Substitution of potassium by sodium in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) [Elektronische Ressource] : nutrition with special reference to K-fixing soils / submitted by Abdul Wakeel
109 Pages
English
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Substitution of potassium by sodium in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) [Elektronische Ressource] : nutrition with special reference to K-fixing soils / submitted by Abdul Wakeel

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Learn all about the services we offer
109 Pages
English

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Institute of Plant NutritionJustus Liebig University Giessen, GermanyProf. Dr. Sven SchubertSubstitution of Potassium by Sodium inSugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Nutrition with Special Reference to K-Fixing SoilsABDUL WAKEELControl Potassium SodiumA thesis submitted for the requirement of the doctoral degree in agriculture from Faculty of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences, édition scientifique Home Economics and Environmental ManagementVVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAGJustus Liebig University Giessen, GermanyVVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG ISBN 3-8359-5384-2STAUFENBERGRING 15 D-35396 GIESSENTel: 0641-5599888 Fax: -5599890redaktion@doktorverlag.dewww.doktorverlag.de 9 7 8 3 8 3 5 9 5 3 8 4 0édition scientifiqueVVB VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAGABDUL WAKEEL SUBST. OF K BY NA IN SUGAR BEET. Das Werk ist in allen seinen Teilen urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung ist ohne schriftliche Zustimmung des Autors oder des Verlages unzulässig. Das gilt insbesondere für Vervielfältigungen, Übersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen und die Einspeicherung in und Verarbeitung durch elektronische Systeme.1. Auflage 2008All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the Author or the Publishers.

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Institute of Plant Nutrition
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
Prof. Dr. Sven Schubert
Substitution of Potassium by Sodium in
Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Nutrition with Special
Reference to K-Fixing Soils
ABDUL WAKEEL
Control Potassium Sodium
A thesis submitted for the requirement of the doctoral degree
in agriculture from Faculty of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences,
édition scientifique Home Economics and Environmental Management
VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG ISBN 3-8359-5384-2
STAUFENBERGRING 15 D-35396 GIESSEN
Tel: 0641-5599888 Fax: -5599890
redaktion@doktorverlag.de
www.doktorverlag.de 9 7 8 3 8 3 5 9 5 3 8 4 0
édition scientifique
VVB VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG
ABDUL WAKEEL SUBST. OF K BY NA IN SUGAR BEET. Das Werk ist in allen seinen Teilen urheberrechtlich geschützt.
Jede Verwertung ist ohne schriftliche Zustimmung des Autors
oder des Verlages unzulässig. Das gilt insbesondere für
Vervielfältigungen, Übersetzungen, Mikroverfilmungen
und die Einspeicherung in und Verarbeitung durch
elektronische Systeme.
1. Auflage 2008
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,
in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior
written permission of the Author or the Publishers.
st
1 Edition 2008
© 2008 by VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG, Giessen
Printed in Germany
VVB LAUFERSWEILER VERLAG
édition scientifique
STAUFENBERGRING 15, D-35396 GIESSEN
Tel: 0641-5599888 Fax: 0641-5599890
email: redaktion@doktorverlag.de
www.doktorverlag.deInstitute of Plant Nutrition
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany
Prof. Dr. Sven Schubert


Substitution of Potassium by Sodium in
Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Nutrition with
Special Reference to K-Fixing Soils











A thesis submitted for the requirement of the doctoral degree in
agriculture from Faculty of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences,
Home Economics and Environmental Management
Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany


Submitted by
Abdul Wakeel
Sahiwal / Pakistan
2008



















Date of defense: 28-11-2008
Examination Commission
Chairman: Prof. Dr. Steffen Hoy
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Sven Schubert
Co-supervisor: Prof. Dr. Peter Felix-Henningsen
Examiner: Prof. Dr. Bernd Honermeier
Examiner: Prof. Dr. Diedrich Steffens



























To
My Beloved Parents
May Allah bless them with peace
Contents

1- Introduction Page No.
1.1 Potassium dynamics in soil 1
1.2 Potassium in plants 2
1.3 Sodium versus potassium 4
1.4 Sugar beet - a source of sucrose 7
1.5 Ion uptake and homeostasis 7
1.6 Objectives of the study 9
2- Materials and Methods
2.1 Soil experiments
2.1.1 Ahr pot experiment 10
2.1.2 Container experiment 12
2.1.3 Field experiment 14
2.2 Nutrient solution experiments
2.2.1 Plant cultivation 17
2.2.2 Experimental procedures 18
2.3 Chemical analyses

2.3.1 Inorganic cation concentrations in plant 18
2.3.2 Boron
2.3.2.1 Analysis of plant samples 19
2.3.2.1 Analysis of xylem sap 20

2.3.3 α-amino N concentration 21
2.3.4 Sugar concentration 22
2.3.5 Soil analyses
2.3.5.1 Analysis for inorganic cations 24
2.3.5.2 Determination of K-fixing capacity of
soil 24
2.3.5.3 Total cation concentration in the soil 25
2.4 Determination of interlayer potassium 26
2.4.1 Comparison of K release for soils used
for soil culture experiments 27
2.5 Statistical analysis 28


Contents

3- Results Page No.
3.1 Soil culture experiments
3.1.1 Ahr pot experiment 29
3.1.1.1 Plant growth and beet yield 29

3.1.1.2 Cation concentration in leaf and beet 31
3.1.1.3 Beet quality parameters 34
3.1.1.4 White sugar yield 37
3.1.2 Container experiment
3.1.2.1 Plant growth 38

3.1.2.2 Cation concentration and uptake by leaf 39
Cation concentration and uptake by
3.1.2.3 beet 42
3.1.2.4 Beet quality parameters 43
3.1.2.5 White sugar yield 44
3.1.3 Field experiment
3.1.3.1 Plant growth and beet yield 44
3.1.3.2 Cation concentrations in beet 45
3.1.3.3 Beet quality parameters 46
3.1.3.4 White sugar yield 46
3.2 Nutrient solution experiments
3.2.1 Plant growth 48

3.2.2 Ion concentration 50
3.2.3 Ca uptake and translocation 53
3.2.4 Boron translocation 55
4- Discussion
4.1 Sodium nutrition and plant growth 56

4.2 Beet quality 61
4.3 Sodium nutrition and ionic homeostasis 63
4.4 Sodium nutrition and Ca translocation 70
4.5 Concluding remarks 73
5- Summary 75
6- Zusammenfassung 77
79 7- References
Acknowledgements
Curriculum Vitae
Contents

List of Figures Page No.
1.1 K-release during mineral weathering and its fixation by clay minerals. 2
1.2 Potassium complexed by organic molecules in octahedron. 4
1.3 Routes of nutrient transport from nutrient medium to xylem vessel. 8
2.1 Ahr pot used in pot experiment. 10
2.2 Weather data during Ahr pot experiment. 11
2.3 Container used in Container experiment 12
2.4 Weather data during Container experiment. 13
2.5 Weather report of field experiment 16
2.6 Electrofiltration (EUF) model 27
2.7 Potassium dynamics of soils used 27
3.1 Effect of K substitution by Na on fresh wt. data for Ahr pot experiment 30
3.2 Effect of K substitution by Na on dry wt. data for Ahr pot experiment 30
3.3 K-deficiency symptoms in Ahr pot experiment 31
3.4 Cation concentration in beet for Ahr pot experiment 33
3.5 Sucrose concentration in beet for Ahr pot experiment 35
3.6 Na + K concentration in beet for Ahr pot experiment 36
3.7 α -amino N concentration in beet for Ahr pot experiment 36
3.8 Effect of K substitution by Na on white sugar yield for Ahr pot exp. 37
3.9 Photo showing difference in plant growth in Container experiment 38
3.10 Effect of K substitution by Na on plant growth in Container experiment 39
3.11 Cation concentrations in beet in Container experiment 42
3.12 Cation uptake by beet in Container experiment 43
3.13 Effect of K substitution by Na on plant growth in field experiment 45
3.14 Cation concentrations in beet in field experiment 45
Contents

Page No. List of Figures
3.15 Beet quality parameters and WSY in field experiment 47
3.16 Calcium deficiency symptoms in sugar beet 49
3.17 Effect of K substitution by Na on plant growth in Nutrient solution exp. 49
3.18 Cation concentrations in old leaves in nutrient solution experiment 50
3.19 Cation concentrations in young leaves in nutrient solution experiment 51
3.20 Volume of xylem sap and Ca translocation in nutrient solution exp. 54
4.1 Cumulative curve for K-dynamics in soils 60
4.2 % accumulation of Na in shoot and beet 63
4.3 Potassium flux kinetics in plant roots 65
4.4 Na / Ca ratio in sugar beet shoot in response to K substitution by Na 67
4.5 Schematic representation of Na transport in plant cells. 69
4.6 Na nutrition and Ca translocation. 73