State-building in Afghanistan [Elektronische Ressource] : the role of institutional capacity / vorgelegt von Sardar M. Kohistani
337 Pages
English
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State-building in Afghanistan [Elektronische Ressource] : the role of institutional capacity / vorgelegt von Sardar M. Kohistani

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337 Pages
English

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Justus-von-Liebig-Universität Gießen Fachbereich 07: Mathematik und Informatik, Physik, Geographie Institut für Geographie State-building in Afghanistan: The role of institutional capacity. vorgelegt von Dipl. Geograph Sardar M. Kohistani Dissertation Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Dr. rer.nat im Fachbereich Geographie Gießen, Oktober 2009 Dedication To my father Acknowledgements It is my pleasure to express my thanks to my advisors Prof. Dr. Andreas Dittmann and Prof. Dr. Eckart Ehlers for their time and for their kind cooperation. I would like to express my gratitude for Christine Issa who was very supportive throughout the period of my study in Bonn and then in Giessen. She also benefited me in reading and commenting this dissertation. I wish to express my gratitude to Bernd Goecke and Nadine Vorbeck for preparing the maps as well as Dr. Frank Schuessler for reading the paper and commenting on it, and Anika Merschhemke who proofread the dissertation. My thanks also go to Mr. Klaus Haker Mrs. Erika Haker who generously supported me during my stay in Germany especially in the final stages of preparing this dissertation. . There are many people in Kabul and in Germany who I cannot name all and were so kind and supportive. I wish to thank them all.

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Published 01 January 2009
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Justus-von-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Fachbereich 07: Mathematik und Informatik, Physik, Geographie
Institut für Geographie









State-building in Afghanistan: The role of institutional capacity.











vorgelegt von


Dipl. Geograph Sardar M. Kohistani




Dissertation
Zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades Dr. rer.nat
im Fachbereich Geographie










Gießen, Oktober 2009







Dedication


To my father





































Acknowledgements



It is my pleasure to express my thanks to my advisors Prof. Dr. Andreas Dittmann and
Prof. Dr. Eckart Ehlers for their time and for their kind cooperation.

I would like to express my gratitude for Christine Issa who was very supportive
throughout the period of my study in Bonn and then in Giessen. She also benefited me in
reading and commenting this dissertation.

I wish to express my gratitude to Bernd Goecke and Nadine Vorbeck for preparing the
maps as well as Dr. Frank Schuessler for reading the paper and commenting on it, and
Anika Merschhemke who proofread the dissertation.

My thanks also go to Mr. Klaus Haker Mrs. Erika Haker who generously supported me
during my stay in Germany especially in the final stages of preparing this dissertation.
.
There are many people in Kabul and in Germany who I cannot name all and were so kind
and supportive. I wish to thank them all.

The Ministry of Higher Education as well as the Chancellor of Kabul University and the
DAAD gave me the opportunity to come to Germany and to study and develop my
knowledge. To all of them I owe this opportunity and to them I wish to express my
gratitude.

My family endured my absence for the whole time especially my mother and my sister.
My brother in Germany was also very supportive. I wish to express my love and my
appreciation to them.

Sardar Mohammad Kohistani

Giessen

December 2009





1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 7
1.1 State-Building in Afghanistan............................................................................. 7
1.2 State-Building or Nation-Building: Terminology............................................. 15
1.3 The Two Ends of a State: State’s Effective Function as Determinant of its
Ideal Form........................................................................................................ 23
1.4 The Role of Institutional Capacity.................................................................... 25
1.5 Research Question and Hypothesis................................................................... 27
1.6 Methodology: How to Focus on State-Building in Afghanistan - Status of
Research............................................................................................................ 31
2 Afghanistan's Diversity as a Determinants of State-Building Processes ........... 34
2.1 Geopolitical Determinants of Diversity............................................................ 34
2.1.1 The Geostrategical Implications of the Region ............................................ 34
2.1.2 The Impact of Neighbours and Borders........................................................ 36
2.2 Historical Determinant of Diversity: The Changes in Ruling Systems from
1747 to 1973 and Their Influence on Institution .............................................. 41
2.2.1 The Role of Mosques as Socio-Religious Institutions and Their Influence on
Political Power.............................................................................................. 44
2.2.2 The Emergence of Dynasties and the Role of Tribal Systems: From
Unification of Tribes to the Beginning of Their Rivalry .............................. 49
2.2.3 The Rise of Intelligentsia (Roshanfekran): First Steps in Building Institutions
and Capacities ............................................................................................... 64
2.2.4 The Collapse of Modernism Effected by Religion Elites ............................. 70
2.2.5 The Re-establishing of Monarchy on the Basis of Tribal Authority and the
Rise of Intellectual Elites: The End of the Great Game and the Beginning of
the Cold War................................................................................................. 77
2.2.6 The Influence of Intellectuals on the Introduction of Democracy................ 81
2.2.7 The Cold War and its Impact on Destabilizing the Geostrategic Balance of
Afghanistan between the East and the West Blocks..................................... 84
2.2.8 The Creation of Pashtunistan Issue and its Continuous Impact in
Destabilizing the Regional Geostrategic Balance......................................... 89
2.2.9 The Experimental Democracy in 1963-1973................................................ 95
1

2.2.10 The Establishment of Political Parties in Secret and Their Activities
among the Intellectuals ............................................................................. 99
2.2.11 Instable Changing Governments and the Break up of Social Control.... 102
2.3 Ethno-linguistic and Socio-religious Diversity............................................... 110
2.3.1 Ethno-linguistic Diversity........................................................................... 110
2.3.2 How to Create Unity in Diversity: The Challenges of Ethno-linguistic
Diversity in Building Nation and National Institutions .............................. 120
2.3.3 Religious Diversity..................................................................................... 131
2.3.4 Population Distribution............................................................................... 134
2.3.5 Diversities of Settlement Structures and Social Groups............................. 137
3 Persistence and Sustainability of Traditional Organizations and Ruling
Systems................................................................................................................... 143
3.1 Governmental Institutions (Constitution) ....................................................... 143
3.2 Religious Institutions (Shariah) ...................................................................... 147
3.3 Tribal Institutions (Tribalism)......................................................................... 154
4 War and Civil War as Major Determinants of State-Building in
Afghanistan............................................................................................................ 158
4.1 The Fall of the Monarchy and the Proclamation of the Republic by Daoud .. 159
4.2 Soviet Invasion: The PDPA Takes over Power .............................................. 167
4.2.1 Implementing Fundamental Marxist Reform in a Traditional Society....... 171
4.2.2 The Impact of the Soviet Military Invasion on the State and its
Institutions................................................................................................... 178
4.2.3 The Formation of Mujahidin Resistance Forces in Pakistan and Iran........ 180
4.2.4 The War 1979-1992.................................................................................... 184
4.2.5 The Withdrawal of Soviet Troops and Pakistan’s Geostrategic Ambitions in
Afghanistan................................................................................................. 189
4.2.6 The Disintegration of the PDPA’s Political System and its Institutions .... 195
4.3 The Mujahidin Government 1992-2001 ......................................................... 197
4.3.1 The Regional Division of the Country among Rival Groups ..................... 198
4.3.2 Internal Factors of the Conflict................................................................... 205
4.3.3 External Factors of the Conflict: The ‘New Great Game’.......................... 208
4.3.4 The Government Consolidates its Power in Kabul..................................... 211
2

4.3.5 Taliban: Pakistan’s “Creeping Invasion”.................................................... 212
4.3.6 The Multinational Composition of the Taliban .......................................... 214
4.3.7 Strategy of the Taliban................................................................................ 216
4.3.8 The US Invasion: ‘The War on Terror’ ...................................................... 223
4.3.9 The Fall of the Taliban 226
4.3.10 A New Era in the State-Building Process............................................... 227
5 The Role of Diversities in State-Building Processes........................................... 233
5.1 Divisive Forces among the Population ........................................................... 236
5.1.1 Analysis of Separating and Integrating Factors in Social Groups .............. 236
5.1.2 The Unclear Idea of Nationality in Afghanistan: What Does Nationality
Mean in Afghanistan?................................................................................. 248
5.2 The Role of National Institutions in State-Building ....................................... 253
5.2.1 The Current Structure of ‘National’ Institutions......................................... 255
5.2.2 The Determining Role of Qawm in Creating Institution ............................ 260
5.2.3 Identification and Stratification of Main Internal and External Players..... 265
5.3 Poor Institutional Capacity and the Insufficient Number of ‘Capable Staff’ . 274
5.3.1 The Weak Security and Justice Sector........................................................ 274
5.3.2 The Insufficiently Qualified Administrative Staff...................................... 280
5.3.3 The Challenge of Brain-Drain Posed by NGOs.......................................... 287
5.3.4 Corruption:.................................................................................................. 287
5.4 The Weak Training Institutions ...................................................................... 293
6 Conclusion: ............................................................................................................ 302
6.1 Important Findings: Weak Institutional Capacity as the Key Element behind the
Fragility of State in Afghanistan..................................................................... 302
6.2 Suggestions: National Institutions with Capable Staff as Precondition to
Legitimate Authority, and a Stable Functioning State.................................... 308
7 References.............................................................................................................. 310
8 Questionnaire and Interview Partners................................................................ 328



3

Figures
Figure 1: The development of state .................................................................................. 21
Figure 2: The role of institutional capacity....................................................................... 30
Figure 3: Tradtional Durbar structure............................................................................... 45
Figure 4: The Abdali (Durrani) Dynasty (1747 – 1978)................................................... 51
Figure 5: The genealogy of Pashtuns.............................................................................. 113
Figure 6: The Qawm structure ........................................................................................ 119
Figure 7: Density of population in different provinces 137
Figure 8: Land distribution as major cause of cousin rivalry ......................................... 139
Figure 9: Communist parties and their external supporters............................................ 175
Figure 10: Islamic parties based in Pakistan and Iran and their external
supporters 1978 - 1992................................................................................... 181
Figure 11: Financial sources and arms suppliers of Islamic parties based in Pakistan
1978 - 1992 .................................................................................................... 182
Figure 12: Hierarchy of state institutions under the PDPA 1996 - 1992........................ 185
Figure 13: The composition of security institutions under the PDPA 1986 - 1992........ 192
Figure 14: The parties involved in the conflict, their ethnic base and external sources of
support........................................................................................................... 202
Figure 15: Internal and external composition of the Taliban with their major
supporters...................................................................................................... 215
Figure 16: The US list of demands from Pakistan for Operation Enduring Freedom
(OEF) in 2001 ............................................................................................... 226
Figure 17: The Bonn process .......................................................................................... 230
Figure 18: The two main sources of instability: Internal and external rivalry from
1700-2001 ..................................................................................................... 234
Figure 19: The memorial of Elm wa Jahl ....................................................................... 245
Figure 20: Status of nationality compared to ethnic identities in Afghanistan............... 252
Figure 21: Structure of institutions in Afghanistan......................................................... 256
Figure 22: The growth of ISAF, US, ANA, and ANP forces since 2003....................... 275
Figure 23: Regional position of Afghanistan in terms of governance, implementation of
rule of law, accountability and control of corruption ................................... 291
Figure 24: Peoples’ perception of the government and the parliament .......................... 292
Figure 25: Ajir private institution of higher education in Kabul .................................... 297
Figure 26: Khawaran private institution of higher education in Kabul 298


4

Maps
Map 1: The importance of geopolitical position of Afghanistan from the past to the
present.................................................................................................................. 35
Map 2: Major oil and gas pipelines with communication routes between Afghanistan and
its neighbors......................................................................................................... 40
Map 3: The world according to Strabo (64/63 BC-after AD 21)...................................... 42
Map 4: Safavid, Mogul and Shaibanid empires 1520- 1700 ............................................ 48
Map 5: The Abadli dynasty 1747-1793 ............................................................................ 53
Map 6: The disintegration of the Abadli dynasty ............................................................. 55
Map 7: The Great Game: Russian and British expansion in Central and South Asia. ..... 57
Map 8: The reign of Amir Abdurrahman Khan, the ‘Iron Amir’ 1880 – 1901. ............... 61
Map 9: The delimitation of the boundaries of Afghanistan 1873 – 1964......................... 63
Map 10: The reign of Amir / King Amanullah Khan and major political developments. 67
Map 11: Administrative divisions 1964 -1973 ................................................................. 99
Map 12: Distribution of ethnic groups in Afghanistan ................................................... 112
Map 13: Distribution of population in Afghanistan in 2008........................................... 135
Map 14: Density of population in Afghanistan in 1984 ................................................. 135
Map 15: Anti-government uprising in 1978 and Soviet invasion 1979-1989 ................ 174
Map 16: Administrative division of Afghanistan 1989 - 2004....................................... 193
Map 17: The conflict in Kabul between governmental allies and opposition groups .... 207
Map 18: The anti-government coup carried out by Shura-e Hamahangi
(coordinated council) ....................................................................................... 207
Map 19: Distribution of reconstruction projects in provinces by the MRRD in 2007 ... 239
Map 20: Distribution of foreign troops in Afghanistan .................................................. 270
Map 21: Distribution of state / private universities and institutions of higher education
in Afghanistan.................................................................................................. 294

Tables
Table 1: Indicative features of fragile states..................................................................... 24
Table 2: Internal and external functions of state............................................................... 26
Table 3: Government expenditure and tax revenues in 1928 ........................................... 72
Table 4: Political parties 1947 - 1951............................................................................... 83
Table 5: The development of public service 1932 – 1967................................................ 85
Table 6: Raids by trans-frontier elements on British India 1920 – 1938.......................... 91
Table 7: Amirs / kings and prime ministers 1880 – 1973............................................... 104
5

Table 8: Sources of foreign assistance to Afghanistan (in US Dollars)
(commodity assistance not computed).............................................................. 105
Table 9: Number of foreign experts in Afghanistan in 1971.......................................... 106
Table 10: The linguistic situation of Afghanistan........................................................... 117
Table 11: Ratification of constitutions by Loya Jirga 1923 – 2004 ............................... 145
Table 12: Cabinet members in the Peoples’ Democratic Party of Afghanistan PDPA
in 1978 ............................................................................................................ 169
Table 13: The political composition of the PDPA government
May 1978 – December 1989........................................................................... 170
Table 14: Decrees number 1-8 issued by the PDPA’s Revolutionary Council in 1978 . 172
Table 15: Mujahidin parties according to their leadership, religious and
Qawm structure............................................................................................... 204
Table 16: Mujahidin parties: Government and its oppositions 1992 - 1994................... 204
Table 17: Senior Taliban leaders 1996 - 2001................................................................ 237
Table 18: Number of foreign troops with reference to the sending countries ................ 270
Table 19: Internal and external layers in the state-building process............................... 272
Table 20: Number of staff with reference to educational degree and different sectors.. 281
Table 21: Number of staff with reference their share in population and provinces ....... 283
Table 22: Number of doctors, nurses, hospitals, beds and health clinics in provinces
2003 - 2007 ..................................................................................................... 286
Table 23: Salaries in Afghanistan: The Taliban as a competitive employer .................. 289
Table 24: Number of teachers and students enrolled and graduated in state higher
education 2004- 2007...................................................................................... 300

6


1 Introduction

1.1 State-Building in Afghanistan

Today, Afghanistan represents one of the most poor, instable and insecure countries of
the world. It is important to notice that the negative impact of its problems (e.g. terrorism,
drug trafficking and migration) do not remain exclusively within its borders but also have
worldwide effects. The terrorism issue in particular following the attacks of September
th11 2001 in the United States attracted the special attention of the international
community and convinced them that such threats recognize no international borders.
More importantly, however, this issue raised consensus among the major powers that
weak or failed states are the source of many of the world’s most serious problems, from
poverty to AIDS to drugs to terrorism (FUKUYAMA 2005: xvii). Therefore, in a joint
attempt with the international community the US declared the so called ‘War on Terror’
and put forward state-building in Afghanistan as a priority task on the agenda.

In September 2001 the US and its allies invaded Afghanistan, and helped the Rabbani led
government to oust the Taliban from Kabul. At the same time with the help of the
international community, different Afghan political groups (those inside the country and
those who were in exile) met in Petersberg, near Bonn, and signed the ‘Bonn Accord’.
The meeting resulted in a plan based on which an interim administration was established
for a period of six months, to be followed by a transitional administration governing the
state for two years. In this period two Loya Jirgas (traditional tribal councils) were held,
an emergency and a constitutional one. The latter approved the new constitution. With
two elections, a presidential and a parliamentary that were held in 2003 and 2004
respectively, the Bonn Accord was fully implemented. According to the new constitution
Afghanistan became an Islamic republic.

This sort of top-down state-building or nation-building process is nothing new in
th 1Afghanistan. Looking back more or less the same process started in the late 19 century
when the external powers (Russia and Britain) drew the boundaries of Afghanistan and
agreed upon the existence of this territory to be a buffer state ( map 7) between their areas

1 There are different opinions among the authors with regard to the first state building process in Afghanistan. Here I
preferred to take the year 1880 as the first attempts in modern state-building process. For details see Chapter 2.
7