Automotive Lighting and Human Vision

Automotive Lighting and Human Vision

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English

Description

It is possible to buy excellent books on human vision as well as about automotive lighting. Unfortunately, these books have little or no common content. But in fact these fields do overlap. Providing optimal conditions for human vision is what automotive lighting is all about. Our motivation for writing this book arises from interdisciplinary st- ies of human vision and lighting. Initially we intended the book to provide background information on human vision to engineers working in auto- tive lighting. At the same time we planned to introduce basic concepts of automotive lighting to experts in human vision. However because of the intricate connections between human vision and automotive lighting, it turns out that the book provides new insights to anyone interested in either or both subjects. The subject matter is complex and spans a number of disciplines from psychology to mechatronics. Hence there are very few individuals who are experts in all fields. Looking at the nature of human vision, it is surprising to find out how much every one of us takes it for granted. Rarely are we aware of how we use vision predominantly to verify our internal model of our surroundings. Many accidents, particularly at night, stem from the fact that our internal model misrepresented a significant part of our surrou- ings. Taking knowledge on human vision into account in the design of - ture automotive lighting systems reduces the risk of accidents at night.

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Published 13 March 2007
Reads 11
EAN13 9783540366973
License: All rights reserved
Language English
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Contents
1
Introduction ...................................................................................... 1
29How Vision Constructs Reality ....................................................... 2.19Visual construction ...................................................................... 2.1.1Constructing shape and depth ............................................ 102.1.2Constructing shading and colour ....................................... 162.1.3Constructing objects and their parts................................... 232.1.4Limits of attention.............................................................. 292.1.5General principles .............................................................. 292.233Models of visual perception....................................................... 2.2.1Signal detection theory ...................................................... 332.2.241Vision as bayesian inference.............................................. 2.2.343Vision, evolution, and user interface ................................. 2.3................................................ 48Visual structure and capabilities 2.3.148The physiology of vision ................................................... 2.3.2Continuous adjustments of the visual system .................... 602.3.3Visual capabilities.............................................................. 722.3.4Conclusions........................................................................ 93
3Automotive Lighting  State of the Art................................... 953.196Headlamps ................................................................................. 3.1.1Installation and function .................................................... 973.1.2Optical concepts............................................................... 1003.1.3116Design aspects of headlamps ........................................... 3.1.4Quality in development and production........................... 1213.1.5Day and night appearance ................................................ 1423.1.6................................................... 146Advanced front lighting 3.1.7........................................................ 153Night vision systems 3.2159Rear and signal lights............................................................... 3.2.1Installation and functions ................................................. 1603.2.2............................................................... 162Design concepts 3.2.3Optical concepts............................................................... 1633.2.4Styling freedom................................................................ 1713.2.5184Adaptive signal lights ...................................................... 3.3Interior lighting ........................................................................ 1853.3.1Installation and function .................................................. 1853.3.2196Filling space with light and colour................................... 3.3.3197Special light sources ........................................................
VIII Contents and Index of External Spotlights
3.3.4199Control systems................................................................ 3.4201Everchanging technologies for luminaires ............................. 3.4.1................................................... 201Man made light sources 3.4.2215Electronics for lighting .................................................... 3.4.3221Materials for lighting ....................................................... 3.5Updating standards .................................................................. 245
4................... 263Fundamental Problems with Automotive Lighting 4.1263Mesopic vision......................................................................... 4.1.1263Mesopic vision – The problem ........................................ 4.1.2Performance in mesopic vision ........................................ 2654.1.3Implications for practice .................................................. 2704.1.4272Mesopic vision – Conclusion........................................... 4.2Glare ........................................................................................ 2734.2.1The forms of glare............................................................ 2734.2.2277The quantification of glare............................................... 4.2.3Performance in the presence of glare............................... 2804.2.4290Recovery from glare ........................................................ 4.2.5292Behaviour in glare............................................................ 4.2.6294Glare in practice............................................................... 4.2.7......................................... 295Xenon and halogen headlights 4.2.8Conclusion ....................................................................... 298
5303Automotive Lighting and Mechatronics..................................... 5.1Introduction.............................................................................. 3035.1.1Limitations of passive lighting systems ........................... 3035.1.2Technology push.............................................................. 3075.1.3Solving conflicts with active systems .............................. 3075.1.4The promises of active lighting systems .......................... 3085.2Automotive lighting systems from the perspective of mechatronics ............................................................................ 3095.2.1................. 309Systems, energy, mass and information flows 5.2.2System structure of classical headlamp systems.............. 3115.2.3Mechatronic systems........................................................ 3145.2.4Basic system structures for automotive lighting .............. 3155.3Simplify your life  Improving passive lighting by adding just a little touch of mechatronics ............................................ 3235.3.1323Switching the lights on and off automatically ................. 5.3.2.......................................................... 324Headlamp levelling 5.3.3Dynamic bending ............................................................. 3295.3.4Interior light control......................................................... 3345.3.5Lighting bus and wiring ................................................... 340
6
Contents and Index of External Spotlights IX
5.4Active lighting ......................................................................... 3405.4.1Sensors and sensor systems for active lighting ................ 3415.4.2Actuators for active lighting ............................................ 3475.4.3Functional structures and functions of active lighting systems............................................................................. 3565.4.4Active signal lights .......................................................... 3715.5Adding additional channels of perception ............................... 3795.6Active lighting or additional displays? – The principle of immediacy................................................................................ 3855.7......................................................................... 386Lighting future 5.7.1Rating of lighting systems ............................................... 3875.7.2Recommendations............................................................ 390
References ..................................................................................... 395
Index of Spotlights
Contents and Index of External Spotlights XI
Index of Examples We have used spotlights to illustrate the validity of the points made in this book. Many of the spotlights have been contributed by authors with differ ent areas of expertise in various industries or institutes. We are grateful to the authors and appreciate their cooperation and the diversity of views they represent. You will recognise spotlights in the text by their special format ting. A list of the external authors of spotlights is provided at the end of the index.
Structure from motion............................................................................. 13
Colour from motion ................................................................................. 20
Why do I sometimes see flickering rear lights?..................................... 27
Change blindness ..................................................................................... 31
Information takerate .............................................................................. 46
The closed loop: Driver – Car................................................................. 58
Glance and the perceived present........................................................... 64
Glance behaviour during driving ........................................................... 66
Conspicuity: Visible and different.......................................................... 69
Road lighting and headlights .................................................................. 74
Contour lighting....................................................................................... 79
Braking is hard to do ............................................................................... 87
Optical and kinaesthetic feedback.......................................................... 92
Automotive projector modules ............................................................. 103
The emergence of the LED headlamp .................................................. 110
XII Contents and Index of External Spotlights
Are my headlamps any good?............................................................... 121
CAE in exterior lighting ........................................................................ 126
Fogging and defogging of headlamps and tail lamps? ...................... 134
Nanotechnology antifog coatings in automotive lighting and sensor applications................................................................................. 137
Design appearance of headlamps ......................................................... 143
Advanced front lighting – Concept overview ...................................... 147
Automotive night vision systems .......................................................... 153
Light guides for automotive application .............................................. 165
Ultrathin LED lamps offering new design freedom .......................... 176
Entropy strikes....................................................................................... 203
The bulb can make a difference............................................................ 205
LED control ............................................................................................ 216
Exterior lighting – Lenses and reflectors history................................ 222
Thermoset – The plastic that keeps its shape ...................................... 227
Reflective coatings  Mirror surfaces in luminaires............................ 233
Projection lenses for headlamps ........................................................... 239
Advanced front lighting reaching approval ........................................ 247
Impact behaviour of automotive headlamp......................................... 249
Guidelines for visibility and mounting requirements (SAE) ............. 253
The origins of glare ................................................................................ 275
Luminance as criterion to evaluate disability and discomfort glare ..................................................................................... 281
Contents and Index of External Spotlights XIII
Don’t kill the jogger ............................................................................... 285
Reducing the stress of driving............................................................... 287
“Headlights aren’t nearly as good as they used to be…” ................... 292
20 ways of dealing with glare ................................................................ 299
Local lighting habits .............................................................................. 305
Lighting without glare ........................................................................... 318
Compensating for a heavy load, sharp braking or accelerating, by headlamplevelling systems.............................................................. 325
Dynamic lighting .................................................................................... 330
Interior lighting – Not just a bright car interior ................................. 335
BiXenon: Actuators and mechanisms competing for their role in frontlighting ...................................................................................... 349
Vehicle surroundings  Sensing technologies for active lighting........ 358
Quality of automotive headlamp beam patterns................................. 365
Emergency vehicle lighting ................................................................... 372
Virtual reality tools for headlamp design ............................................ 374
Humanocentric design of driver assistance systems ........................... 381
A day in the life… .................................................................................. 389
External Spotlights
Author Heiner Bubb
Heiner Bubb
Heiner Bubb
Heiner Bubb
Marek Olivik
Mitch Sayers
Martin Formanek Florian Haake
Milan Cejnek, Martin Kocian
Affiliation TU München
TU München
TU München
TU München
Visteon
Visteon
Visteon Genthe
Visteon
Jasmin von Göler, DaimlerChrysler Jörg Moisel Vladimir Kubena, Visteon Jan Martoch Cornelius Neumann Hella
Fritz Lorek
Viren Merchant Svatopluk Bajer
Freelance journalist
Visteon Visteon
Spotlight The closed loop: Driver – Car Glance and the perceived present Glance behaviour during driving Optical and kinaesthetic feedback Automotive projector modules The emergence of the LED headlamp CAE in exterior lighting Nanotechnology antifog coatings in automotive light ing and sensor applications Advanced front lighting – Concept overview Automotive night vision systems Light guides for automotive application Ultrathin LED lamps offer ing new design freedom The bulb can make a difference LED control Exterior lighting – Lenses and reflectors history
XVI External Spotlights
Author Andreas Alers
Stefan Trippe
Steffen Holtz
Rainer Neumann
Vladimir Dobrus
Ingo Schneider
Sabine Raphael
Patrick Kuhl
Markus Klein Steffen Pietzonka
Jacek Roslak
Stephan Völker
Jan Berssenbrügge
Jürgen Locher
Affiliation
Alers Technology
Visteon
Docter Optics
Visteon
Visteon
Visteon
University of Paderborn / LLAB
BMW
Visteon Hella
Hella
University of Paderborn / LLAB University of Paderborn / LLAB Hella / LLAB
Spotlight Thermoset – The plastic that keeps its shape Reflective coatings – Mirror surfaces in luminaires Projection lenses for headlamps Advanced front lighting reaching approval Impact behaviour of automotive headlamp Guidelines for visibility and mounting requirements (SAE)
Luminance as criterion to evaluate disability and discomfort glare
Compensating for a heavy load, sharp braking or accelerating, by headlamp levelling systems
Dynamic lighting
Interior lighting – Not just a bright car interior
Vehicle surroundings sensing technologies for ac tive lighting Quality of automotive headlamp beam patterns Virtual reality tools for head lamp design Humanocentric design of driver assistance systems