The adequate level of public broadcasting regulation and the polish television market [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Mikołaj Bednarski
391 Pages
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The adequate level of public broadcasting regulation and the polish television market [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Mikołaj Bednarski

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The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades des Doktors der Philosophie (Dr. phil.) im Fach Kulturwissenschaften der Fakultät Kulturwissenschaften an der Europa-Universität Viadrina vorgelegt von Dipl.-Kfm. (IBWL), M.Sc. (Business Administration), M.A. (Kulturwissenschaften) Mikolaj Bednarski Juli 2010 Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Eckhard Höfner (Europa-Universität Viadrina) Prof. Dr. Hartmut Schröder (Europa-Universität Viadrina) Prof. Dr. Cornelia Müller (Europa-Universität Viadrina) The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market TABLE OF CONTENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................... 6 TABLE OF FIGURES .......... 7 TABLE OF TABLES ............ 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .......................... 11 1. THE TELEVISION BROADCASTING MARKET AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE ............................................... 11 2. THE BROADCASTING MARKET, ITS PUBLIC COMPONENT, AND THE THREAT OF ABUSE ..................... 12 3. POLAND AS THE COUNTRY FOR THE MULTI-PERSPECTIVE ANALYSIS ............................................ 13 4. GOAL, METHODS, AND STRUCTURE OF THE ANALYSIS ..............................................

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The Adequate Level of
Public Broadcasting
Regulation and the Polish
Television Market


Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades
des Doktors der Philosophie (Dr. phil.) im Fach Kulturwissenschaften der Fakultät
Kulturwissenschaften an der Europa-Universität Viadrina

vorgelegt von

Dipl.-Kfm. (IBWL), M.Sc. (Business Administration), M.A. (Kulturwissenschaften)
Mikolaj Bednarski


Juli 2010


Gutachter:
Prof. Dr. Eckhard Höfner (Europa-Universität Viadrina)
Prof. Dr. Hartmut Schröder (Europa-Universität Viadrina)
Prof. Dr. Cornelia Müller (Europa-Universität Viadrina)
The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market


TABLE OF CONTENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................... 6
TABLE OF FIGURES .......... 7
TABLE OF TABLES ............ 9
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .......................... 11
1. THE TELEVISION BROADCASTING MARKET AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE ............................................... 11
2. THE BROADCASTING MARKET, ITS PUBLIC COMPONENT, AND THE THREAT OF ABUSE ..................... 12
3. POLAND AS THE COUNTRY FOR THE MULTI-PERSPECTIVE ANALYSIS ............................................ 13
4. GOAL, METHODS, AND STRUCTURE OF THE ANALYSIS .............................................................................................. 14
CHAPTER II: TECHNOLOGICAL MARKET FRAMEWORK.................... 16
1. TECHNOLOGICAL BASICS AFFECTING THE TV SECTOR .............................. 16
2. THE TV SECTOR AND ITS MARKETS ...................................................................................................................... 20
2.1. The recipients market ........................ 20
2.2. The Advertising market 21
2.3 The TV signal distribution market ....................................................................................................... 23
2.3.1. Terrestrial broadcasting .............................................................. 24
2.3.2. Satellite broadcasting .................................................................. 25
2.3.3. Cable TV ....................................................... 28
2.3.4. Innovative signal distribution types ............................................................................. 28
2.3.4.1. Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) ................................................. 29
2.3.4.2. Internet TV (ITV) .................................. 30
2.3.5. Mobile TV .................................................................................................................... 31
2.4. Review ............... 31
3. THE TV SECTOR AND ITS PROGRAMMATIC GOODS ................................................................. 32
3.1. Profile and range differences ............................................. 33
3.2. Information vs. entertainment .......... 33
3.3. The infotainment phenomenon ........................................................................ 35
3.3.1. The content problematic - hard news vs. soft and spot news ..................................... 36
3.3.2. The form problematic - pictures, information bits, emotional language .................... 37
3.4. The communication problem of media goods: noise and feedback.................................................. 38
3.4.1. Noise/feedback problem and print media .................................................................. 40
3.4.2. Noise/feedback problem and linear television ............................ 42
3.4.3. Noise/feedback problem and the Internet .................................. 44
3.5. Implications for the following analysis .............................................................. 46
CHAPTER III: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ...................................... 49
1. COMPETITION POLICY ...................................................................................................... 49
2. MEDIA POLICY ................ 50
3. CONFRONTATION OF MEDIA POLICY AND COMPETITION POLICY 51
3.1. Rivalry between competition policy and media policy ...................................... 51
3.1.1. Norm-rivalry ................................................................................................................ 51
3.1.2.1. Micro-perspective: subjective need maximization and budget constraint ......... 52
3.1.2.2. Macro-perspective: economic surplus model ..................................................... 53
3.1.3. Central media-political norms: plurality and journalistic quality ................................. 57
3.1.3.1. Plurality ............................................................................................................... 57
3.1.3.2. Journalistic quality............................................................................................................................... 60
3.1.2. Integral system-rivalry: Economic competition vs. media-political competition ........................................ 61
3.2. Similarities between competition policy and media policy 64
3. MARKET FAILURE IN THE TV SECTOR ................................................... 66
3.1. Market failure in the TV sector from the economic perspective ....................... 66


2 The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market


3.1.1. Media as a carrier of the partially public good information ........................................................................ 66
3.1.2. Media as the carrier of merit goods ............................................................................ 68
3.1.3. External effects ................................ 69
3.1.4. Information asymmetries ............................................................................................................................ 70
3.1.5. Competition-related structural problems ................................... 71
3.1.6. Economic market failure and the broadcasting market .............................................. 74
3.2. Market failure from the media-political perspective......... 76
3.3. Need for market regulation from both viewpoints ........................................... 79
4. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN THE TV SECTOR ............................................................................ 80
4.1. Market control mechanisms .............. 80
4.1.1. Market access control ................................................................. 80
4.1.2. Behavior control .......................................................................... 83
4.1.3. Structural control ........ 84
4.1.4. Direct market participation ......................................................................................................................... 86
4.2. Flow-specific layers of public market involvement............ 88
4.3. Possible market structures according to the main theories’ balance................ 90
4.3.1. Extreme scenario: exclusively public sector ................................................................................................ 90
4.3.2. Extreme scenario: exclusively commercial sector ....................... 92
4.3.3. Evaluation of the extreme scenarios ........... 95
4.3.4. Compromise scenarios ................................ 96
5. THE DUAL BROADCASTING SYSTEM ..................................................................................... 96
5.1. Evaluation from the economic viewpoint .......................... 98
5.2. Evaluationhe media policy viewpoint ................... 100
5.3. Critique related to the dual broadcasting concept .......................................................................... 101
5.3.1. Media goods and merit goods ................................................... 102
5.3.2. Merit goods, the public service remit, and public broadcasting ............................................................... 104
5.3.3. Public broadcasting and the advertisement market.................. 106
5.3.4. The public broadcasting fee and the proper form of collecting it ............................. 109
6. AGGREGATION OF THE PRESENTED MARKET SCENARIO SPECTRUM ........................................................................... 112
7. RESULTING DECISION GUIDELINES ..................................................... 117
8. REVIEW ...................................................... 119
CHAPTER IV: THE POLISH TV MARKET .......................................................................... 122
1. POLAND‘S POLITICAL TRANSFORMATION SINCE 1989: A SHORT OVERVIEW ............................... 123
2. TRANSFORMATION OF POLAND’S MEDIA SECTOR ................................. 127
2.1. The need to restructure the main control institutions .................................... 127
2.2. Terrestrial broadcasting before and after the Broadcasting Act ..................... 128
2.3. The first concession phase ............................................................................... 130
2.4. The second concession phase .......... 131
2.5. The development on the cable TV market ...................................................... 132
2.6. The development of digital satellite platforms................ 133
2.7. Review ............................................................................................................. 135
3. LEGAL FRAMEWORK ...................................... 135
3.1. The competition policy component of the legislative environment................ 136
3.1.1. EU competition policy ............................................................................................... 137
3.1.1.1. Prohibition of cartels ......................................................... 137
3.1.1.2. Prohibition of abuse of a dominant market position ........................................ 137 Control of Mergers and Acquisitions . 138
3.1.1.3. Control of public subsidies ................................................................................ 138
3.1.2. Polish competition law .............................................................. 139
3.1.3. Review ....................................................... 140
3.2. The media-political component of the legislative environment...................... 140
3.2.1. The Constitution and the media sector ..................................................................................................... 141
3.2.2. The Broadcasting Act ................................. 142
3.2.2.1. Public Broadcasting ........................... 143
3.2.2.2. Commercial Broadcasters ................................................................................................................. 144
3.3. Advertisement Law .......................................................................................... 145
3.3.1. Competition and Consumer Protection Law ............................. 146
3.3.2. Television without Frontiers Directive / Audio-visual Media Services Directive ....................................... 146
3.4. Further legislative regulations acting on the audio-visual sector .................... 147
3.4.1. The Intellectual Property Law ................................................................................................ 147

3 The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market


3.4.2. The Telecommunication Law ..................................................................................................................... 151
3.5. Review ............................................. 152
4. THE POLITICAL FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................................................... 155
4.1. The first KRRiT recalls....................... 155
4.2. Rywingate ........................................................................................................ 157
4.3. Struggle for KRRiT and TVP: the amendments................. 159
4.3.1. The PiS-LPR-Samoobrona amendment of 2005 ......................... 159
4.3.2. The PO-PSL amendment attempts of 2007 and 2009 ............... 162
4.3.3. The struggles for TVP ................................................................................................................................. 165
4.4. Political influence by the media ....... 174
4.5. Review ............................................................................. 174
5. ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK ................................................................ 178
5.1. Poland’s empirical TV market basics................................ 178
5.1.1. Radio/TV device equipment ...................................................... 179
5.1.2. TV signal distribution market division ....... 181
5.1.4. Digital TV market division by distribution type ......................................................... 185
5.1.5. Summary of transmission type and technology division ........................................... 186
5.1.7. Review ....................................................................................... 188
5.2. Interior structure of Poland’s terrestrial TV market ........................................ 189
5.2.1. Public terrestrial television stations .......................................... 191
5.2.2. Private terrestrial television stations ......................................... 191
5.2.3. Terrestrial signal distribution changes and the digital switch-over ........................... 192
5.2.3.1. Poland’s digital frequency potential.................................................................. 193
5.2.3.2. Poland’s digitalization strategy ......... 194
5.2.3.3. The switchover’s financing aspect ..................................... 198
5.2.3.4. Possible reasons for the slow terrestrial digitalization tempo .......................... 200
5.2.3.5. Mobile TV as one result of the digitalization process........................................ 202
5.2.4. Review ....................................................................................................................... 207
5.3. Financial situation of the major terrestrial broadcasters ................................ 208
5.3.1. Private TV .................................................. 208
5.3.1.1. TV Puls ............................................................................... 208
5.3.1.2. TV4 .................................................... 212
5.3.1.3. Polsat ................. 215
5.3.1.4. TVN ................................ 219
5.3.1.5. Financial confrontation: Polsat vs. TVN ............................................................. 227
5.3.2. Public TV: TVP ............................................................................ 231
5.4. Poland’s recipient market ................................................ 242
5.5. Poland’s advertising market ............................................ 251
5.6. Digital platforms as the major satellite signal distributors .............................................................. 263
5.6.1. Cyfrowy Polsat ........................................................................... 267
5.6.2. Cyfra+ ........................................................ 270
5.6.3. Telewizja n and TnK ................................... 273
5.6.4. TP Neostrada (DTH) ................................................................... 275
5.6.5. The TVP platform ....................................... 278
5.6.6. Programmatic structure of Poland’s satellite TV market........................................... 279
5.6.7. Review ....................................................................................................................... 281
5.7. Interior structure of Poland’s cable TV market ............... 282
5.7.1. UPC Telewizja Kablowa .............................................................. 287
5.7.2. Vectra ........................ 288
5.7.3. Multimedia Polska ..................................................................................................... 291
5.7.4. Aster City Cable ......................................... 294
5.7.5. Review ....................................................................................................................... 296
5.8 Poland’s IPTV market ........................ 297
5.9. Poland’s Internet Television segment ............................................................................................. 301
5.10 Review ............................................................................ 307
6. PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT IN THE POLISH TV SECTOR 312
6.1. External Market control ................................................................................... 312
6.1.1. Economic regulation: the UOKiK ............... 313
6.1.2. Technological regulation: the UKE ............................................................................................................. 317
6.1.3. Media-political regulation: the KRRiT ........ 319
6.1.4. Necessary changes in the external regulation framework ........ 321
6.2. Internal Market control ................................................................................................................... 324

4 The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market


6.2.1. TVP and its economic function .................................................................................................................. 324
6.2.2. TVP and its media-political function .......................................................................... 328
6.2.3. Necessary changes in the internal regulation framework ......... 330
7. FINAL RECAPITULATION .................................. 331
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................ 348


5 The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


First and foremost, I would like to thank my supervisors, Prof. Dr. Höfner, Prof. Dr.
Schröder, and Prof. Dr. Müller, all of whom guided this work in their specific ways with
valuable suggestions, corrections, and inspiration. I would also like to thank my beloved
wife Aleksandra - her love, expressed by her emotional and intellectual support and
patience were the central source of my strength for finalizing this project. I am also
thankful for my family’s support; especially my mother Jolanta, my father Gracjan, my
grandmother Leonarda, and my godmother Krystyna have always believed in me.
Last but not least, I owe appreciation for the intellectual and amicable input in my work by
my best man and colleague Aleksander Szymaoski.





Dedicated to and in memory of my grandfather Eugeniusz Kowalski, who was the first to
believe in my dissertation. When I was nine years old, fearing an upcoming English test, he
told me: “grandson, you are going to make it. You will pass this test, you will pass this
class, you will graduade from high-school and get a university degree. You will even get a
get doctorate, you will see.”Upon seeing my disbelief, he added: “always remember, when
others can do it, you can do it as well”.

Dla mojego Ś.P. dziadka Eugeniusza Kowalskiego, który jako pierwszy wierzył w moją
prace doktorską. Mianowicie gdy miałem dziewięć lat i się obawiałem zbliżającej się
klasówki z angielskiego, mój dziadek rzekł: „wnuczku, zdasz ten egzamin, zdasz tę klasę,
zdobędziesz mature i skończysz studia. Nawet doktorat zrobisz, zobaczysz.” Widząc moje
wątpienie dodał: „zawsze pamiętaj, jak inni to potrafią, to ty też to potrafisz”.





Much to my regret and grief, Prof. Dr. Höfner passed away upon the end of this project. I
will always remember him as an interdisciplinary expert and universal scientist, whose
cordial personality easily managed to eliminate the natural distance, which normally
separates a professor from his student. For me he was a Doktorvater in this German
word’s most literal meaning, a professional to look up to, an exceptional humanist with
spine, and a friend…

6 The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market


TABLE OF FIGURES


FIGURE 1: HOW DITIAL TV WORKS ............................................................................................................................ 19
FIGURE 2: SATELLITE EARTH VIEW .............................. 26
FIGURE 3: SATELLITE BROADCASTING .......................... 27
FIGURE 4: THE SHANNON-WEAVER MODEL ................................................................................................................. 39
FIGURE 5: FLOWS OF PUBLIC BROADCASTING REGULATION 89
FIGURE 6: PUBLIC BROADCASTING FINANCING IN EUROPE 2005..................... 110
FIGURE 7: MACRO DECISION BOXES .......................................................................................................................... 118
FIGURE 8: HOUSHOLDS WITH AND WITHOUT REGISTERED RADIO/TV SETS 2004-2008 ...................... 179
FIGURE 9: PERCENTAGE OF HOUSHOLDS WITH UNREGISTERED ........................ 180
FIGURE 10: RADIO/TV DEVICE REGISTRATION AND PAYMENT STRUCTURE IN 2007 AND 2008 ............................................. 180
FIGURE 11: POLISH TV MARKET DIVISION BY TRANSMISSION TYPE IN 2008 ...................................... 182
FIGURE 12: POLISH TV MARKET DIVISION BY TRANSMISSION TYPE IN 2009 ...... 182
FIGURE 13: USAGE OF ANALOGUE TV VS DIGITAL TV IN POLAND IN 2008 ....... 184
FIGURE 14: USAGE OF ANALOGUE TV VS DIGITAL TV IN POLAND IN 2009 ....................................... 184
FIGURE 15: POLAND'S DIGITAL TV MARKET DIVISION BY TRANSMISSION TYPE IN 2008 ....................................................... 185
FIGURE 16: POLAND'S DIGITAL TV MARKET DIVISION BY TRANSMISSION TYPE IN 2009 186
FIGURE 17: SALES OF TV SETS IN POLAND .................................................................................. 188
FIGURE 18: THE PLANNED MUX 1 DIGITAL SWITCHOVER BY REGION ............................................... 197
FIGURE 19: INFO-TV-FM'S WHOLESALE FREQUENCY OFFER STRUCTURE .......................................... 205
FIGURE 20: TV PULS'S FINANCIAL DATA 2004-2008................................................................... 209
FIGURE 21: TV PULS'S CAPITAL STRUCTURE 2004-2008.............................. 210
FIGURE 22: TV PULS'S DEBT RATIO 2004-2008 ......... 210
FIGURE 23: POLSKIE MEDIA'S FINANCIAL DATA 2002-2007 ......................................................................................... 213
FIGURE 24: POLSKIE MEDIA'S CAPITAL STRUCTURE 2002-2007 .................... 214
FIGURE 25: POLSKIE MEDIA'S DEBT RATIO 2002-2007 ............................... 214
FIGURE 26: POLSAT'S FINANCIAL DATA 2004-2008 .................................................................................................... 216
FIGURE 27: SOLORZ-ŻAK'S WEALTH IN BIL. ZŁ 2002-2009 ........................... 218
FIGURE 28: POLSAT'S OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE 2009 ... 219
FIGURE 29: TVN'S FINANCIAL DATA 2004-2008 ........ 220
FIGURE 30: TVN’S STOCK VALUE DEVELOPMENT 2004-2010 ....................................................................................... 221
FIGURE 31: ITI'S PROFIT DEVELOPMENT 2002-2008 .................................. 223
FIGURE 32: ITI'S CAPITAL STRUCTURE 2002-2008 ..................................................................... 223
FIGURE 33: ITI'S DEBT RATIO DEVELOPMENT 2002-2008 ............................ 223
FIGURE 34: MARIUSZ WALTER'S WEALTH IN BLN ZŁ 2004-2009 ................................................................................... 225
FIGURE 35: JAN WEICHERT'S WEALTH IN BLN ZŁ 2004-2009 ........................ 225
FIGURE 36: POLSAT VS. TVN: OPERATIONAL GAIN 2003-2008 ..................... 228
FIGURE 37: POLSAT VS. TVN: NET GAIN 2003-2008 .................................................................................................. 228
FIGURE 38: POLSAT VS. TVN: FINANCIAL BALANCE 2003-2008 .................... 229
FIGURE 39: POLSAT VS. TVN: OPERATIONAL COSTS 2003-2008 ................................................................................... 229
FIGURE 40: POLSAT VS. TVN: LIABILITIES AND RESERVES FOR LIABILITIES 2003-2008 ........................ 230
FIGURE 41: POLSAT VS. TVN: DEBT RATIO 2003-2008 ............................... 230
FIGURE 42: PUBLIC BROADCASTING FEE AND COST DYNAMIC 1994-2008 ....................................................................... 232
FIGURE 43: OVERALL NOMINAL AND REAL LICENSE FEE REVENUES 1994-2008 . 233
FIGURE 44: TVP'S NOMINAL AND REAL LICENSE FEE REVENUES 1994-2008 .... 233
FIGURE 45: TVP'S REVENUE BREAK-DOWN 2003-2009EST .......................................................................................... 236
FIGURE 46: PERCENTAGE OF PUBLIC FEE IN TOTAL REVENUES 2003-2009EST .................................. 237
FIGURE 47: PUBLIC MISSION FINANCING SOURCES 2003-2009EST ................. 237
FIGURE 48: TVP'S SALES GAIN 2003-2008 ............................................................................................................... 238
FIGURE 49: TVP'S FURTHER OPERATIONAL GAIN 2003-2008 ....................... 238
FIGURE 50: TVP'S FINANCIAL GAIN 2003-2008 ......... 239
FIGURE 51: TVP'S NET GAIN 2003-2009EST ............. 239
FIGURE 52: POLAND'S TV MARKET DIVISION 2009 ...................................................................................................... 243
FIGURE 53: POLAND'S MAJOR BROADCASTERS' PERCENTAL MARKET SHARES 2005-2009 ................... 244
FIGURE 54: THE SIX TERRESTRIAL CHANNELS VS. CABLE AND SATELLITE PROGRMS 2005-2009 ............. 246

7 The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market


FIGURE 55: POLAND'S NEWS CHANNELS' AUDIENCE IN 2009 ......................................................................................... 247
FIGURE 56: POLAND'S NEWS CHANNELS' AUDIENCE 1H 2009 - ONLY CABLE AND SATELLITE RECEIVERS .................................. 248
FIGURE 57: MARKET SHARES 1994-2009: PUBLIC VS. COMMERCIAL BROADCASTERS ....................... 249
FIGURE 58: CHOSEN BROADCASTERS’ AUCIENCE AGE STRUCTURE ................... 250
FIGURE 59: POLAND'S REAL ADVERTISMENT MARKET EXPENSE STRUCTURE 2005-2009 ..................................................... 252
FIGURE 60: POLAND’S ADVERTISEMENT MARKET GROWTH DYNAMIC 2005-2009............................. 253
FIGURE 61: POLAND’S PERCENTAL ADVERTISEMENT MARKET STRUCTURE 2005-2009 ....................... 253
FIGURE 62: POLAND'S NOMINAL TV ADVERTISING EXPENSES IN BILLION ZŁ 2003-2009 ..................... 254
FIGURE 63: PERCENTAGE OF GRANTED TV ADVERTISMENT DISCOUNTS ............................................................................ 255
FIGURE 64: POLAND'S TOP 5 ADVERTISERS AND THEIR NOMINAL TV EXPENSES IN MILLION ZŁ ............... 256
FIGURE 65: POLAND'S DAILY TELEVISION CONSUMPTION TIME PER PERSON 2004-2009 .................... 256
FIGURE 66: MAJOR STATIONS' ADVERTISMENT REVENUES ACCORDING TO OFFICIAL PRICE LISTS ............ 257
FIGURE 67: REAL ADVERTISEMENT MARKET SHARES IN 2008 ......................................................................................... 259
FIGURE 68: REAL ADVERTISEMENT MARKET SHARES IN 2009 260
FIGURE 69: TVP’S TOTAL ADVERTISEMENT TIME DIVISION 2006-2008 ........................................................................... 261
FIGURE 70: POLAND'S DIGITAL PLATFORM SUBSCRIBERS 2005-2009 ............. 264
FIGURE 71: CYFROWY POLSAT'S FINANCIAL DATA 2004-2008 ...................... 268
FIGURE 72: CYFROWY POLSAT’S STOCK VALUE DEVELOPMENT 2008-2010 ..... 269
FIGURE 73: CYFROWY POLSAT'S OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AS OF JANUARY 2010 ............................................................... 270
FIGURE 74: CANAL+ CYFROWY'S FINANCIAL DATA 2004-2008 ..................................................... 271
FIGURE 75: THE TWO MARKET LEADERS' SUBSCRIBER DEVELOPMENT 2005-2009 ............................. 271
FIGURE 76: THE TWO MARKET LEADERS' REVENUE DEVELOPMENT 2004-2008 ................................ 272
FIGURE 77: THE TWO MARKET LEADERS' PROFIT DEVELOPMENT 2004-2008 ................................... 272
FIGURE 78: MONTHLY REVENUES PER CUSTOMER IN ZŁ ................................ 273
FIGURE 79: TELEWIZJA N'S AND TNK'S FINANCIAL DATA 2007-2009.............................................. 274
FIGURE 80: TELEKOMUNIKACJA POLSKA'S FINANCIAL DATA 2005-2009 ......... 276
FIGURE 81: TELEKOMUNIKACJA POLSKA’S STOCK VALUE DEVELOPMENT 1998-2009 ......................... 277
FIGURE 82: TELEKOMUNIKCAJA POLSKA'S OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE JAN 2010 .................................................................. 278
FIGURE 83: NUMBER OF SATELLITE CHANNELS RUN BY POLAND'S MAJOR BROADCASTERS IN 2010........ 280
FIGURE 84: LIBERTY GLOBAL’S STOCK VALUE DEVELOPMENT .......................................................... 288
FIGURE 85: VECTRA'S FINANCIAL DATA 2004-2008 .... 289
FIGURE 86: VECTRA'S OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE ........................................................................................................... 290
FIGURE 87: VECTRA'S DEBT RATIO 2004-2008 .......... 291
FIGURE 88: MULTIMEDIA POLSKA'S FINANCIAL DATA 2004-2009 ................. 292
FIGURE 89: MULT POLSKA'S STOCK VALUE DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................... 292
FIGURE 90: MULTIMEDIA POLSKA'S DEBT RATIO 2004-2009 ....................... 293
FIGURE 91: MULTIMEDIA POLSKA'S OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE ......................... 294
FIGURE 92: ASTER'S FINANCIAL DATA 2006-2008 ...................................................................................................... 295
FIGURE 93: ASTER'S DEBT RATIO 2006-2008 ............ 296
FIGURE 94: POLAND'S MAJOR IPTV PROVIDERS' CUSTOMER BASE 2009 ......... 298
FIGURE 95: GLOBAL IPTV SUBSCRIBER DEVELOPMENT . 300
FIGURE 96: POLAND'S INTERNET USER DEVELOPMENT 2000-2009 ................................................................................ 302
FIGURE 97: POLAND'S TOP 3 INTERNET TV SERVICES ................................................................... 303
FIGURE 98: IPLA’S REAL MONTHLY USERS ................................................... 305
FIGURE 99: POLAND’S ITV VIEWING TIME PER USER MARKET SHARES .............. 306


8 The Adequate Level of Public Broadcasting Regulation and the Polish Television Market


TABLE OF TABLES


TABLE 1: LEVELS OF PUBLIC BROADCASTING REGULATION ................................................................................................ 88
TABLE 2: MARKET-SCENARIO MATRIX AND THEIR BASIC CHARACTERISTICS ........ 114
TABLE 3: KRRIT FORMER MEMBER CADENCY DEVELOPMENT 1993-2007 ....... 161
TABLE 4: BROADCASTING FORMS AND TECHNOLOGIES IN POLAND IN 2008 ...................................................................... 186
TABLE 5: BROADCASTING FORMS AND TECHNOLOGIES IN POLAND IN 2009 ...................................... 187
TABLE 6: INFO-TV-FM'S WHOLESALE FREQUENCY OFFER .............................................................. 204
TABLE 7: POLSAT’S THEMATIC CHANNELS ................................................................................... 217
TABLE 8: TVP’S REAL FINANCIAL RESULTS AND ESTIMATES 2003-2009 (ABSOLUTE DATA IN MILLION ZŁ) ............................... 235
TABLE 9: PERCENTAL SHARE OF ADVERTISEMENTS IN OVERALL BROADCASTING TIME ........................... 258
TABLE 10: OVERALL ADVERTISEMENT TIME IN MINUTES 2006-2008 .............................................. 261
TABLE 11: POLAND'S DIGITAL PLATFORMS AND THEIR PROGRAMMATIC OFFER................................... 265
TABLE 12: POLAND'S DIGITAL PLATFORMS AND THEIR ADDITIONAL SERVICE OFFER ............................................................. 266
TABLE 13: POLAND'S TOP 30 SATELLITE CHANNELS IN DECEMBER 2009 .......... 281
TABLE 14: POLANDS TOP-10 CABLE OPERATORS ......................................... 283
TABLE 15: THE CABLE COMPANIES’ OPERATIONAL SEGMENTS......................................................... 284
TABLE 16: POLAND'S CABLE OPERATORS AND THEIR PROGRAMMATIC OFFER ..................................................................... 285
TABLE 17: POLAND'S CABLE OPERATORS AND THEIR ADDITIONAL SERVICE OFFER 286
TABLE 18: POLAND'S IPTV PROVIDERS AND THEIR PROGRAMMATIC OFFER ....... 299
TABLE 19: POLAND'S IPTV PROVIDERS AND THEIR ADDITIONAL SERVICE OFFER . 299
TABLE 20: POLAND’S MOST POPULAR WEBSITES .......................................................................................................... 304
TABLE 21: UOKIK’S INVESTIGATIONS AGAINST COMPANIES INVOLVED IN POLAND’S TV MARKET 315
TABLE 22: KRRIT FINES BY BROADCASTER AND TYPE IN ZŁ (ONLY TV) .............. 320


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