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The kinematics of the intracluster light in the core of the hydra I cluster [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Giulia Ventimiglia

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Ludwig-Maximilians-Universita¨tSigillum Universitatis Ludovici MaximilianiThe Kinematics of the Intracluster Lightin the Core of the Hydra I ClusterDissertation der Fakulta¨t fu¨r PhysikDissertation of the Faculty of Physicsder Ludwig-Maximilians-Universita¨t Mu¨nchenat the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munichfu¨r den Grad desfor the degree ofDoctor rerum naturaliumvorgelegt von Giulia Ventimigliapresented byaus Catania, ItalienfromMu¨nchen, 22. Dezember 2010Sigillum Universitatis Ludovici Maximiliani1. Gutachter: PD Dr. Ortwin E. Gerhardreferee:2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Hans Bo¨hringerreferee:Tag der mu¨ndlichen Pru¨fung: 18. Februar 2011Date of the oralexam:To my fatherContentsContents iiiList of Figures viiList of Tables ixZusammenfassung xiAbstract xiii1 Introduction 11.1 Clusters of Galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1.1 Substructures in clusters of galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.1.2 Clusters of galaxies: X-ray observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.1.3 Clusters of galaxies: optical observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.1.4 Mechanisms causing galaxy evolution in clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.2 The Intracluster Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.2.1 Formation mechanisms and numerical simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121.2.2 Amount and morphology . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Ludwig-Maximilians-Universita¨t
Sigillum Universitatis Ludovici Maximiliani
The Kinematics of the Intracluster Light
in the Core of the Hydra I Cluster
Dissertation der Fakulta¨t fu¨r Physik
Dissertation of the Faculty of Physics
der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universita¨t Mu¨nchen
at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
fu¨r den Grad des
for the degree of
Doctor rerum naturalium
vorgelegt von Giulia Ventimiglia
presented by
aus Catania, Italien
from
Mu¨nchen, 22. Dezember 2010Sigillum Universitatis Ludovici Maximiliani
1. Gutachter: PD Dr. Ortwin E. Gerhard
referee:
2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Hans Bo¨hringer
referee:
Tag der mu¨ndlichen Pru¨fung: 18. Februar 2011
Date of the oralexam:To my fatherContents
Contents iii
List of Figures vii
List of Tables ix
Zusammenfassung xi
Abstract xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Clusters of Galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Substructures in clusters of galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.2 Clusters of galaxies: X-ray observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1.3 Clusters of galaxies: optical observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.1.4 Mechanisms causing galaxy evolution in clusters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.2 The Intracluster Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.2.1 Formation mechanisms and numerical simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.2.2 Amount and morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.2.3 Metallicity: individual stars as diffuse light tracers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.4 The ICL and the BCGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.5 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.3 The Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2 The dynamically hot stellar halo around NGC 3311 29
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2 Observations and archive data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
iii2.3 Data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.4 The kinematics of the NGC 3311 stellar halo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.6 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3 Intracluster Planetary Nebulas in the Hydra I Cluster 39
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.2.1 The Multi-Slit Imaging Spectroscopy technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.2.2 Observational set up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.3 Data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.4 Selection Criteria for the PN population: the wavelength-magnitude plane . . . . . . 43
3.5 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.6 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4 A Ly survey of background galaxies at z 3.12 47
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.2 The Multi-Slit Imaging Spectroscopy technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.3 Observational set up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.4 Data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.5 Ly candidates and their physical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.6 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5 The unmixed kinematics of intracluster stars in the core of the Hydra I cluster 53
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.2 The Hydra I cluster of galaxies (Abell 1060) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.3 Probing the ICL kinematics using Planetary Nebulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.3.1 Planetary Nebulas as kinematical probes and distance indicators . . . . . . . 57
5.3.2 The Multi-Slit Imaging Spectroscopy technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.4 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
5.5 Data reduction and analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.5.1 Identification of Emission-Line Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.5.2 Photometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605.6 The PN sample in Hydra I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.7 Kinematic substructures and parameter for the observed PN sample in Hydra I . . . 64
5.7.1 Predicting the luminosity function and LOSVD with MSIS . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.7.2 Reality of observed kinematic substructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.7.3 Low -parameter in the core of Hydra I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5.8 The substructures in the Hydra I cluster core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.8.1 Spatial distributions of the PN velocity components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.8.2 Spatial and velocity distribution of Hydra I galaxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.8.3 Galaxy evolution and presence of substructures in the core of Hydra I . . . . 74
5.9 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
5.10 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6 Disrupted galaxies in the Hydra I cluster 79
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
6.2 Optical and Near Infrared imaging of the Hydra I core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.2.1 V band photometry - Observations and data reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.2.2 Ks band photometry - 2MASS archive data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.3 Surface photometry for NGC 3311 and NGC 3309 in V and Ks bands . . . . . . . . 83
6.3.1 Isophote fitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.3.2 Analysis of the V, Ks surface profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
6.3.3 Two-dimensional model for the light distribution in NGC 3311 and NGC 3309 85
6.3.4 Morphology of the light excess in the NE quadrant of NGC 3311 . . . . . . 89
6.4 Long slit spectroscopy of the NGC 3311 halo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.5 Correlation among substructures in the diffuse light, PNs and galaxies distributions . 92
6.5.1 Light excess and PNs substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.5.2 Differences in the parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.5.3 Light excess and substructures in the galaxy distribution . . . . . . . . . . . 94
6.6 Summary and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
6.7 Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7 HCC 26: the characteristics of one of the dwarf galaxies in the core of Hydra I 99
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
7.2 The dwarf galaxies in the core of the Hydra I cluster: photometric characteristics . . 1007.2.1 Observational set up, data reduction and 2D modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.2.2 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
7.3 HCC 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.3.1 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.3.2 Age and metallicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.4 HCC 26: comparison with dwarf galaxy samples in nearby clusters . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.4.1 Lick indices and stellar population parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7.4.2 Structural parameters and fundamental plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
7.5 Summary and conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
8 Summary and conclusions 111
Acknowledgments 121
Bibliography 123List of Figures
1.1 Mihos 2005 photometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2 ICL in the Centaurus cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.3 Examples of Planetary Nebulas spectra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.4 MSIS mask for the Hydra I cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.1 Gemini and FORS2 long-slit spectra positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.2 Examples of spectra of NGC 3311 along its major axis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3 Major axis line-of-sight velocity and velocity dispersion profiles for NGC 3311 . . . 34
2.4 Properties of the stellar halo of NGC 3311 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.1 A typical MSIS PN spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.2 Velocity-Magnitude plane for the PNs in the Hydra I core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.1 The Ly sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5.1 The physical characteristics of the PN sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
5.2 Cumulative PN luminosity function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.3 Simulated PN population for NGC 3311 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5.4 Observed and predicted cumulative PN numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
5.5 PN spatial distribution in the Hydra I cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
5.6 Velocity distribution of the galaxies in the Hydra I cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5.7 Spatial distribution of the galaxies in the Hydra I cluster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.1 Unsharp masked V band image of NGC 3311 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.2 Isophotes, P.A., ellipticity and average SB profiles in V and Ks bands of NGC 3311 . 84
6.3 Isophote shape parameter profiles in V and Ks band images of NGC 3311 . . . . . . 84
6.4 V and Ks band average surface brightness profiles of NGC 3311 . . . . . . . . . . . 86
6.5 Major and minor axis V band folded profiles of NGC 3311 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
vii6.6 Ks band 2D model of NGC 3311 and NGC 3309 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.7 V band 2D model of NGC 3311 and NGC 3309 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.8 V and Ks band profiles along major and minor axis of NGC 3311 . . . . . . . . . . . 89
6.9 Light excess spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
6.10 Fourier cross-correlation function computed from the light excess spectrum . . . . . 92
6.11 PNs on top of the residual V band image of the Hydra I core . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6.12 Dwarf galaxies on top of the residual V band image of the Hydra I core . . . . . . . 95
7.1 Spectrum of HCC 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
7.2 Lick indices of HCC 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
7.3 Magnitude vs age and magnitude vs metallicity relations for HCC 26 . . . . . . . . . 105
7.4 Kormendy relation for HCC 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
7.5 Position on fundamental plane of HCC 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108