Studies on bioplastic for developing and evaluating of drip irrigation [Elektronische Ressource] / by Harby M. S. Mostafa
150 Pages
English
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Studies on bioplastic for developing and evaluating of drip irrigation [Elektronische Ressource] / by Harby M. S. Mostafa

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Learn all about the services we offer
150 Pages
English

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FEDERAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR RURAL AREAS, FORESTRY AND FISHERIES (vTI) Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering IN COOPERATION WITH JUSTUS LIEBIG UNIVERSITY GIESSEN FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Professorship of Agronomy, GERMANY Studies on Bioplastic for Developing and Evaluating of Drip Irrigation DISSERTATION Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences (Dr. agr.) by HARBY M. S. MOSTAFA EGYPT Advisor: Prof. Dr. FRANZ-JOSEF BOCKISCH CO-Advisor: Prof. Dr. BERND HONERMEIER Germany 2010 Thesis disputation date: 01.10.2010 Examining commission Chairman/person: Prof. Dr. Adalbert Evers Supervisor: 1. Advisor: Prof. Dr. Franz-Josef Bockisch 2. Co-Advisors: Prof. Dr. Bernd Honermeier Examiners: Prof. Dr. Stefan Gäth PD Dr. Rolf Alexander Düring Preface The requirements in agricultural production, the environmental protection and the water resources optimization have made farmers modernize irrigation systems. One aspect of these modernizations is the installation of drip irrigation systems.

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Published 01 January 2010
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FEDERAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR RURAL AREAS, FORESTRY AND
FISHERIES (vTI)

Institute of Agricultural Technology and Biosystems Engineering




IN COOPERATION WITH




JUSTUS LIEBIG UNIVERSITY GIESSEN
FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES AND
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
Institute of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Professorship of Agronomy,
GERMANY



Studies on Bioplastic for Developing and Evaluating
of Drip Irrigation


DISSERTATION
Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Agricultural Sciences (Dr. agr.)
by


HARBY M. S. MOSTAFA

EGYPT


Advisor: Prof. Dr. FRANZ-JOSEF BOCKISCH
CO-Advisor: Prof. Dr. BERND HONERMEIER
Germany
2010




































Thesis disputation date: 01.10.2010


Examining commission

Chairman/person:
Prof. Dr. Adalbert Evers
Supervisor:
1. Advisor: Prof. Dr. Franz-Josef Bockisch
2. Co-Advisors: Prof. Dr. Bernd Honermeier
Examiners:
Prof. Dr. Stefan Gäth
PD Dr. Rolf Alexander Düring

Preface
The requirements in agricultural production, the environmental protection and the
water resources optimization have made farmers modernize irrigation systems. One
aspect of these modernizations is the installation of drip irrigation systems. However,
the new environmental regulations and growing environmental awareness throughout
the world have triggered the search for new products and processes that are compatible
with the environment. This study presents the results of a research project using the
low pressure drip system (LPS) for small areas and investigating the possibilities and
limitations in developing biodegradable materials for using as drip tapes. Since the
irrigation tapes /laterals are usually removed at the end of the crop season, especially
for the vegetables, it would be desirable to use biodegradable irrigation drip lines that
would allow roto-tilling or ploughing of these materials after the end of the cultivation
season, without the need to remove the tapes/ laterals.
For developing and managing micro irrigation systems, series of studies were done to
identify the properties of some bioplastic materials and the possibility to use them as
biodegradable drip tubes. Some bioplastic materials indicated good results where they
has the possibility to use for producing the biodegradable drip tubes instead of PE or
PVC that will not need to be collected and disposed of after use but will decompose in
the soil without any adverse environmental effect. This will eliminate the disposal
cost; will be environmentally friendly and possibly, at least partially, the materials
used may be based on renewable raw resources.
The author, who had a scholarship as a doctoral student at Federal Research Institute
for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries (vTI), Institute of Agricultural Technology and
Biosystems Engineering, Braunschweig, Germany [the old name: Federal Agricultural
Research Center (FAL), Institute of Production Engineering and Building Research],
made a contribution towards a more objective discussion about the use of
biodegradable drip tube and described future-oriented solution approaches.

Braunschweig, October 2010
Prof. Dr. agr. habil. Franz-Josef Bockisch Dr. rer. hort. Heinz Sourell
Contents i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Abbreviations ..................................................................................................... v
List of Figures .......................................................................................... vi
List of Tables ............................................ viii
1. INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1
1.1 PROBLEMS ............................................... 3
1.2 OBJECTIVES ...................................................................... 4
1.3 OVERVIEW OF THE THESIS .................................................................... 5
2. DRIP IRRIGATION ...................................................................................... 7
2.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................... 7
2.1.1 Problems .............................................................................. 7
2.1.2 Objectives ................................... 8
2.2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 9
2.2.1 Overview of Irrigation Methods .................................................................... 9
2.2.2 Drip Irrigation ........................................... 13
2.2.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of micro-irrigation ..................................... 13
2.2.2.1.1 Advantages .................................................................................................. 14
2.2.2.1.2 Disadvantages .................4
2.2.3 Affordable Drip Systems for Smallholder Farmers .................................... 15
2.2.4 Low Pressure Drip Irrigation ....................................................................... 16
2.2.4.1 Components of a typical LPS system .......................................................... 17
2.2.5 Evaluation Methods ..................................................................................... 20
2.2.6 Economic Analysis of Drip Irrigation ......................................................... 22
2.3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCE DURE .............................................................. 24
2.3.1 Evaluation of the irrigation system ............................................................. 24
2.3.1.1 The evaluation method ................................................................................ 26
2.3.1.2 Evaluation parameters ................................... 27
2.3.1.2.1 Emission Uniformity (EU) .......................................................................... 27
2.3.1.2.2 Absolute Emission Uniformity (EUa) ......................................................... 27
2.3.1.2.3 Flow Variation Coefficient (CV ) ............................................................... 28 q
ii Contents
2.3.2 Measurement of the Consumptive Working Time ..................................... 28
2.4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................................................ 31
2.4.1 Uniformity of Drip System ........................................................................ 31
2.4.1.1 Performance uniformity of the unused laterals (New) ............................... 31
2.4.1.2 Performance uniformity of the used laterals .............................................. 32
2.4.1.2.1 Uniformity of discharge rate ...................................................................... 32
2.4.1.2.2 Distribution uniformity ........................... 33
2.4.1.3 Flow Variation Coefficient (CV ) .............................................................. 34 q
2.4.2 Consumptive Working Time ...................................................................... 35
2.4.3 Cost Estimation of Drip Lines Repairing and Removing .......................... 37
2.5 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................... 38
3. BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC ............ 41
3.1 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 41
3.1.1 Problems ........................................................................... 42
3.1.2 Objectives .......................................................................... 43
3.2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................... 44
3.2.1 Background Information on Petroplastics and Biodegradable Plastics ..... 44
3.2.2 Bioplastics .................................................................................................. 45
3.2.2.1 Advantages of Bioplastics ................................................ 46
3.2.3 Biodegradable Polymers Classification ..................................................... 47
3.2.4 Bioplastic Raw Materials ........................................................................... 48
3.2.5.1 Starch .......................................................................................................... 48
3.2.5.2 Cellulose ............................. 49
3.2.5.3 Sugar ........................................................................................................... 50
3.2.5 Biodegradability of Bioplastics ......................... 50
3.2.6 Methods of Biodegradation ........................................................................ 52
3.2.7 Standard Testing Methods ................................................ 54
3.2.7.1 Visual observations ................................................
3.2.7.2 Weight loss measurements: Determination of residual polymer ............... 55
3.2.7.3 Changes in mechanical properties and molar mass.................................... 55
3.2.7.4 CO evolution/O consumption .................................................................. 56 2 2
3.2.7.5 Clear-zone format ion ............................................................. 56
Contents iii
3.2.7.6 Enzymatic degradation ............................................................................... 57
3.2.7.7 Controlled composting test ......................................
3.2.8 Fields of Application for Bioplastics .......................................................... 58
3.2.8.1 Packaging materials .................................................................................... 58
3.2.8.2 Catering products - no dishwashing ........................................................... 59
3.2.8.3 Products for the garden and landscaping ......
3.2.8.4 Pharmaceutical and medical applications ................................................... 60
3.2.9 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 61
3.3 BIOPLASTIC MATERIALS UNDER THE STUDY ............................... 62
3.4 TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ................................... 63
3.4.1 Experimental Procedures ............................................................................ 63
3.4.2 Results .............................................................................. 64
3.4.2.1 Mater-Bi ........................................................................... 64
3.4.2.2 Ecoflex ........................................................................................................ 66
3.4.2.3 Chitosan ................................................................................. 66
3.4.2.4 Bioflex .............................................................................. 67
3.4.2.5 Bi-OPL ....................................................................................................... 68
3.4.2.6 Cellulose (FR 39) .................................... 68
3.4.3 Discussion ......................................................................... 69
3.4.4 Conclusion ............................................... 70
3.5 BIODEGRADATION IN DIFFERENT SOIL TYPES ............................. 72
3.5.1 Experimental Procedures ............................................................................ 72
3.5.2 Results .............................................................................. 73
3.5.2.1 Biodegradation on soil surface ......................................... 73
3.5.2.1.1 Sandy soil ................................................................................................... 73
3.5.2.1.2 Sandy loam soils ............................................................... 76
3.5.2.1.3 Loamy soils ......................................................................9
3.5.2.1.4 Multiple regression analysis .............................................. 82
3.5.2.2 Biodegradation at subsurface soil ............................................................... 82
3.5.3 Discussion ................................................................................................... 83
3.5.4 Conclusion ..................... 85
3.6 EFFECT OF FERTIGATION .................................................................... 87
iv Contents
3.6.1 Experimental Procedures.............................................................................. 87
3.6.2 Results .......................................................................................................... 89
3.6.3 Discussion ................................................. 91
3.6.4 Conclusion ...............................................................2
3.7 DEGRADATION METHODS .................................................................... 93
3.7.1 Biological Degradation ........................................................... 93
3.7.1.1 Experimental Procedures...................................................................
3.7.1.1.1 Laboratory methods ........................................................... 94
3.7.1.1.2 Field methods .................4
3.7.1.2 Results and Discussion ................................................................................. 95
3.7.1.2.1 Laboratory Experiments ............................................................................... 95
3.7.1.2.2 Field Experiments ..........8
3.7.1.3 Conclusion .................................................................................................... 99
3.7.2 Chemical Degradation ........................................................... 101
3.7.2.1 Experimental Procedures............................................................................ 101
3.7.2.2 Results and Discussion ............................................................................... 102
3.7.2.3 Conclusion .................................................................................................. 107
4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ........................................................ 109
4.1 Low Pressure Drip System ......................................................................... 109
4.2 Bioplastic Materi als .......................................................... 110
4.2.1 Temperature and Relative Humidity .......................................................... 111
4.2.2 Effect of Different Soil Types .......................................... 111
4.2.3 Effect of Fertigation ......................................................... 113
4.2.4 Degradation Methods ....................................................... 114
4.3 Resume ....................................................................................................... 115
4.4 Overview on Environmental and Economical Advantages of Bioplastics 115
5. SUMMARY ........................................... 118
6. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG ........................................................................... 121
7. REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 124
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................ 138
CURRICULUM VITAE ............................................................................................. 139
Contents v
List of Abbreviations
AFM Atomic force microscopy
BD Biodegradation
BPF British Plastics Federation
Ca (H PO) Calcium Dihydrogen Phosphate 2 4
CVq Flow Variation Coefficient
DI drip irrigation
DSC Differential scanning colorimetry
dw Dry weight
E Elongation
EMC Equilibrium moisture content
EU Emission uniformity
EUa Absolute Emission Uniformity
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FNR Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V.
FTIR Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy
ha hectare
H PO Phosphoric acid 3 4
HNO Nitric acid 3
HPLC high performance liquid chromatography
IDE International Development Enterprises
IE Irrigation efficiency
K SO Potassium Sulfate2 4
kPa Kilo Pascal
l/h litre/hour
LPS Low pressure drip system
MC Moisture content
mw Moist weight
N:P:K Nitrogen:potassium:phosphorus
NaCl Sodium chloride
NH NO Ammonium Nitrate4 3
PE Polyethylene
PHA poly-hydroxyalcanoate
PLA Polylactide acid
PVC Polyvinylchloride
q Average of the 12.5 % lowest values of flow rate 12.5%
q Average flow rate a
q Average of the 25% lowest values of flow rate 25%
RRM Renewable raw materials
SD Standard deviation of flow
SDI Subsurface drip irrigation
T Time
TS tensile strength
W and W the films weight before and after treatment 1 2
vi Contents
List of Figures
Figure 2.1: Irrigation systems classification (Sourell, 1998) ........................................ 10 2.2: A mobile drip irrigation idea (Sourell and Derbala, 2005). ....................... 12
Figure 2.3: Components of a typical LPS system (Dowgert et al., 2007) .................... 18 2.4: A photograph of a typical manifold and lateral setup (Dowgert et al.,
2007) .......................................................................................................... 20
Figure 2.5: Statistical uniformity nomograph (Smajstrla et al., 1997) ......................... 22 2.6: Diagram of the LPS components ...................................... 25
Figure 2.7: Diagram of the localization of control points in the test unit ..................... 26 2.8: Retrieval machine powered by a tractor ..................................................... 29
Figure 2.9: Connectors between PolyNet distributor hose to laterals ........................... 30 2.10: Discharge rate of selected emitters for the first season (new system,
Dowgert et al., 2007) ................................................................................. 31
Figure 2.11: Discharge rate of selected emitters for the second season ....................... 32 2.12: Discha ofed emitters for the third season ........................... 33
Figure 2.13: The installation working time of the drip system per hectare .................. 35
Figure 2.14: Spent time and the number of repairing problems for LPS laterals
during three cultivation seasons ................................................................. 36
stFigure 2.15: Spent time in removing the system during 1 season (new system),
nd rd2 and 3 seasons (used system) .............................................................. 37
-1Figure 2.16: The total costs of repairing and retrieving the laterals (€ ha ) ................. 38
Figure 3.1: Classification of the biodegradable polymers (Bordes et al., 2009) ........... 48 3.2: Annual worldwide bioplastics production capacity (European
bioplastics, 2010) ....................................................................................... 52
Figure 3.3: Equilibrium moisture content of Mater Bi at different temperatures
and different relative humidity ........................................ 65
Figure 3.4: Equilicontent of Ecoflex at different temperatures
andtive humidity .................................................................. 66
Figure 3.5: Equilibrium moisture content of Chitosan at different temperatures
and different relative humidity ................ 67
Figure 3.6: Equilicontent of Bioflex at different temperatures
andtive humidity .................................................................. 68
Figure 3.7: Equilibrium moisture content of Bi-OPL at different temperatures
and different relative humidity ................ 69
Figure 3.8: Equilicontent of Cellulose at different temperatures
andtive humidity .................................................................. 70
Figure 3.9: Average of equilibrium moisture content at different temperatures
and different relative humidity ................ 71
Figure 3.10: Weight loss (%) of the different biodegradable plastics in sandy soil ..... 74
Figure 3.11: Tensile strength (MPa) of the different biodegradable plastics in
sandy soil .................................................................................................. 75
Figure 3.12: Photographical comparison between the different bioplastic materials
under sandy soil for five months .............................................................. 76
Figure 3.13: Weight loss (%) of the different biodegradable plastics in sandy-
loam soil ................................................................................................... 77