Study of ocean climate variability (1959 - 2002) in the eastern Indian Ocean, Java Sea and Sunda Strait using the HAMburg shelf ocean model [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Mutiara Rachmat Putri
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Study of ocean climate variability (1959 - 2002) in the eastern Indian Ocean, Java Sea and Sunda Strait using the HAMburg shelf ocean model [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Mutiara Rachmat Putri

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117 Pages
English

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Study of Ocean Climate Variability (1959-2002)in the Eastern Indian Ocean, Java Seaand Sunda StraitUsing the HAMburg Shelf Ocean ModelDissertationzur Erlangung des Doktorgradesder Naturwissenschaftenim Fachbereich Geowissenschaftender Universitat¨ Hamburgvorgelegt vonMutiara Rachmat Putriaus Mojokerto, IndonesienHamburg2005Als Dissertation angenommen vom Fachbereich Geowissenschaftender Universitat¨ Hamburgauf Grund der Gutachten von Prof. Dr. J. Sundermann¨und Dr. P. DammHamburg, den 30. Juni 2004Prof. Dr. H. SchleicherDekandes Fachbereichs GeowissenschaftenGedruckt mit Unterstutzung¨ des Deutschen Akademischen AustauschdienstesContentsList of Figures vList of Tables ixAbstract xi1 Introduction 12 General Dynamics ofIndonesian Waters 52.1 The Monsoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.2 El Nino˜ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62.3 Dipole Mode Event (DME) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92.4 Ocean Characteristics of the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.4.1 The Deep Waters in the Eastern Indian Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.4.2 The Shallow Waters of the Java Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.4.3 The Sunda Strait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 The Data 133.1 The Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133.1.

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Study of Ocean Climate Variability (1959-2002)
in the Eastern Indian Ocean, Java Sea
and Sunda Strait
Using the HAMburg Shelf Ocean Model
Dissertation
zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades
der Naturwissenschaften
im Fachbereich Geowissenschaften
der Universitat¨ Hamburg
vorgelegt von
Mutiara Rachmat Putri
aus Mojokerto, Indonesien
Hamburg
2005Als Dissertation angenommen vom Fachbereich Geowissenschaften
der Universitat¨ Hamburg
auf Grund der Gutachten von Prof. Dr. J. Sundermann¨
und Dr. P. Damm
Hamburg, den 30. Juni 2004
Prof. Dr. H. Schleicher
Dekan
des Fachbereichs Geowissenschaften
Gedruckt mit Unterstutzung¨ des Deutschen Akademischen AustauschdienstesContents
List of Figures v
List of Tables ix
Abstract xi
1 Introduction 1
2 General Dynamics of
Indonesian Waters 5
2.1 The Monsoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 El Nino˜ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 Dipole Mode Event (DME) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.4 Ocean Characteristics of the Study Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.4.1 The Deep Waters in the Eastern Indian Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.4.2 The Shallow Waters of the Java Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.4.3 The Sunda Strait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3 The Data 13
3.1 The Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.1 Bathymetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.2 Tides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.3 Temperature and Salinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.1.4 Atmospheric Forcing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.1.4.1 The Hellerman Wind Stress Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.1.4.2 Long Term Atmospheric Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.1.5 River Runoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2 Data for Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4 The Numerical Model 19
4.1 Equations of the HAMburg Shelf Ocean Model
(HAMSOM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.2 Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3 The Treatment of Temperature and Salinity at the Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.4 Model Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
i5 Model Simulations and Validation 25
5.1 The First Simulation (S1) : Tides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.1.1 Tidal Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.1.2 The SSE Time Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.2 The Second Simulation (S2) : Climatological Wind Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.3 The Third (S3) : Forcing by Atmospheric Heat Fluxes - Short Term
Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
5.4 The Fourth Simulation (S4) : Forcing by Atmospheric Heat Fluxes - Long Term
Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.4.1 Run IV.A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.4.2 Run IV.B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.5 Analysis of the Open Boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6 The Climatological Situation 43
6.1 Monsoonal Variation of SST and SSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.2 Circulation in the Java Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
6.3 Transport of Water Mass through the Sunda Strait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.4 Analysis of Upwelling in the Eastern Indian Ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7 Ocean Variability During 1959-2002 59
7.1 Upwelling Variability South of Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
7.1.1 During ENSO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.1.2 During DME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
7.1.3 Wavelet Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
7.2 Variability in the Java Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.3 Transport Variation through the Sunda Strait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
8 Conclusions 77
Acknowledgments 79
A List of Symbols 85
B HAMSOM - Detailed Description 87
B.1 Layer-Averaged Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
B.2 The Numerical Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
B.2.1 Numerical Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
B.2.2 Finite Difference Momentum Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
B.2.3 Horizontal Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
B.2.3.1 Semi-Implicit System of U- and V-Transport . . . . . . . . . . 94
B.2.3.2 Explicit System of Diffusion and Advection . . . . . . . . . . 95B.2.4 Vertical Discretization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
B.2.4.1 Semi-Implicit System of Vertical Component Velocity w . . . 95
B.2.4.2 System of Diffusion and Advection . . . . . . . 96
B.3 Coefficient of Vertical Eddy Viscosity (A ) and Vertical Eddy Diffusity (K ) . . . 97v v
C Air-Sea Heat Balance 101List of Figures
1.1 Position of Indonesia and area of the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Bathymetry of the research area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1 Delineation of the World’s monsoon region. (From Ramage, 1971 in Hastenrath,
1985) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Sea Surface Temperature during (a) the La Nina˜ Condition 1998, (b) Normal Con-
dition 1993, and (c) the El Nino˜ Condition 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.3 Global Sea Surface Circulation in the Southeast Asian Waters (Wyrtki, 1961) . . 11
3.1 Temperature and salinity for initial value from WOA (1998) . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.2 The locations of observed data for model validation and cross sections for analysis 17
5.1 The K -Distribution of HAMSOM (left) and Stawarz (1994) (right). . . . . . . . 261
5.2 The M -Distribution of (left) and Stawarz (1994) (right). . . . . . . . 272
5.3 Verifications of SSE at Tanjung Priok-Jakarta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.4 V of SSE at Cilacap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.5 Verifications of SSE at Panjang-Lampung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5.6 SST and SSS in August 1998 and January 1999 : The results of S2 . . . . . . . . 30
5.7 Verification of SST from January 1997 to December 1999 : The results of S3 . . 31
5.8 The climatological SSC and SSE in August (left) and January (right) : results from
run IV.A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.9 The climatological SST and SSS in January and August : results from run IV.A . 33
5.10 The SSC and SSE in August (left) and January (right) : results from
run IV.B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
5.11 The climatological SST and SSS in January and August : results from run IV.B . 35
5.12 Verification of SST in January 1997 - December 1999 : results from run IV.A (left)
and run IV.B (right) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
5.13 The SST distributions from the NOAA Satellite (top), run IV.A (centre) and run
IV.B (bottom) in (a) January and (b) August 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
5.14 The TS diagram with zero MSL along the open boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
5.15 The TS diagram with different constant MSL at each open boundary . . . . . . . 39
5.16 Anomaly of Sea Surface Topography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6.1 The climatological variation of SST from the model output . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
6.2 The variation of SSS from the model output . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
6.3 Variation of SSE and SSC during the NW monsoon (December-March) . . . . . 46
6.4 Vertical distribution of temperature (left) and salinity (right) during the NW mon-
soon (December-February) in the cross section GH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6.5 Variation of SSE and SSC during the transition of NW to SE monsoon (April-May) 47
6.6 Variation of SSE and SSC during the SE monsoon (June-September) . . . . . . . 48
v6.7 Vertical distribution of temperature (left) and salinity (right) during the SE mon-
soon (July-September) in the cross section GH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
6.8 Variation of SSE and SSC during the transition from SE to NW monsoon (October-
November) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
6.9 The seasonal variation of water mass transport in the Sunda Strait in the eastern
and northern parts of the Java Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
6.10 Vertical profile of temperature and salinity in August along the cross section EF . 52
6.11 Vertical profile of and salinity in January along the cross section EF . 53
6.12 Vertical profile of salinity in December (left) and August (right) in the cross sec-
tion C D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 1
6.13 The east-west current component during the NW monsoon (left) and SE monsoon
(right), 111km from the coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
6.14 The vertical current component during the NW monsoon (left) and SE monsoon
(right), 111km from the coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
o6.15 The east-west current component in the cross section AB at 109 E during the NW
monsoon (left) and SE monsoon (right) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
o6.16 The vertical current component in the cross section AB at 109 E during the NW
monsoon (left) and SE monsoon (right) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
6.17 Vertical profile of climatological temperature (left) and salinity (right) at C’ . . . 56
6.18 Vertical profile of (left) and salinity (right) about
111km in the cross section AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
7.1 Anomaly of SST (1959-2002) in cross section AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
7.2 of SSS in cross section AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
7.3 Anomaly of zonal wind (m/s) during the SE monsoon (May-October) 1959-2002 62
o7.4 Vertical profile of temperature ( C) and salinity (psu) anomalies close to the south-
ern coast of East Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
o7.5 Vertical profile of temperature ( C) and salinity (psu) anomalies close to the south-
ern coast of Central Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
o7.6 Vertical profile of temperature ( C) and salinity (psu) anomalies near the Sunda
Strait . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
o o7.7 Wavelet analysis of SST in the south of East Java (112 E 8 5 S) . . . . . . . . . 66
o o7.8 Wavelet analysis of SST in the Sunda Strait, western part of study area (105 E 5 5 S) 67
7.9 Wavelet analysis of zonal wind in the Sunda Strait, western part of study area
o o(105 E 5 5 S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
7.10 Wavelet analysis of zonal wind in the Sunda Strait, in the south of Central Java
o o(109 E 8 5 S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
7.11 SST Anomaly (1959-2002) in cross section GH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
7.12 Anomaly of SSS in cross section GH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
7.13 of SST (1959-2002) in cross section EF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
o o7.14 Wavelet Analysis of SST in the Java Sea (109 E 5 5 S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
7.15 Anomaly of SSS (1959-2002) in cross section EF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74




7.16 Variations of water mass transport through the Sunda Strait during normal condi-
tions, ENSO, and DME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
B.1 Horizontal Distributions of Grid-points in Arakawa C-grid (Backhaus, 1985) . . . . . . 91
B.2 Vertical Layer (Pohlmann, 1991) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
B.3 Vertical grid-points of exchanged coefficien (Pohlmann, 1991) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
C.1 Regional distribution of optical water types (Jerlov, 1968) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103