The Organisation of Trade in North Sumatra: Batak Traders and Trading Networks [Elektronische Ressource] / Kathrin-Christine Situmorang. Philosophische Fakultät

The Organisation of Trade in North Sumatra: Batak Traders and Trading Networks [Elektronische Ressource] / Kathrin-Christine Situmorang. Philosophische Fakultät

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The Organisation of Trade in North SumatraBatak Traders and Trading NetworksInaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde der Philosophischen Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn vorgelegt von Kathrin-Christine Situmorang aus Marburg / LahnBonn 2011Gedruckt mit der Genehmigung der Philosophischen Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität BonnZusammensetzung der Prüfungskommission: Prof. Dr. Christoph Antweiler(Vorsitzender)Prof. Dr. Solvay Gerke (Betreuerin und Gutachterin)Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers (Gutachter)Prof. Dr. Stephan Conermann (weiteres prüfungsberechtigtes Mitglied)Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 14. Juli 2011IIIAcknowledgementsI thank the following persons for their kind assistance, support and a dvice, unlimitedpatience, endless help, uncountable encouragements, and that they neve r stoppedbelieving in me. Thank you to...… my academic supervisors Prof. Dr. Solvay Gerke and Prof. Dr.

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The Organisation of Trade in North Sumatra
Batak Traders and Trading Networks
Inaugural-Dissertation
zur Erlangung der Doktorwürde
der
Philosophischen Fakultät
der
Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität
zu Bonn
vorgelegt von
Kathrin-Christine Situmorang
aus
Marburg / Lahn
Bonn 2011Gedruckt mit der Genehmigung der Philosophischen Fakultät
der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
Zusammensetzung der Prüfungskommission:
Prof. Dr. Christoph Antweiler
(Vorsitzender)
Prof. Dr. Solvay Gerke
(Betreuerin und Gutachterin)
Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers
(Gutachter)
Prof. Dr. Stephan Conermann
(weiteres prüfungsberechtigtes Mitglied)
Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 14. Juli 2011III
Acknowledgements
I thank the following persons for their kind assistance, support and a dvice, unlimited
patience, endless help, uncountable encouragements, and that they neve r stopped
believing in me.
Thank you to...
… my academic supervisors Prof. Dr. Solvay Gerke and Prof. Dr. Hans-Dieter Evers,
… Pak Asnah, Pak Manik, Pak Logam and hundreds of respondents,
… my research assistants: Bulman Situmorang, Karmila Kaban and Mama Novy,
… Annette and Stephan Flade, who helped me out with photos and interviews,
… Erika and Holger Bogatzki for every valuable and helpful discussion,
… my friends, who did not become tired discussing and reading my chapter drafts:
Manuela Peters, Martina Liel, Linda Heidecke, Debora Tydecks, Johan Holmgren,
Sabine Maack-Reinhart and Lisa Janßen.
Thank you to my wonderful family, Samsul, Juara and Ulina as well as to my parents -
thank you Papa, for every technical support!
Thank you Marijke - for everything you have done for me the last years!
In Indonesia, field research was done under the auspices of the Indonesi an Institute of
Sciences (LIPI). Thank you tor. MRuben Silitonga from LIPI andm ty Indoneo sian
academic counterpaDrtr. H, eru Nugroho of the Universitas Gadjah Mada.
Thank you also to the staff and to my batBonn Intch of theerdi sciplinary Gradua te
School for Development Research (BiGS-DR) at the Center for Developm ent
Research/University of Bonn.
Last but not least, I thank mschyol arship donors who kindly funded my work during
the last five years: The Center for Development Research / ZEF (fie ld research
allowance 2006), the German Academic Exchange Service / DAAD (Field Re search
Grant 2007) and the Evangelische Studienwerk Villigst e.V. (Graduate Schol arship
2008-2011).
I apologise if I have left out someone here.
Of course, I take full responsibility for any shortcomings of this work.
(Traditional Karo symbol bringing good luck!)IV
List of Tables
List of Ta.b.l.e.s.............................................................VI.............................................................
List of Phot.os...............................................................VI.I............................................................
List of Ma..ps..............................................................V.I.I.I..........................................................
List of Cha ..rt.s............................................................V.I.I.I..........................................................
Abbreviations................................................................I.X.............................................................
Glossary.....................................................................X.I................................................................
Some Notes on Translation..s..................................................X.I.V...............................................
Some Notes on the presented Photos.............................................X.I.V.........................................
Zusammenfassung (Executive Summary)..........................................X.V.......................................
Introduction..................................................................1...............................................................
Introduction: The Organisation of Trade in Nort.h .S.u.m.a..tr.a....................1..........................
Problem Statement and Hypothes.e.s ...........................................2...........................................
Primary and Secondary Research Questi.ons......................................2.....................................
Research Goa.l.s............................................................3...........................................................
Scientific Relevanc..e........................................................4.......................................................
Social Relevanc..e. .........................................................5.........................................................
Outline of the Study..........................................................8.......................................................
Chapter 1: The Batak People in North Sum.at.r.a................................10..................................
The Setting: Indones.i.a.. ...................................................10....................................................
The Province of North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara / .S.UM..U.T..)................13.....................
The Straits of Ma.l.a..c.c.a...............................................15..................................................
Medan .................................................................16.............................................................
Taneh Karo/Karo Highl..a..nds............................................18..............................................
Pematangsianta..r. ......................................................23......................................................
Batam Island (Riau Archipe...l.a..go..).. ..................................23.........................................
The Peop.l.e..............................................................24..............................................................
The Mystical “Ada...t.”. ................................................28...................................................
Merga si Lima / Sangkep .si.. T..e.l.u......................................30..........................................
Summary .................................................................35...............................................................
Chapter 2: Historical Perspectives...............................................36............................................
Pre-colonial Trade and Trad..i.ng ..P.a..t.te.r.ns..............................36.......................................
Trade Colonialism – Early Europe.a..n ..I.mpa....c.t.s.........................48...................................
Colonialism and Trade in the Nineteenth and Twenti.e.t.h ..C.e.nt.u.ry. . ..........50...................
Post-colonial Per.i.od.......................................................57......................................................
Summary .................................................................58..............................................................
Chapter 3: The Organisation of Trade I
Traders and Trading Forms ...................................................60.................................................
A Definition of T.r.a..de.. .................................................61.....................................................
Different Types of T.ra..de...rs. ............................................64.................................................
Retaile.rs. .............................................................66............................................................
Intermediary Traders (Middl.e.m.e.n).......................................69........................................
Commercial Peasants & Fa.r.m.e.rs........................................74..........................................
How to become a Trade...r..................................................82...................................................
Women as Trade .r.s........................................................93........................................................V
Formal Process to open a Bus.i..ne.s.s.........................................96...........................................
Trade Beneath the Level of the Marke..t.p..l.a..c.e.............................99....................................
Summary ................................................................102.............................................................
Chapter 4: The Organisation of Trade II
Production, Transport and Allocation of Commodi.t.ie.s.........................105..........................
Traded Goods.............................................................106..........................................................
Transportation by Road, Sea a.nd ...A.i.r.w..a..y.............................109.....................................
Storage Room ............................................................114..........................................................
Marketing Channels and Market. P.l..a..ce.s. ................................116......................................
Trans-Boundary Trading Netw..or.ks.........................................123..........................................
Summary ................................................................126..............................................................
Chapter 5: Ethnicity and Trad.e...............................................127.............................................
Chinese & Batak Tra..d.e.r.s..................................................127 ....................................................
Introduction: (Multi-) Ethnicity and ...T..ra..de... ............................127....................................
The Chinese in Indone.s.i.a.. ..............................................130.................................................
Cooperation or Toleration? The Relationship of Chinese. .a.nd ....B.a..ta..k 138..T..r.a..de..rs..
The Aspect of Ethnicity in the .Sur..v.e.y. ....................................140.......................................
Self-Esteem and Social Perce.p..ti.on ........................................149..........................................
Summary ................................................................159..............................................................
Chapter 6: The Batak Dilemm.a. .............................................161.............................................
Introduction: Cultural Influences on Economic Developm .e.nt. ....................161......................
The Karo Ca..s.e. ........................................................163.........................................................
Traders' Dilem.m.a........................................................172.......................................................
The Knowledge Facto..r ...................................................180...................................................
Summary ................................................................188.............................................................
Conclusions, Recommendations and Outlook.....................................190..................................
Recommendations .........................................................195......................................................
Outlook: Breaking into New Mar.ke..ts.......................................201.........................................
References. ................................................................205..............................................................
Appendix A: Methods of Data Collection I (Questionnaires.).......................217......................
Survey Design..........................................................218.......................................................
Participa ..n.ts. ........................................................234.........................................................
List of Research S.i.te.s.................................................249..................................................
Appendix B: Methods of Data Collection II. .....................................251...................................
Semi-Structured and Informal Interv.i.e.w.s...................................251......................................
Secondary Data Revi.e.w...................................................253..................................................
Discussion & Participatory Observat.i.on......................................253.......................................
Mappi ..ng...............................................................254..............................................................VI
List of Tables
Table 1: Growth Rate of Gross Domestic Produc .............................................t 11 ............
Table 2: Gross Domestic Product Indone............................................sia 11 ......................
Table 3: Export data of North Sumatra by s...................................ectors 14 ......................
Table 4: Extract from the export data of the Karo Re........................................gency 22 ..
Table 5: Different types of retailers, characteristics a..............nd equipment ..67..............
Table 6: Educational background of 33 randomly se..le.c.te.d. t.ra..de..rs.....68...............
Table 7: List of exporters and their commodities in Ka .............................ro Regency 71 ..
Table 8: Balance sheet Pa................................................................................k Asnah 80 ..
Table 9: Monthly Income Pak A..................................................................snah 81 ...........
Table 10: Occupation alternatives in the hi ............................ghlands .87............................
Table 11: Registered companies in the highlands............................... in 2007. 98 ...............
Table 12: Details about the survey (questionnaires) 105.........................
Table 13: Some examples of national, local and internati..ona....l. c.om.107.m.od...i.t.i.es
Table 14: Potency of industry, trading, mining & energy in Karo Re.........gency .108........
Table 15: Type and Condition of Karo D .................................................istrict Roads 111 ..
Table 16: Karo District: Produce Distribution by Mode................................ 112 ...............
Table 17: Origin of vegetables, fruits and.................................... spices 125 ......................
Table 18: Distribution of indigenous, non-indigenous and foreign owned ente.rpri135 ses
Table 19: Ethnic Group Membership of responde...................................................nts 141 ..
Table 20: Hypothesis “The Adat is important for Ba...........tak traders.”......142................
Table 21: Hypothesis “When I purchase commodities I try to buy them from the same
trader/......................................................................place.” 142 ............................
Table 22: Hypothesis: “Ethnic affiliation is importa........nt for tra..de..rs..”...145..............
Table 23: Hypothesis “I prefer trading with traders of my own ethnic........ group.”147 .....
Table 24: Hypothesis: “When I purchase commodities, I always compare prices & the
quality. The ethnic affiliation of other traders does not.148 play a role for me.”
Table 25: From whom traders purchase their commodi.........................ties 148 ..................
Table 26: Hypothesis: “I often speak and meet with other loc.....al tra..de..rs..”.169..........
Table 27: Hypothesis: “I often have to allow discounts for family members, friends and
other people who know .................................................................. me.” 176 ........
Table 28: Hypothesis: “Due to the strong Adat, I do not like to trade close to
my place of origi................................................n (village).” 178 .........................
Table 29: Hypothesis: “Traders belonging to other ethnic groups have a trading
advantage because they do not have to obey A.da....t rul..e.s..”......178..............
Table 30: Overview about the Questionnaires..................................... 217 .........................
Table 31: Distribution of Male and Female Re..............................spondents 218 ...............VII
List of Photos
Photo 1: "Head quarter" of a local tra.....................................nsporter. 9 ...........................
Photo 2: Batak salt trader around................................................. 1910 42 .........................
Photo 3: Cabbage monument in Beras............................................tagi 55 .........................
Photo 4: Wholesaler in the Karo highl........................................................ands 62 ............
Photo 5: Ambulant trade......................................................................r 63 .........................
Photo 6: Market vendor in Berastagi/Karo highl..................................ands 64 ..................
Photo 7: Shoe and bag retailer at Be............................................................rastagi 66 ........
Photo 8: Typical sales equipment of an occasional......... village. shop.........68................
Photo 9: Intermediary traders picking up commodities at t......he roa.ds.i.de....69............
Photo 10: Stock of merchandise (for cabbage) in the....................... highlands 70 ...............
Photo 11: A group of mobile agents resting at a coffe ......................................e shop 72 .....
Photo 12: Cabbage, ready for picki.......................................................ng up 73 ..................
Photo 13: Commercial farmer, sorting potatoes for sale 77 ............
Photo 14: Pak Asnah in front of his field in Berastagi 79 ...............
Photo 15: Female fruit trader at work while carrying her sleeping...... baby.......95............
Photo 16: Female traders selling agricultural tools and kni...........................ves. 95 ............
Photo 17: Furniture dealer................................................................................. 97 ...............
Photo 18: The central market in Berastagi is a mixed..................................... market 98 .....
Photo 19: Energy drinks, rice, footballs and instant noodles in their typ.ic.108al packing.
Photo 20: Main road in the rainy se...................................................ason 110 .....................
Photo 21: Typical loaded truck (small model) for trans-regiona ...............l transport111s. ..
Photo 22: Storage of potatoes in the highl........................................ands. 114 .....................
Photo 23: Sorting of vegetables 115 .....
Photo 24: Allocation of transportation ba..................................skets 115............................
Photo 25: Loading of ca .............................................................................bbage 116 ...........
Photo 26: Typical shop on the main road i..............................................n Berastagi 119 .....
Photo 27: Overland bus connecting the highland with Meda.....................................n 121 ..
Photo 28: Wall relief showing Karo traders in Bera.......................................stagi 124 ........
Photo 29: One of the numerous typical Chinese shop houses in Beras..................tagi 130 ..
Photo 30: Chinese owned shop in Bera.........................................stagi 133 .........................
Photo 31: Chinese cemetery near by Berasta...........................................gi 139 ...................
Photo 32: PIMS: Cow barn of P...................................................................IMS 156 ...........
Photo 33: Ir Petrus Sitepu, development director of P .............................IMS 157 ...............
Photo 34: Banner of PT Putra Indo Mandiri.................................................. Sejahtera 158 .
Photo 35: The range of commodities of a small-scale trade.........r in Bera.s.t194.a..gi.......VIII
List of Maps
Map 1: The Indonesian archi...........................................................pelago 10 ......................
Map 2: The Straits of M...............................................................alacca. 15 .........................
Map 3: Map of Karoland (T ...............................................aneh Karo) 19 ............................
Map 4: North Sumatra and Batak settlement.................................... areas 25 ......................
Map 5: Main trading routes in Southeast Asia 1st-6th ce........................ntury. 36 ...............
List of Charts
Chart 1: Marketing channels for commo.............................................dities 122 ..................
Chart 2: Model used by Singarimbun/Penny to explain the relation betw een
culture/social behaviour and economic acti..................................................vities 163 .........IX
Abbreviations
(engl) English
(indo) Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia)
(dutch) Dutch
AFTA (engl) the ASEAN Free Trade Area
AMARTA (engl) Agribusiness Market and Support Activity
ASEAN (engl) the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
BBM (indo) Bahan Bakar Minyak / Fuel
BPS (indo) Badan Pusat Statistik / The official office of
Statistics
CV (indo) Perusahaan Persekutuan Komanditer / Limited
Partnerships
D (indo) Diploma / Indonesian Diploma Degree, grades one
to four
DLLAJ (indo) Transportation Office
EU (engl) European Union
GATT (engl) General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
GBKP (indo) Gereja Batak Karo Protestan / Protestant Karo
Batak Church
GDP (engl) Gross Domestic Product
GRDP (engl) Gross Regional Domestic Product
ILO (engl) the International Labour Office
IMF (engl) the International Monetary Fund
LIPI (indo) Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia / Indonesian
Institute of Science
MUI (indo) Majelis Ulama Indonesia / Indonesian Ulama
Council
NAFTA (engl) North American Free Trade Agreement
OPEC (engl) organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
PD (indo) Perusahan dagang / Economic enterprise
PELNI (i Pelayanan Nasional Indonesia / The National
Indonesian Shipping Company
PIMS (indo) PT Putra Indo Mandiri Sejahtera / Name of a dairy
farm in Berastagi
PNS (indo) Pegawai Negeri Sipil / Civil servant
PO (i (Perusahaan Perorangan) / Commercial enterprise
PT (indo) Perusahaan terbatas / Limited company
S (i Sarjana / Indonesian University degree, grades one
to three (S3=PhD)X
SARA (indo) Suku Agama, Ras dan Antar Golongan: Suku
agama (indo) = religious affiliation; Ras (indo)
race; Antar Golongan (indo) = inter-group relations
SIUP (indo) Surat Izin Usaha Perdagangan / Business licence
SLTP (i Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat P →ert seae SmaMP &
Glossary
SMERU (engl) Social Monitoring and Early Response Unit
SMA (indo) Sekolah Menengah Atas / Indonesian school
(classes ten to twelve→ s)ee Glossary
SMK (indo) Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan → see SMA &
Glossary
SMP (indo) Sekolah Menengah Perta Indonema / sian school
(classes seven to nine→ s) ee Glossary
SMU (indo) Sekolah Menengah Umum→ see SMA &
Glossary
STM (indo) Sekolah Teknik Menenga→ sh ee SMA &
Glossary
SUMUT (indo) Sumatera Utara / North Sumatra
UD (i Usaha Dagang / economic enterprise
USAID (engl) United States Agency for International
Development
USU (indo) Universitas Sumatera Utara / the University of
North Sumatra
VOC (dutch) Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie / the Dutch
East India Company
WTO (engl) World Trade Organisation