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Taxonomy
 Core network « transition/integration »
– Tunnels, MPLS, 6PE
– Study case VTHD
 ISP Transition
– 6to4, Tunnel Broker
 Site « transition/integraton »
– ISATAP, Teredo, NAT-PT
 Host « transition/integration »
– DSTM, Bump in the *, SOCK, ALG
– Advanced API
G6 Tutorial 1 Problem for core network
 How to cross a router speaking only IPv4
 Software problem
 Hardware problem
G6 Tutorial 2 Core network transition
 tunnels :
– The oldest transition technique
– Encapsulation of an IPv6 packet inside an IPv4
packet
– Packet use IPv4 routing to reach a destination
– Problems :
• IPv4 addresses choice
– Given once by configuration => overlay network
» May lead to complex and strange routing
» Too easy to create links, so a lot of connectivity
G6 Tutorial 3 6bone
Create a virtual topology over the IPv4 network
with configured tunnels
G6 Tutorial 4 Used by the 6bone
End of 6bone network the 6/6/6
G6 Tutorial 5 Tunnels and High speed network
 Useful to cross non IPv6 routers
 But:
– Software processing for encapsulation may reduce
performances.
– MTU may be reduced.
– Physical topology must be kept at the logical level.
G6 Tutorial 6 MPLS
 Instead of adding an IPv4 header, use MPLS
(level 2,5).
 MPLS : Multi Protocol Label Switching
– Independent of layer 2 (ATM, PPP, Frame
Relay,…)
– Independent (mostly) of layer « 3 » (IPv4, IPv6,
IPX, MAC,…)
 MPLS add a label between L2 and L3
– This label is used to relay the packet inside the
network
G6 Tutorial 7 MPLS ...

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Taxonomy  Core network « transition/integration » – Tunnels, MPLS, 6PE – Study case VTHD  ISP Transition – 6to4, Tunnel Broker  Site « transition/integraton » – ISATAP, Teredo, NAT-PT  Host « transition/integration » – DSTM, Bump in the *, SOCK, ALG – Advanced API G6 Tutorial 1 Problem for core network  How to cross a router speaking only IPv4  Software problem  Hardware problem G6 Tutorial 2 Core network transition  tunnels : – The oldest transition technique – Encapsulation of an IPv6 packet inside an IPv4 packet – Packet use IPv4 routing to reach a destination – Problems : • IPv4 addresses choice – Given once by configuration => overlay network » May lead to complex and strange routing » Too easy to create links, so a lot of connectivity G6 Tutorial 3 6bone Create a virtual topology over the IPv4 network with configured tunnels G6 Tutorial 4 Used by the 6bone End of 6bone network the 6/6/6 G6 Tutorial 5 Tunnels and High speed network  Useful to cross non IPv6 routers  But: – Software processing for encapsulation may reduce performances. – MTU may be reduced. – Physical topology must be kept at the logical level. G6 Tutorial 6 MPLS  Instead of adding an IPv4 header, use MPLS (level 2,5).  MPLS : Multi Protocol Label Switching – Independent of layer 2 (ATM, PPP, Frame Relay,…) – Independent (mostly) of layer « 3 » (IPv4, IPv6, IPX, MAC,…)  MPLS add a label between L2 and L3 – This label is used to relay the packet inside the network G6 Tutorial 7 MPLS (2) NIVEAU 3 MPLS int1/567=>int2/789 NIV2 NIV2’ niv2’/789/niv3niv2/567/niv3 G6 Tutorial 8 MPLS (3) – Simple solution IPv6 IPv6 L1/IPv6 L2/IPv6 IPv6A B C D •Constraint : Need to configure manually label table in B/C and D. G6 Tutorial 9 6PE  IPv6 provider Edge – More complex – Associate to routing protocols – Allow to cross large IPv4 clouds G6 Tutorial 10