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The baryon content of distant X-ray galaxy clusters [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Joana Pedroso Raio Silvério dos Santos

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The baryon content of distantX-ray Galaxy ClustersDissertation der Fakult¨at fu¨r PhysikderLudwig-Maximilians-Universita¨t Mu¨nchenvorgelegt von Joana Pedroso Raio Silv´erio dos Santosaus Sintra, PortugalMu¨nchen, September 20081. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Hans B¨ohringer2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Ortwin GerhardTag der mu¨ndlichen Pru¨fung: 09.12.2008When one sees eternity in things that pass awayand infinity in finite things,then one has pure knowledge.But if one mereley sees the diversity of things,with their divisions and limitations,then one has impure knowledge.And if one selfishly sees a thing as if it were everything,independent of the ONE and the many,then one is in the darkness of ignorance.Baghavad Gita, XVIII. 20-22If a man will begin with certainties,he shall end in doubts,but if he will be content to begin with doubts,he shall end in certainties.Francis Bacon, “The Advancement of Learning”, Book VIdeas are like fish.If you want to catch little fish, you can stay in the shallow water.But if you want to catch the big fish, you’ve got to go deeper.David Lynch, “Catching the big fish”What am I doing here?Bruce Chatwin12ContentsZusammenfassung 7Abstract 91 Introduction: scope of the thesis 112 Galaxy clusters from an X-ray perspective 172.1 Theoretical framework on cluster formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.1.1 The self-similar model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.2 Properties of the Intracluster Medium . . . .

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Published 01 January 2008
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The baryon content of distant
X-ray Galaxy Clusters
Dissertation der Fakult¨at fu¨r Physik
der
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universita¨t Mu¨nchen
vorgelegt von Joana Pedroso Raio Silv´erio dos Santos
aus Sintra, Portugal
Mu¨nchen, September 20081. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Hans B¨ohringer
2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Ortwin Gerhard
Tag der mu¨ndlichen Pru¨fung: 09.12.2008When one sees eternity in things that pass away
and infinity in finite things,
then one has pure knowledge.
But if one mereley sees the diversity of things,
with their divisions and limitations,
then one has impure knowledge.
And if one selfishly sees a thing as if it were everything,
independent of the ONE and the many,
then one is in the darkness of ignorance.
Baghavad Gita, XVIII. 20-22
If a man will begin with certainties,
he shall end in doubts,
but if he will be content to begin with doubts,
he shall end in certainties.
Francis Bacon, “The Advancement of Learning”, Book V
Ideas are like fish.
If you want to catch little fish, you can stay in the shallow water.
But if you want to catch the big fish, you’ve got to go deeper.
David Lynch, “Catching the big fish”
What am I doing here?
Bruce Chatwin
12Contents
Zusammenfassung 7
Abstract 9
1 Introduction: scope of the thesis 11
2 Galaxy clusters from an X-ray perspective 17
2.1 Theoretical framework on cluster formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.1.1 The self-similar model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2 Properties of the Intracluster Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2.1 Complex physics in clusters cores: the ”cooling flow problem” . 22
2.2.2 Scaling Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.2.3 Cluster mass determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.2.4 Evolutionary trends of cluster properties . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3 X-ray cluster surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.4 Clusters in a cosmological framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3 Galaxy evolution in clusters 31
3.1 Galaxy formation scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.2 Structural properties of ETGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.3 The Color-Magnitude Relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.4 The Fundamental Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.5 Synthetic stellar populations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.6 Brightest Cluster Galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.7 The properties of cluster elliptical galaxies at z∼1 . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4 The evolution of Cool Core Clusters 41
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2 Cluster samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.2.1 Low-z sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2.2 High-z sample. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.3 Surface brightness profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.3.1 Scaled surface brightness profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3Contents
4.3.2 Single and Double Beta model fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.4 Surface Brightness Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.4.1 Introducing c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54SB
4.4.2 Testing c with the Cloning method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55SB
4.4.3 The c distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59SB
4.5 Stacked SB profiles in bins of c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59SB
4.6 Cooling time analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.6.1 Density profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.6.2 Cooling time at r=20 kpc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
4.6.3 The correlation t - c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64cool SB
4.7 Comparing X-ray and Optically selected distant clusters with c . . 66SB
4.8 Discussion and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5 Optical and NIR follow-up of the XMM-Newton Distant Cluster project 75
5.1 Goals and general description of the XDCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.2 First results of the XDCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.3 Optical and Near Infrared Follow-up procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5.3.1 NIR observations and data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.3.2 Optical observations and data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
5.3.3 I-H color images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
5.3.4 I-H color-magnitude relation of cluster 165 . . . . . . . . . . . 95
5.4 Summary and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6 Multi-wavelength observations of a rich galaxy cluster at z ∼ 1 97
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
6.2 Observations and data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.2.1 XMM-Newton data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
6.2.2 HST/ACS i and z band imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103775 850
6.2.3 VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.2.4 NTT/SOFI J- and Ks-band imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.3 Structural analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.3.1 Surface brightness profile fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
6.3.2 Visual morphological classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
6.4 The i −z color-magnitude relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110775 850
6.4.1 Galaxy photometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
6.4.2 Model color-magnitude relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6.5 The NIR color-magnitude relation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
6.6 Analysis of the spectral energy distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
6.6.1 Spectrophotometric properties: masses, ages. . . . . . . . . . . 115
6.6.2 Star formation histories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
6.7 Is there a Brightest Cluster Galaxy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4Contents
6.8 Discussion and conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
7 Conclusions 121
8 Outlook 125
References 126
5Contents
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