The contextual factors in crisis communication strategy choice: a case study on Megawati Soekarnoputri the Fifth President of the Republic of Indonesia and the Multidimensional Crisis 1998 - 2004 [Elektronische Ressource] / by Yudi Perbawaningsih

The contextual factors in crisis communication strategy choice: a case study on Megawati Soekarnoputri the Fifth President of the Republic of Indonesia and the Multidimensional Crisis 1998 - 2004 [Elektronische Ressource] / by Yudi Perbawaningsih

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THE CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN CRISIS COMMUNICATION STRATEGY CHOICE A Case Study on Megawati Soekarnoputri, the Fifth President of the Republic of Indonesia and the Multidimensional Crisis 1998 - 2004 The dissertation is submitted to the Institute of Media and Communication Science, the Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Technical University of Ilmenau Germany in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. By Yudi Perbawaningsih ILMENAU GERMANY 2008 Urn:nbn:de:gbv:Ilm1-2008000065 ii Technical University of Ilmenau Germany iii DECLARATION I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been attached for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.

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THE CONTEXTUAL FACTORS
IN CRISIS COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
CHOICE

A Case Study on Megawati Soekarnoputri, the Fifth
President of the Republic of Indonesia and the
Multidimensional Crisis 1998 - 2004




The dissertation is submitted to the Institute of Media and
Communication Science, the Faculty of Mathematic and Natural
Science, Technical University of Ilmenau Germany in partial fulfillment
of the requirement of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.



By

Yudi Perbawaningsih



ILMENAU GERMANY
2008



Urn:nbn:de:gbv:Ilm1-2008000065 ii
























Technical University of Ilmenau
Germany
iii








DECLARATION



I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge
and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor
material which to a substantial extent has been attached for the award of any other degree or
diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due
acknowledgement has been made in the text.







thYogyakarta, June 4 , 2008


Yudi Perbawaningsih














iv




APPROVAL




This dissertation has been defended successfully in the front of the Commission of the
Promotion, Institute of Media and Communication Science, The Faculty of Mathematic and
thNatural Science, the Technical University of Ilmenau, Germany, on Wednesday, June, 4 , 2008,
at 09.00 in IBZ building, the campus of TUI, Germany.


Supervised by:

Prof. Dr. Martin Loeffelholz

Approved by the commission of promotion:

1. Prof. Dr. Alfred Kirpal ………………………(Head)
2. Prof .Dr. Andreas Will……………………… (Member)
3. Prof. Dr. J. Wolling…………………………. (Member)

Reviewed by:

1. Prof. Dr. Martin Loeffelholz…..….(Technical University of Ilmenau, Germany)
2. Prof. Dr. Klaus Dieter Altmeppe…(Chatolic University of Eichstaett, Ingolstadt, Germany)
3. Dedy Nur Hidayat, PhD…...……...(University of Indonesia, Indonesia )

















v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


Thanks to God, my Holy Father who gives and creates everything best for me, especially in a very valuable time
of my academic life.

I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this
dissertation.

I am grateful to the commission of the promotion in Technical University of Ilmenau,
Germany, namely Prof. Dr. Alfred Kirpal, Prof. Dr. Andreas Will, and Prof. Dr. J Wolling for
giving me the opportunity to share my dissertation in a greatest academic forum.

I want to be deeply indebted to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Martin Loeffelholz from the Technical
University Ilmenau Germany who helped, encouraged and advised me in all the time of the
dissertation processes, especially in many difficult situations. My heartfelt appreciation also goes
to Prof Dr Klaus Dieter Altmeppen from the Catholic University of Eichstaett, Ingolstadt,
Germany and Dedy Nur Hidayat, PhD from University of Indonesia for their willingness to be
my reviewers in the middle of their business and a huge of activities.

My acknowledgement is also due to the State Secretariat and the Presidential Secretariat of the
Republic of Indonesia for giving me all the major and important data for this dissertation.
Especially thank Drs. Garibaldi Sujatmiko, MA, who in 2003 – 2005 was the Head of the
Bureau of the Press and Media, the State Secretariat of the Republic of Indonesia. And also,
many thanks to the all staffs at the Headquarter of the Indonesian Police who also provided the
important data.

My gratitude also goes to the following institutions and individuals, for the contribution,
support, and encouragement, both physic and psychological, material and also spiritual:

1. Yayasan Slamet Rijadi, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2. Technical University of Ilmenau, Germany
3. Atma Jaya Yogyakarta University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
4. The Faculty of Social and Political Science, Atma Jaya Yogyakarta University
5. Dr. Thomas Hanitzsch, Dr Liane Rothenberger, Ms. Fransisca Oehmer, Mr. Andreas
Schwarz
6. My friends Lukas, Setio, Suryo, Andreas, Ndari, Anita, Agus, Ninik, Siyamto, Bambang
KP, Bambang Wir, Nindito, and others.

Last but not least, I would like to special thank my mother, my lovely husband Henry “Bang
Thoyib” Saragih and my family. Without their supports, I am not able to be me as right now,
with all good academic attributes. Cause, a part of my success was stimulated by them and the
rest parts are the result of my hard work.


Ilmenau, June, 4, 2008


vi
TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE………………………………………………………………………………… i
DECLARATION…………………………………………………………………….. iii
APPROVAL………………………….…............................................................................... iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………..……………………………………………… v
TABLE OF CONTENT.......................................................................................................... vi
LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………… x
LIST OF MODELS……………….…………………………………………………. xii
ABSTRACT………………….……………………………………………………….. xiii

CHAPTER 1
AN INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….. 1

1.1. RESEARCH BACKGROUND………………………………………… 2
1.1.1. Indonesia during the Crisis ….………………………….………………. 2
1.1.2. The Relationship between Governments and Publics…………………… 11
1.1.2.1. Image of the Presidents.…………………………….…………………… 11
1.1.2.2. Media in the Presidents’ Point of View…………………………………. 15
1.1.2.3. The Importance of Public Relations for the Presidents………………… 23
1.2. RESEARCH PROBLEM……………………………………………….. 29
1.3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………. 34
1.3.1. Research Methods……………………………………………………… 34
1.3.2. Textual Analysis and Procedures………………………………………. 36
1.3.3. Object of Research, Unit of Analysis and Unit of Observation………….. 38
1.4. RESEARCH DELIMITATION………………………………………… 42
1.5. STRUCTURE OF THE DISSERTATION…………………………….. 43

CHAPTER 2
THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK………………………………. 45

2.1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………… 45
2.2. ORGANIZATION BASED ON SYSTEM THEORY…………………. 46
2.3. ORGANIZATION BASED ON STRUCTURATION THEORY ……… 55
2.4. THEORETICAL IMPLICATION………………………………………. 59
vii
2.4.1. Public Relations as a Structure………………………………………….. 65
2.4.1.1. Roles and Functions of Public Relations………………………………… 67
2.4.1.2. Communication Models of PR…………………………………………… 71
2.4.2. Crisis Communication Strategy as an Action……………………………. 75
2.4.2.1. Crisis Definitions……………………………………………………….. 75
2.4.2.2. Typology of Crisis……………………………………………………… 77
2.4.2.3. Development of Crisis………………………………………………….. 79
2.4.2.4. Crisis Communication………………………………………………….. 83
2.4.2.4.1. The Importance of Image………………………………………………. 84
2.4.2.4.2. Risk Communication and Issues Management………………………….. 86
2.4.2.4.3. Dealing with the Media in Crisis……………………………………….. 89
2.4.2.5. Crisis Communication Strategies………………………………………. 92
2.5. CONTEXTUAL FACTORS…………………………………………… 101
2.5.1. Crisis Factors…………………………………………………………… 101
2.5.2. Other Structural Factors………………………………………………… 103
2.6. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………… 105

CHAPTER 3
CRISIS COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
IN CASE OF THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL CRISIS………..…… 107

3.1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………… 107
3.2. HOW THE FORMER PRESIDENTS RESPOND TO THE CRISIS….. 107
3.3. MEGAWATI’S STRATEGY…………………………………………… 116
3.3.1. Crisis in Megawati’s View……………………………………………… 116
3.3.1.1. Year 2001……………………………………………………………….. 116
3.3.1.2. Year 2002……………………………………………………………….. 124
3.3.1.3. Year 2003 and 2004: the End of Megawati’s Presidency……………… 130
3.3.2. Megawati and Crisis: Media Portrayal…………………………………. 139
3.3.2.1. The Transition Time: 2001……………………………………………… 140
3.3.2.2. Period of 2002-2004…………………………………………………….. 149
3.4. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………. 154



viii
CHAPTER 4
CRISIS COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES
IN CASE OF TERRORISM AND CORRUPTION………………… 155

4.1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………….. 155
4. 2. TERRORISM……………………………………………………………. 155
4.2.1. Bomb Terror: Megawati Reaction…………..…………………………… 155
4.2.2. Megawati and Terrorism: Media Portrayal………………………………. 168
4.2.2.1. WTC Bombing and Its Impacts…………………………………………. 168
4.2.2.2. Bali Bombing: The Second Biggest Terrorism Action………………….. 172
4.3. CORRUPTION, COLLUSION AND NEPOTISM……………………… 178
4.3.1. Strategy of Megawati……………………………………………………. 181
4.3.2. Megawati, Media and Corruption……………………………………….. 187
4.3.2.1. Indonesian Corruption: Media Perspective……………………………… 187
4.3.2.2. Megawati and Corruption: Media Portrayal ……………………………. 190
4.4. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………….. 195

CHAPTER 5
CRISIS COMMUNICATION STRATEGY AND
ITS CONTEXTUAL FACTORS:
A CONCLUSION……………………………………………………………… 197

5.1. THE STRATEGY WAS DEFENSIVE…………….…………………… 197
5.2. THE CONTEXTUAL FACTORS………………………………………. 202
5.2.1. The Structured Public Relations………………………………………… 202
5.2.2. The Distrustful Relationship between President and Media……………… 202
5.2.3. Crisis Situation: the International Involvement ………………………… 205
5.2.4. The Government: Rules and Resources………………………………… 213
5.2.4.1. Tight Rules and Mindlessness……… ………………………………….. 214
5.2.4.2. Unsupportive Political Situation………………………………………… 225
5.3. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………. 227
5.4. RECOMMENDATION…………………………………………………. 231
5.4.1. Practical Implication…………………………………………………….. 231
5.4.2. Academic Implication…………………………………………………… 232

ix
BIBLIOGRAPHY…………………………………………………………….. 235

APPENDIX……………………………………………………………………… 245
1. The list of written speeches of three presidents
2. The list of Kompas and Media Indonesia News Editorial

x
LIST OF TABLES


Table 1 Ethnic, Religion and Race Crime………………………………………… 5
Table 2 Anarchism in Demonstrations………………..………….………………. 8
Table 3 Publics’ Assessment of BJ Habibie’s Achievement………………………. 12
Table 4 Publics’ Assessment of KH Abdurrahman Wahid’s Achievement……….. 13
Table 5 Publics’ Satisfaction on the Performance of Megawati Soekarnoputri..…… 13
Table 6 Statements of HM Soeharto related to the Press………....……………….. 17
Table 7 Statements of BJ Habibie related to the Press …….………………………. 19
Table 8 Statements of Gus Dur related the Press……….….……………………… 20
Table 9 Statements of Megawati in Relation to the Press………….……………… 21
Table 10 Strategy and Tactics of Crisis Responses………………………………… 31
Table 11 Unit of Analysis……….……………………………….………………… 39
Table 12 Strategy and Indicators……………………..………….…….…………… 40
Table 13 Unit of Analysis in Second and Third Context……...…….……………… 41
Table 14 Organization is Analyzed by Four Theories……………………………… 59
Table 15 Crisis Typology…………………………………………………………… 78
Table 16 Crisis Development………………………………………………………. 83
Table 17 Crisis Communication Strategy Defined…………………………………. 93
Table 18 Organization’s Strategy to Respond to the crisis………………………….. 99
Table 19 Crisis Communication Strategies………………………………………….. 100
Table 20 Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………… 104
Table 21 HM Suharto and BJ Habibie about Crisis……..…………………………. 114
Table 22 Contextual Factors of the Crisis Response Strategy..………… ………….. 116
Table 23 Crisis in Indonesia………………………………………..………………. 120
Table 24 Triggered and Inhibiting Factors for Crisis Resolution.…..………………. 123
Table 25 d Inhibiting Factors for Crisis Resolution…………………… 129
Table 26 Negative Reaction of Indonesian People………………………….……… 138
Table 27 President Gus Dur and his Cabinet’s image…...………………………….. 145
Table 28 President’s credibility within the first 9 months of their presidency……... 148
Table 29 Indonesian Political Situations…………………………………..…….…. 149
Table 30 Media and the Presidents are Talking about Crisis…………………..…… 153