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Student expectations in the new millennium [Elektronische Ressource] : an explorative study of the higher education in Hong Kong / vorgelegt von Yee-Tak Wan

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Published 01 January 2006
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Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan


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Student Expectations in the New Millennium
—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong

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Inaugural-Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Philosophie an der
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität
München

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vorgelegt von
Yee-Tak Wan
aus
Hongkong

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LMU München, 2006

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Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan

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Erstgutachter:
Professor Dr Rudolf Tippelt
Lehrstuhl Allgemeine Pädagogik und Bildungsforschung
Institut für Pädagogik, LMU

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Zweitgutachter:
Professor Dr Heinz Neber
Fakultät für Pädagogik
Universität Saarland

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Tag der mündlichen Prüfung:
24.07.2006

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Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Postanschrift
Flat D, 1/F
73 Caine Road
Central
Hong Kong
[E-Mail: ytwan@hotmail.com]
Herkunft
geboren am 22. November, 1961
Geburtsort: Hongkong
Staatsangehörigkeit: British National (Overseas)
Sprachen
Kantonesisch-Chinesisch (Muttersprache)
Hochchinesisch
Englisch (Zweitesprache)
Deutsch (Drittesprache)
Vorbildung
Ph.D. (Education), University of Munich, Germany, 2006
Master of Arts (Psychology of Excellence), University
of Munich, Germany, 2004
Master of Arts (Religious Education), Southwestern
Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A.,
1995
Master of Arts (Marriage and Family Counselling),
Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, Fort Worth,
Texas, U.S.A., 1995
Master of Music (Composition), Southwestern Baptist
Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas, U.S.A., 1993
Bachelor of Sacred Music (Composition), Canadian Bible
College, Regina, Sask., Canada, 1991 y
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Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan
Teacher’s Certificate, Northcote College of Education,
Hong Kong, 1984
High School Certificate, St. Paul’s College, Hong Kong,
1979
Berufserfahrungen
Teaching Assistant, Department of Education, University
of Munich, Germany, 2006
Supply Teacher, English Primary Section, Munich
European School, 2003-2006
Adjunct Lecturer (Counselling), Alliance Bible Seminary,
Hong Kong, 1997-2001
Editorial Committee Member, for the publication of Hong
Kong Vocal Music Collection, Chinese Christian
Literature Council, 1998-1999
Youth Program Director, Clear Lake Chinese Church,
Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 1996-1997
Educational T.V. Program Instructor, "Dial-A-Teacher",
Radio & Television H.K., Hong Kong, 1986-1987
Secondary School English Teacher, Kwei Wah Shan College,
Hong Kong, 1985-1987
Secondary School Music Teacher, Wu York Yu Memorial
College, Hong Kong, 1984-1985 Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author would like to thank the following people
without whose help the project could not have been
completed. The names appear in alphabetical order of the
institutions to which they belong.
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City University of Hong Kong:
Dr David Mole
Ms Tracy Lo
Ms Teresa Yu
Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts:
Dr Herbert Huey
Ms Kandith Wan
Ms Polly Yung
Hong Kong Baptist University:
Dr Eddie Ho
Mrs S.L. Sham
Ms Verona Lau
Lingnan University:
Dr Veronica Tam
Ms Carmen Yau
The Chinese University of Hong Kong:
Mr Tom Fong Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan
The Hong Kong Institute of Education:
Dr Grace Mak
Dr K.S. So
Dr Stella Kong
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology:
Mr Luke Wong
Mr Ricky Yeung
The Open University of Hong Kong:
Dr Richard Armour
Dr K.S. Yuen
Dr S.L. Chung
The University of Hong Kong:
Mr Henry Wai
Ms Dora Yue
The University of Munich:
Professor Dr Rudolf Tippelt (my supervisor)
Dr Bernhard Schmidt
The University of the Saarland:
Professor Dr Heinz Neber
University of Applied Management, Erding:
Mr Joel Schmidt
*Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
NAMES OF SUPERVISOR AND SECOND READER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
ABOUT THE AUTHOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
ABSTRACT (IN GERMAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
ABSTRACT (IN ENGLISH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
The Changing University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
The Changing Student Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
STUDENT EXPECTATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Four Recurring Themes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1. Job-oriented Curriculum Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2. User-friendly Course Delivery Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3. Opportunities for Lifelong Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4. Student Consumerism . . . . . . . . . 47
HIGHER EDUCATION IN HONG KONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
The Nine Institutions in This Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
1. City University of Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2. Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3. Hong Kong Baptist University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4. Lingnan University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
5. The Chinese University of Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
6. The Hong Kong Institute of Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology . . . . . . 68 Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan
8. The Open University of Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
9. The University of Hong Kong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Participants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Nationality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Enrollment Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Choice of Institution and Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Self-Reported Grade Average . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Fields of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Marital Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Employment Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Who Pays for Subjects’ Higher Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Family Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Parents’ Highest Level of Formal Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Personal Academic Aspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Reasons for Going to University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
What Participants Value about a University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Self-Perception of Ability to Cope with University Life . . . . . . . . 128
The Four Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Gender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Choice of Institution and Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Self-Reported Grade Average . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Fields of Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan
Employment Status, Family Income, and How Tuition is Paid . . . 159
Parents’ Highest Level of Formal Education and Personal
Aspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Reasons for Going to University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
What Participants Value about a University . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Self-Efficacy in University Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Job-Oriented Curriculum Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
User-Friendly Course Delivery Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
Opportunities for Lifelong Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Student Consumerism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
LIMITATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Concerning sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Concerning instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
APPENDIX A: Websites of the Nine Participating Institutions . . . . . 254
APPENDIX B: Student Expectations Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Student Expectations in the New Millennium—An Explorative Study of the Higher Education in Hong Kong Yee-Tak Wan
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Four Cultures of Universities
Table 2. Summary Characteristics of Four University Models
Table 3. A Profile of the Lifelong Learner
Table 4. An Overview of the Education System in Hong Kong
Table 5. Number of Participants from Each Institution
Table 6. Scale: Job-oriented Curriculum Design (1st pilot
test: α = .65)
Table 7. Scale: User-friendly Course Delivery Method (1st
pilot test: α = .60)
Table 8. Scale: Opportunities for Lifelong Learning (1st
pilot test: α = .60)
Table 9. Scale: Student Consumerism (1st pilot test:
α = .67)
Table 10. Scale: Job-oriented Curriculum Design (2nd pilot
test: α = .85)
Table 11. Scale: User-friendly Course Delivery Method (2nd
pilot test: α = .82)
Table 12. Scale: Opportunities for Lifelong Learning (2nd
pilot test: α = .61)
Table 13. Scale: Student Consumerism (2nd pilot test:
α = .83)
Table 14. Gender Distribution
Table 15. Significant Results of Binominal Tests on Gender
Distribution
Table 16. Age Distribution
Table 17. Significant Results of Tamhane’s T2 Post-Hoc
Test on Age Means