The Chinese higher education system and the impact of gender [Elektronische Ressource] : the structure of Chinese education system and previous research and an empirical study / Gu Jinsong ; Jiang Hua

The Chinese higher education system and the impact of gender [Elektronische Ressource] : the structure of Chinese education system and previous research and an empirical study / Gu Jinsong ; Jiang Hua

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The Chinese higher education system and the impact of gender The structure of Chinese education system and previous research and an empirical study Von der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg – Fakultät I Bildungs- und Sozialwissenschaften – zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktor der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften (Dr.rer.pol.) genehmigte Dissertation von Frau Hua, Jiang geboren am 19.08.1975 in Beijing, China Erste Gutachterin: Prof. Karin Flaake Zweite Gutachterin: Prof. Heike Fleßner Tag der Disputation: 29.10.2010 The Chinese higher education system and the impact of gender The structure of Chinese education system and previous research and an empirical study Von der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg – Fakultät I Bildungs- und Sozialwissenschaften – zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktor der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften (Dr.rer.pol.) genehmigte Dissertation von Herrn Jinsong, Gu geboren am 15.02.1976 in Beijing, China Erste Gutachterin: Prof. Karin Flaake Zweite Gutachterin: Prof. Heike Fleßner Tag der Disputation: 29.10.

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The Chinese higher education system and the impact of
gender

The structure of Chinese education system and previous research and an
empirical study




Von der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg – Fakultät I Bildungs- und
Sozialwissenschaften – zur Erlangung des Grades eines

Doktor der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften (Dr.rer.pol.)

genehmigte Dissertation

von Frau Hua, Jiang

geboren am 19.08.1975 in Beijing, China



















































Erste Gutachterin: Prof. Karin Flaake
Zweite Gutachterin: Prof. Heike Fleßner
Tag der Disputation: 29.10.2010
The Chinese higher education system and the impact of
gender

The structure of Chinese education system and previous research and an
empirical study




Von der Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg – Fakultät I Bildungs- und
Sozialwissenschaften – zur Erlangung des Grades eines

Doktor der Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften (Dr.rer.pol.)

genehmigte Dissertation

von Herrn Jinsong, Gu

geboren am 15.02.1976 in Beijing, China



















































Erste Gutachterin: Prof. Karin Flaake
Zweite Gutachterin: Prof. Heike Fleßner
Tag der Disputation: 29.10.2010



The Chinese higher education system and the impact of
gender

The structure of Chinese education system and previous research and an
empirical study












Gu Jinsong
Jiang Hua




Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany

1Table of Contents
Abbreviations……………………………………………………………6
Introduction……………………………………………………………..7
Part I The Chinese higher education system and the impact of
gender – The structure of Chinese education system and
previous research

Chapter 1 Chinese education system (Hua Jiang)…………………….9
1.1. Main forms of Chinese education system………………………………………9
1.1.1. Basic education…………………………………………………………...11
1.1.2. Secondary schooling……………………………………………………...13
1.2. Higher education……………………………………………………………….16
1.2.1. History of Chinese higher education……………………………………16
1.2.2. Chinese higher education at present……………………………………18
1.2.3. Tuition fees………………………………………………………………..24
1.3. Other forms of Chinese education system…………………………………….27
1.4. International exchange of Chinese higher education………………………...31
1.5. Characteristics of Chinese higher education…………………………………34
1.5.1. Hierarchical structure of higher education…………………………….34
1.5.2. The proportion of the colleges students…………………………………36
1.5.3. Information technology in higher education……………………………38
1.5.4. The restructuring of the higher education……………………………...39
1.6. The future development of Chinese higher education……………………….41

Chapter 2 Male and female students in Chinese higher education
(Jinsong Gu)……………………………………………………………43
2.1. Some statistical data about Chinese students today…………………………43
22.2. The socio-economic background of the students……………………………..48
2.3. The career aspiration among students and graduates……………………….54
2.4. Countryside students vs. City students……………………………………….58
2.5. The situation in the labor market……………………………………………..67
2.6. Differences between male and female graduates…………………………….73
2.6.1. Humanities students vs. Science students………………………………73
2.6.2. Number of students with different academic level…………………….81
2.6.3. Attitude towards the occupation as teacher……………………………83
2.6.4. Gender differences in other fields of higher education……………......84
2.6.5. Gender differences among postgraduate students……………………..85

Chapter 3 Teaching professions: Hierarchies, social conditions, and
qualifications among Chinese university teachers (Hua Jiang)……90

Chapter 4 Women as teachers in Chinese higher education
(Jinsong Gu)……………………………………………………………97
4.1. Few women in Chinese higher education……………………………………..97
4.1.1. Historical reasons………………………………………………………...99
4.1.2. Gender reasons………………………………………………………….101
4.2. Why are there few women leaders in Chinese universities?..........................107
4.3. Female’s behaviors at work in higher education……………………………115
4.4. Gender politics in China……………………………………………………...117
4.4.1. Women’s center in the college………………………………………….117
4.4.2. Occupation………………………………………………………………119
4.4.3. Why do female teachers return to the colleges recently?.....................119



3Part II The empirical study: Women and men in Chinese universities
Chapter 5 The empirical study – Methods and results
(Hua Jiang and Jinsong Gu)…………………………………………121
5.1. Concept and methods of the study (Hua Jiang and Jinsong Gu)………….121
5.2. Interviews with the female teachers – biographical summaries (Hua Jiang)
5.2.1. FA………………………………………………………………………..125
5.2.2. FB………………………………………………………………………..131
5.2.3. FC………………………………………………………………………..140
5.2.4. FD………………………………………………………………………..147
5.2.5. FE………………………………………………………………………..155
5.2.6. FF………………………………………………………………………..163
5.3. Interviews with the female teachers – results (Hua Jiang)………………...171
5.3.1. Family background……………………………………………………..171
5.3.2. Motivation of working in university…………………………………...172
5.3.3. The significance of family and marriage………………………………173
5.3.4. Educational degree among female teachers…………………………...175
5.3.5. Life of female teachers………………………………………………….175
5.3.6. Disciplines that they study……………………………………………...177
5.3.7. Proportion of male and female teachers in department……………...178
5.4. Interviews with the male teachers – biographical summaries (Jinsong Gu)
5.4.1. MG..............................................................................................................179
5.4.2. MH.............................................................................................................187
5.4.3. MI...............................................................................................................195
5.4.4. MJ..............................................................................................................202
5.4.5. MK.............................................................................................................209
5.4.6. ML……………………………………………………………………….218
5.5. Interviews with the male teachers – results (Jinsong Gu)………………….225
5.5.1. Family background……………………………………………………..225
5.5.2. Motivation of working in university…………………………………...226
4