The neoclassical residences of the Newars in Nepal [Elektronische Ressource] : transcultural flows in the early 20th century architecture of the Kathmandu Valley / vorgelegt von Katharina Maria Lucia Weiler

-

English
478 Pages
Read an excerpt
Gain access to the library to view online
Learn more

Description

THE NEOCLASSICAL RESIDENCES OF THE NEWARS IN NEPAL thTRANSCULTURAL FLOWS IN THE EARLY 20 CENTURY ARCHITECTURE OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Philosophischen Fakultät der Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Europäische Geschichts- und Kulturwissenschaften (ZEGK) - Institut für Europäische Kunstgeschichte vorgelegt von Katharina Maria Lucia Weiler aus Heidelberg Heidelberg, Mai 2009 Hauptgutachter: Prof. Dr. Matthias Untermann, Heidelberg Nebengutachter: Prof. Dr. Ing. Niels Gutschow, Heidelberg 2 Volume I Text 3 4 INDEX OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 11 1. INTRODUCTION 13 1.1 Subject 13 1.2 Newar Façades and the Discourse on Globalisation 14 1.3 Newar Houses and the Postcolonial Discourse 18 1.4 State of Current Research 22 1.5 Methods 25 1.6 About the Chapters 27 2. THE KATHMANDU VALLEY 30 2.1 Geography 30 2.2 Nepalmaṇḍala 30 2.3 History 31 3. URBAN LANDSCAPE, SOCIETY AND RELIGION IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY 37 3.1 Urban Mesocosm 37 3.2 The Social Organisation of the Newars 39 3.3 Patan 45 3.4 Bhaktapur 46 4.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 2009
Reads 29
Language English
Document size 39 MB
Report a problem








THE NEOCLASSICAL RESIDENCES OF THE NEWARS IN NEPAL

thTRANSCULTURAL FLOWS IN THE EARLY 20 CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
OF THE KATHMANDU VALLEY






Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde
der Philosophischen Fakultät der Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg,
Zentrum für Europäische Geschichts- und Kulturwissenschaften (ZEGK)
- Institut für Europäische Kunstgeschichte




















vorgelegt von
Katharina Maria Lucia Weiler
aus Heidelberg


Heidelberg, Mai 2009













































Hauptgutachter: Prof. Dr. Matthias Untermann, Heidelberg
Nebengutachter: Prof. Dr. Ing. Niels Gutschow, Heidelberg
2 Volume I
Text
3 4 INDEX OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 11

1. INTRODUCTION 13
1.1 Subject 13
1.2 Newar Façades and the Discourse on Globalisation 14
1.3 Newar Houses and the Postcolonial Discourse 18
1.4 State of Current Research 22
1.5 Methods 25
1.6 About the Chapters 27

2. THE KATHMANDU VALLEY 30
2.1 Geography 30
2.2 Nepalmaṇḍala 30
2.3 History 31

3. URBAN LANDSCAPE, SOCIETY AND RELIGION IN THE KATHMANDU VALLEY 37
3.1 Urban Mesocosm 37
3.2 The Social Organisation of the Newars 39
3.3 Patan 45
3.4 Bhaktapur 46

4. THE NEWAR HOUSE 49
4.1 Construction Principles 49
4.1.1 Masonry 52
4.1.2 Columns 55
4.1.3 Doors and Windows 56
4.1.4 The Roof 59
4.2 The Functional Organisation and Symbolic Order of the House 59
4.3 Newars and the Relation to their House 62

5. THE CHANGING FACES OF NEWAR FAÇADES 66
5.1 The Investigation of Five Façades from Bhaktapur 66
5.2 Changes in Window Design 70
5.2.1 The Symbolic Form of the Lattice Window 71
5.2.2 Shifting the Point of Focus: The Window View 73
5.2.3 Blind Windows 76
th5.3 The Alignment of Early 20 Century Façades 77

6. REWORKING INDIAN ARCHITECTURE IN NEPAL 79
6.1 The Sikhara Temple 79
6.2 Inspirations from Mughal Architecture in Nepalese Religious Buildings 80
6.3 Mughal Forms in Nepalese Palace and Residential Buildings 83
5 7. THE ART OF COPYING 86
7.1 Identity, Alterity and Mimesis 86
7.2 Copying and Designing a New Style 87
7.3 Europe´s Import of Foreign Design 91
7.4 “It is by no means easy to copy; easy by no means is it to design”
(Robert Scott Burn, 1871) 95
7.5 British Art Schools in Colonial India (circa 1856 – 1900) and Their Impact
on Nepal 99
7.6 British Colonial Architecture as the Model for Nepalese Neoclassicism 104
7.7 Patterns 108

8. TRANSMITTERS OF TRANSCULTURAL FLOWS 112
th8.1 Builders of Early 20 Century Architecture in the Kathmandu Valley 112
8.1.1 Engineers 113
8.1.2 Construction Workers and Craftsmen 115
8.1.3 In Remembrance of the Nāyaḏs of Patan 118
8.2 Nepalese Craftsmen in India and Europe 121

9. THE NEOCLASSICAL PALACES OF THE RANAS IN NEPAL 123
9.1 New Scenes of Life and Landscape – The Rana Palaces 123
9.1.1 Jang Bahadur Rana 125
9.1.2 Bir Shamsher Rana 125
9.1.3 Chandra Shamsher 129
9.2 Rana Architecture as Subject of Early European Criticism 133
9.3 Representational Architecture 136

10. NEWAR NEOCLASSICAL HOUSES: LOCAL AND GLOBAL IDENTITIES 143
10.1 Building Modern Cities after the Earthquake 143
th10.2 The Multiple Identities of Early 20 Century Façades 144
th10.3 Early 20 Century Houses in Western Travelogues 145
10.3.1 The “Bastard Modern Style” – Reflections of a Colonial Discourse 148
10.3.2 Visions of Exotic Otherness and Modern Self 150
10.3.3 Redefining “Hybridity”: Alternative Versions of Modernity 151
10.4 The Brick-And-Plaster Style in Patan 154
10.5 The Brick-Style in Bhaktapur 155

11. TOWARDS A NEW MATERIALITY 157
11.1 General Remarks 157
11.2 Prestigious Glass 157
11.3 The Modernisation of the Kathmandu Valley with British Iron and Steel 159
11.3.1 Balustrades and Columns 159
11.3.2 Supplier of Cast Iron: Macfarlane & Co, Glasgow 160
11.3.3 Supplier of Cast Iron: Martin & Co Calcutta 161
11.3.4 Supplier of Wrought Iron: Bayliss, Jones and Bayliss, Wolverhampton 162
11.3.5 Supplier of Technical Steel: Dorman Long, Middlesborough 162
6 11.3.6 Bell Founders: Gillet & Johnston, Croydon 163
11.4 The Elaborate Ways of Articulation with Stucco 164

12. VISUALISATION OF TRANSCULTURE IN NEPAL 166
12.1 Multiple Meanings: Symbols, Ornaments and Decoration in a Transcultural
Context 166
12.1.1 A Brief History of the Ornament in Europe 167
12.1.2 Original Conception and Contemporary Understanding of alamkāra in the
Indian Arts 170
12.2 Mediating between Globally Meandering Flows of Ornaments in Nepal 172
12.3 The Classical Orders 173
12.3.1 The Tuscan and Doric Orders 175
12.3.2 The Ionic Order 175
12.3.3 The Corinthian Order 177
12.3.3.1 The Baluster Column: Its Propagation in the Architecture of the Mughals
and in Nepal 179
12.3.3.2 The Acanthus: Its Transformation from a Classical Motif into the
“Foreign Flower” (desisvã) in Nepal 182
12.3.4 Composite Capitals with Figures 182
12.3.5 Brick Capitals 183
12.4 Heavenly Women 184
12.4.1 Kinnaris 186
12.4.2 Apsaras 188
12.4.3 Vidyādharis 190
12.4.4 Angels, Kinnaris, Apsaras, Vidyādharis or Pāris? – Challenges in
Iconographic Assigning 191
12.4.5 Aspects of the Nude Female Body in Nepalese Art 196
12.5 Caryatides 197
12.6 Mascarons 198
12.7 Lions 199
12.8 The Peacock 201
12.9 The Vase 203
12.10 Scrollwork and Rocaille Cartouches 205

13. THE VOTIVE PLAQUES AT THE NEOCLASSICAL VERNACULAR OF THE
NEWARS 208
13.1 Colourful, Stereotyped Images 208
13.2 The Nepalese Tradition of Topographical Painting 208
13.3 The Svayambhunāth Mahācaitya 209
13.4 Changes in Composition and Style 211
13.4.1 Early Contacts with European Paintings and Photography 211
13.4.2 The Foreshortened Newar Pantheon 215
13.5 The Omnipresence of Amoghapāśa (Avalokiteśvara, Lokeśvara) 218
13.6 Depictions of the Birth of Buddha Śākyamuni 219
13.7 The Adoption of Chinese and Tibetan Iconography – Puffy Clouds and the
7 Caturmahārājas 220
13.8 Further Thoughts on the Votive Plaques 222

14. HOUSE INSCRIPTIONS 224
14.1 Writing a Sacred Topography 224
14.2 Aspects of Protection 225
14.3 Design Techniques 227
14.4 Difficulties in Reading 228
14.5 The Topics and Formal Aspects – Classification Criteria 228
14.6 Edificial Inscriptions 230
14.6.1 Inscriptions in Cartouches 230
14.6.2 The Language and Script of Edificial Inscriptions 231
14.6.3 Time Specifications 232
14.6.4 Decorative Attachments 234
14.6.4.1 Flowering Cartouches 234
14.6.4.2 Garland-Bearing Couples 235
14.6.4.3 Sun (Sūrya) and Moon (Candra) 235
14.6.4.4 The Pointer – A European Icon 236
14.6.5 Edificial Inscriptions with Invocative Character – Where Divine Spirit meets
Profane Matters 236
14.6.6 The Praising of the Three Jewels 237
14.6.7 Initials 240
14.7 Invocations – Taking Refuge in the Local Pantheon 240
14.8 Seed Syllables and Mantras as Façade Inscriptions 244
14.8.1 The Background of Magic Formulas 244
14.8.2 Animating the House with Mantras 246
14.8.2.1 The Seed Syllable Om 247
14.8.2.2 Multisyllable Mantras and Dhāraṇīs in Devanāgarī 247
14.8.2.3 Multisyllable Mantras in Ranjana Script 250
14.8.2.4 Monograms 252
14.9 The Dialogues of the Global and the Local in Newar Urban Designs 254

15. CONCLUSION 258

16. EPILOGUE 263
16.1 The Nostalgic View of Rana Architecture 263
16.1.1 Heritage Hotels 263
16.1.2 Baber Mahal Revisited 264
16.1.3 The Garden of Dreams 264
16.2 The Renaissance of Classicism 265

APPENDIX 269
Residential Buildings in Patan 269
Vajracharya House (ca. 1911) at Mikhābāhā 269
Shakya House (before 1934) in Guitaṭol 274
8
̐Residential Buildings in Bhaktapur 279
Joshi House (after 1934) in the Locality of Bolāchẽ 279
The Piya House (ca. 1934) in the Locality of Tulāchẽ 281
List of British Residents in Nepal 283
List of Rana Buildings 284
List of European Engineers who visited Nepal between 1881-1923 285

GLOSSARY 287
PICTURE CREDITS 293
BIBLIOGRAPHY 295















9



10