Graduiertenakadmie of the
University of Heidelberg supported my participation at the 2008 EACS conference in Lund. I
repeatedly had the advantage of presenting my work to the East-Asian colloquium of the East-Asian
Studies Centre and the Popular Culture Group at the Institute of Chinese Studies at the University of
Heidelberg. And last but not least, the workshop “Rethinking Trends” financed by the Cluster of
Excellence and organised by members of the Popular Culture Group has been an inspiring event,
allowing me among others to discuss my work with Felix Boecking and Stanley Rosen.
But my sincerest gratitude belongs to my friends and family who accompanied me through the
last years, partaking in my fascination and joy, but also in my frustration and stress: my friends
Verena Schmalz-Steger, Karla Dörken, Agnes Abel, and Dorothea Eberhart; my brother James Gross,
and my cousin Fabian Gross. I am deeply indebted to my mother Ingrid who not only encouraged me
all those years, but together with my godmother Christa Meißen took the trouble to read every single
line of my thesis correcting many little and some larger mistakes. My last ‘thank you’ goes to my
husband Norman for discussing with me my ideas for this thesis and the QuotationFinder, for his
encouragement and patience, or simply for taking me out for a walk to quiet down my busy mind.
The fault for any remaining errors or inaccuracies, of course, rests with Jennifer May as author
of this thesis.

IV
List of Figures
List of Figures
Figure 1: How influential was People’s Daily? 40
Figure 2: CCP leaders using “Seek truth from facts” in speeches and articles, 1937 to 1992 (Source:
Zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi xinxi zhongxin 中央文献研究室信息中心 et al. 2006). 64
Figure 3: Occurances of “Seek truth from facts” in various works of Mao Zedong, 1937 to 1971
(Source: May 2007). 72
Figure 4: Quoting “Seek truth from facts” in articles of People’s Daily (blue line) and Liberation
Army Daily (green line), and in the titles of articles provided by the National Index to Chinese
Newspapers and Periodicals (pink line) (Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日报
社新闻信息中心 2007 ; Quanguo baokan suoyin bianjibu 全国报刊索引编辑部 2006 ; 2008). 76
Figure 5: Percentage of articles in People’s Daily (blue line) and titles of articles in the National
Index to Chinese Newspapers and Periodicals (pink line) quoting “Seek truth from facts” (Source:
Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心 2007 ; Quanguo baokan suoyin
bianjibu 全国报刊索引编辑部 2006). Liberation Army Daily could not be included in this statistic
as the database does not provide figures of all published articles per year. 77
Figure 6: Papers of different ownership using “Seek truth from facts” (Source: Quanguo baokan
suoyin bianjibu 全国报刊索引编辑部 2006). For details on the categorisation of journals cf. to
Appendix 1. 79
Figure 7: Quoting “Seek truth from facts” in article titles between 1960 and 1962 (Source: Quanguo
baokan suoyin bianjibu 全国报刊索引编辑部 2006). CCP CC = CCP Central Committee; Mass =
Mass organisations; OOP = Other political parties. For details on the categorisation of journals cf. to
fn. 130 or the excel file on the accompanying CD. 80
Figure 8: Quoting “Seek truth from facts” in article titles between 1976 and 1978 (Source: Quanguo
baokan suoyin bianjibu 全国报刊索引编辑部 2006). Acronyms and further information as in Figure
7. 80
Figure 9: Who or what is associated with “Seeking truth from facts”? The different lines result from
searching the People’s Daily database for strings as “X%实事求是+实事求是%X”, i.e. X appearing
in the same sentence as “Seek truth from facts”, either before or after the phrase. X stands for either
“Mao Zedong/Chairman Mao 毛泽东/毛主席” (red line), “Deng Xiaoping/Xiaoping 邓小平/小
平” (blue line), or “Core 精髓” (pink line) (Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日
报社新闻信息中心 2007). 86
Figure 10: 58 years of usage of “Smash the Confucian shop 打倒孔家店” in People’s Daily.
(Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心 2007) 97
Figure 11: People's Daily quoting sentences and part sentences of Mao's “Reform Our Study”; blue
– full quotations; red and yellow – quotations of sub-clauses. For a list of the sentences confer to
Appendix 2. (Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心 2007).
151
Figure 12: Quoting “Reform Our Study” in People’s Daily (Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi
zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心 2007). 155
Figure 14: References to titles of articles of Mao Zedong in People’s Daily between 1959 and 1962
(Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心 2007). 168
V
List of Figures
Figure 15: How often are names of ideologies referred to in People's Daily from 1949 to 2007 in
percent of all articles (Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心
2007). 207
Figure 16: Using either the term “May Fourth 五四” or the term “May Fourth Movement 五四运
动”in articles of People’s Daily per year (Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日
报社新闻信息中心 2007). 259
Figure 17: Usage of either the term “May Fourth 五四” or the term “May Fourth Movement 五四运
动”in percentage of all articles published in People’s Daily per year (Source: Renmin ribao she
xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心 2007). 259
Figure 18: Using either the term “May Fourth 五四” or the term “May Fourth Movement 五四运
th动”in the May 4 issues of People’s Daily per year (Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi
zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心 2007). 260
Figure 19: Articles using either the term “May Fourth 五四” or the term “May Fourth Movement 五
th四运动”in the May 4 issues of People’s Daily per year in percentage of all articles published on
that day (Source: Renmin ribao she xinwen xinxi zhongxin 人民日报社新闻信息中心 2007). 260

VI
Notes
Notes
All sources taken from the Internet and marked as downloaded in footnotes or in the bibliography
can be found at the Digital Archive for Chinese Studies (DACHS, http://www.sino.uni-
heidelberg.de/dachs/), Institute for Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg.
Throughout the text, Pinyin is used as transcription of Chinese terms. If a different transcription
is used within English or German quotations, however, this transcription is retained. Further
exceptions are made for a few personal names which are more familiar in a different diction, such as
Chiang Kai-shek.
VII
Introduction: Quoting Authority
Introduction: Quoting Authority
The Master said, “I transmit but do not innovate; I am truthful in what I say and devoted to antiquity.
I venture to compare myself to our Old Peng.”
Confucius, The Analects

When I write articles, I do not quote often what Marx or Engels say. As newspapers quote my words
all the time, quote and quote, I do not feel comfortable. [One] should learn to use one’s own words
when writing articles. Lenin seldom quoted other peoples’ words, but used his own words when
writing articles.
Mao Zedong, On Newspaper Work


Why do I quote Confucius and Mao Zedong at the beginning of my dissertation? I might want to
prove that (some) well-known Chinese have ventured to bequeath their views on quotation to us, and
therefore quotation in China is an object worthy of study. I may be pledging allegiance to my field of
research by duplicating a quotation by Confucius introduced by almost any sinologist writing on
1canonisation, quotation, or creativity in China. Or I might want to introduce my topic in a humble or
fashionable rhetoric, speaking through others before speaking for myself. Whichever of these
explanations is true, I want to draw the readers’ attention to an aspect central to my whole thesis,
namely that quotations pose a question: Why did the writer quote this particular sentence? Different
rules pertain to different genres or fields as to how the ‘quoter’, i.e. the person quoting, is expected to
2handle this situation. Today’s scientists are expected to explain their intentions. In fiction it is often

1 See for example HOLZMAN (1978) Confucius and Ancient Chinese Literary Criticism. In: Rickett & Yeh Chinese
Approaches to Literature from Confucius to Liang Ch'i- chao, Princeton, N.J; RYCKMANS (1986) The Chinese Attitude
Towards the Past, George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology, Canberra; ALFORD (1995) To Steal a Book is an
Elegant Offence. Intellectual Property Law in Chinese Civilization, Studies in East Asian Law, Stanford; WANG (1997)
Two Authorial Rhetorics of Li Yu's (1611-1680) Works: Inversion and Auto-Communication (Ph.D. thesis). University of
Toronto, Toronto; LEWIS (1999) Writing and Authority in Early China New York: 110; MITTLER (2004) A Newspaper
for China? Power, Identity, and Change in Shanghai's News Media, 1872-1912, Harvard East Asian studies monographs,
vol. 226, Cambridge, Mass.: Chapter 2 “In the Words of the Sages. Authority and Style in the Chinese Newspaper”;
HENNINGSEN (2008) Copyright Matters: Imitation, Creativity and Authenticity in Contemporary Chinese Literature
(Ph.D. thesis). Sinologisches Seminar, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg.
2 The term ‘quoter’, though not found in standard dictionaries, is used in theoretical literature on quotation (see for
example GARBER (2003) Quotation Marks New York: 23, 32). I will use it throughout my thesis on quotation in 20th
century China.
1