Studies on the Mango ecosystem in Papua New Guinea with special reference to the ecology of Deanolis sublimbalis Snellen (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) and to the biological control of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Homoptera, Coccidae) [Elektronische Ressource] / by Stefan Magnus Eugen Krull
211 Pages
English
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Studies on the Mango ecosystem in Papua New Guinea with special reference to the ecology of Deanolis sublimbalis Snellen (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) and to the biological control of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Homoptera, Coccidae) [Elektronische Ressource] / by Stefan Magnus Eugen Krull

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211 Pages
English

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Institut für Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen Versuchsstation, Alter Steinbacher Weg 44 D-35394 Gießen 6WXGLHVRQWKH0DQJR(FRV\VWHPLQ3DSXD1HZ*XLQHDZLWKVSHFLDOUHIHUHQFHWRWKHHFRORJ\RI’HDQROLVVXEOLPEDOLV6QHOOHQ/HSLGRSWHUD3\UDOLGDHDQGWRWKHELRORJLFDOFRQWURORI&HURSODVWHVUXEHQV0DVNHOO+RPRSWHUD&RFFLGDH Thesis Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor degree in agriculture (Dr. agr.) Fachbereich Agrarwissenschaft, Ökotrophologie und Umweltmanagement der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen By Dipl. Ing. agr. Stefan Magnus Eugen Krull Gießen, February 2004 Prüfungskommission Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr. Friedt 1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Basedow 2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Honermeier Prüfer: Prof. Dr. Kogel Prüfer: Prof. Dr. Mühling iTable of content *HQHUDOLQWURGXFWLRQ 7KHPDQJRWUHH 6WXG\VLWHV 6WXGLHVRQDUERUHDODQGHSLJHDOSUHGDWRU\DUWKURSRGVLQWZRPDQJRRUFKDUGVLQWKH&HQWUDO3URYLQFHRI3DSXD1HZ*XLQHD ,QWURGXFWLRQDQGREMHFWLYHV 0DWHULDODQGPHWKRGV 10 4.2.1 Study sites 10 4.2.2 Predator catches 10 4.2.2.

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Published 01 January 2004
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Language English
Document size 2 MB

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Institut für Phytopathologie und Angewandte Zoologie
der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Versuchsstation, Alter Steinbacher Weg 44
D-35394 Gießen




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Thesis
Submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor degree
in agriculture (Dr. agr.)
Fachbereich Agrarwissenschaft, Ökotrophologie und Umweltmanagement der
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen



By
Dipl. Ing. agr.
Stefan Magnus Eugen Krull


Gießen, February 2004























Prüfungskommission
Vorsitzender: Prof. Dr. Friedt
1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Basedow
2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Honermeier
Prüfer: Prof. Dr. Kogel
Prüfer: Prof. Dr. Mühling


i
Table of content

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6WXGLHVRQDUERUHDODQGHSLJHDOSUHGDWRU\DUWKURSRGV
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RI3DSXD1HZ*XLQHD

,QWURGXFWLRQDQGREMHFWLYHV
0DWHULDODQGPHWKRGV 10
4.2.1 Study sites 10
4.2.2 Predator catches 10
4.2.2.1 Epigael predatory arthropods 10
4.2.2.2 Arboreal predatory arthropods 10
4.2.3 Study period 11
4.2.4 Identification of insects 11
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4.3.1 (SLJHDOSUHGDWRU\DUWKURSRGV 11
4.3.1.1 Occurrence and composition 11
4.3.1.2 Araneae 12
4.3.1.3 Coleoptera 13
4.3.1.4 Hymenoptera 14
4.3.1.5 Gryllidae (crickets) and Chilopoda (centipedes) 17
4.3.2 $UERUHDOSUHGDWRU\DUWKURSRGV 17
4.3.2.1 Occurrence and composition 17
4.3.2.2 Araneae 18
4.3.2.3 Coleoptera 20
4.3.2.4 Hymenoptera 20
ii
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4.4.1 Epigeal and arboreal Araneae 23
4.4.2 Epigeal and arboreal predatory Coleoptera 24
4.4.3 Epigeal and arboreal Hymenoptera 27
4.4.4 Gryllidae and Chilopoda 30
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5.2.1 Fruit piercing moths 2WKUHLVIXOORQLD, 2PDWHUQD,
(XGRFLPDVDODPLQLD (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) 38
5.2.2 Blossom feeders (Lepidoptera) &RVPRVWROD sp.,
*\PQRVFHOLV sp., 1DQDJXQDEUHYLXVFXOD 40
5.2.3 Mango leafminer $FURFHUFRSV spp.
(Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) 41
5.2.4 White mango scale $XODFDVSLVWXEHUFXODULV
(Coccoidea, Diaspididae) 43
5.2.5 Soft scales 6DLVVHWLD sp. and 3DUDVDLVVHWLD sp.
(Coccoidea, Coccidae) 44
5.2.6 Mango aphid 7R[RSWHUDRGLQDH (Homoptera, Aphididae) 46
5.2.7 Mango leafhoppers ,GLRVFRSXVFO\SHDOLV and ,QLYHRVSDUVXV
(Homoptera, Cicadellidae) 47
5.2.8 Mango planthoppers &ROJDURLGHVDFXPLQDWD, &ROJDU sp.,
6FRO\SRSD sp., (Homoptera, Flatidae, Ricaniidae) 50
5.2.9 Mango fruit fly %DFWURFHUDIUDXHQIHOGL (Diptera, Tephritidae) 52
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5.3.1 Study Sites 54
5.3.2 Determination of infestation levels 54
5.3.3 Identification of insects 55 iii
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5.4.1 Infestation levels of mango fruits with fruit piercing moths
2WKUHLVIXOORQLD, 2PDWHUQD, (XGRFLPDVDODPLQLD
(Lep., Noctuidae) 56
5.4.2 Infestation levels of mango inflorescenses with blossom
feeders (Lepidoptera), &RVPRVWROD sp., *\PQRVFHOLV sp.,
1DQDJXQDEUHYLXVFXOD 58
5.4.3 Infestation levels of mango leaves with mango leafminer
$FURFHUFRSVspp. (Lep., Gracillariidae) 60
5.4.4 Infestation levels of mango leaves with white mango scale
$XODFDVSLVWXEHUFXODULV (Homopt., Diaspididae) 62
5.4.5 Infestation levels of young mango twigs with soft scales
6DLVVHWLDsp. and 3DUDVDLVVHWLD sp. (Homopt., Coccidae) 64
5.4.6. Infestation levels of young mango twigs with the mango aphid
7R[RSWHUDRGLQDH (Homopt., Aphididae) 66
5.4.7 Infestation levels of mango inflorescenses with mango
leafhoppers ,GLRVFRSXVFO\SHDOLV and ,QLYHRVSDUVXV
(Homopt., Cicadellidae) 68
5.4.8 Infestation levels of young mango twigs with mango
planthoppers, &ROJDURLGHVDFXPLQDWD, &ROJDU sp,
6FRO\SRSD sp., (Homopt., Flatidae, Ricaniidae) 70
5.4.9 Infestation levels of mango fruits with mango fruit fly
%DFWURFHUDIUDXHQIHOGL (Dipt., Tephritidae) 72
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5.5.1 Infestation levels of mango fruits with fruit piercing moths
2WKUHLVIXOORQLD, 2PDWHUQD, (XGRFLPDVDODPLQLD
(Lep., Noctuidae) 72
5.5.2 Infestation levels of mango inflorescenses with blossom
feeders (Lepidoptera), &RVPRVWROD sp., *\PQRVFHOLV sp.,
1DQDJXQDEUHYLXVFXOD 73
5.5.3 Infestation levels of mango leaves with mango leafminer
$FURFHUFRSVspp. (Lep., Gracillariidae) 73
iv
5.5.4 Infestation levels of mango leaves with white mango scale
$XODFDVSLVWXEHUFXODULV (Homopt., Diaspididae) 74
5.5.5 Infestation levels of young mango twigs with soft scales
6DLVVHWLDsp. and 3DUDVDLVVHWLD sp. (Homopt., Coccidae) 74
5.5.6. Infestation levels of young mango twigs with the mango aphid
7R[RSWHUDRGLQDH (Homopt., Aphididae) 75
5.5.7 Infestation levels of mango inflorescenses with mango
leafhoppers ,GLRVFRSXVFO\SHDOLV and ,QLYHRVSDUVXV
(Homopt., Cicadellidae) 75
5.5.8 Infestation levels of young mango twigs with mango
planthoppers, &ROJDURLGHVDFXPLQDWD, &ROJDU sp.,
6FRO\SRSD sp., (Homopt., Flatidae, Ricaniidae) 76
5.5.9 Infestation levels of mango fruits with mango fruit fly
%DFWURFHUDIUDXHQIHOGL (Dipt., Tephritidae) 76
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6.2.1 &HURSODVWHVUXEHQVMaskell 83
6.2.2 Natural enemies of &HURSODVWHVUXEHQV 87
6.2.2.1 Parasitoids 90
6.2.2.2 Effectiveness of parasitoids of &HURSODVWHVUXEHQV 93
6.2.2.3 Pathogens 94
6.2.3 The pink wax scale parasitoid $QLFHWXVEHQHILFXV
Ishii & Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) 94
6.2.4 The correlation of honeydew producing Homoptera
with ants 97