The student

The student's comparative grammar of the French language; with an historical sketch of the formation of French, for the use of public schools

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EUGENE'S FRENCH GRAMMAR IWLET1I Mil a LIST,WILLIAMS AND NORGATES theThe Student's Grammar ofEugene's Comparative of theFrench with an Historical SketchLanguage, Schools.Formation of French. For the use of Public FrenchWith Exercises. G. EUGENE-FASNACHT,By Westminster School, llthMaster, Edition,thoroughly 5srevised. crown 8vo. clothSquare 3s 2s 6d.Or, Exercises,Grammar, ; "The of a Grammar like this is in itself a that greatappearance sign ancientadvance is made in the of modern as well as ofbeing teaching The rules and classifiedobservations are alllanguages scientifically and Educational Times.explained." " In itself this is in the most Grammar formany ways satisfactory that we have as seen." Athenaeum.beginners yet French Method. French Lessons.Eugene's Elementary Rules and Exercises to theEasy preparatory " theStudent's French Grammar."Comparative By same Author. 7th Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth Is 6d 1 deserves to rank the ofour FrenchbestCertainly among Elementary " Exercise-books. Educational Times. " To as thethose who to French, I bestbegin may recommend,study 'book of the kind with which I am acquainted, Eugene's Elementary 1 " Lessons in French. Dr. Lecturer the FrenchBreymann, of Language and Owens Manchester.Literature, College, The Student's Graduated French for the use ofReader, Public Schools. I. First Year. Anecdotes, Tales, Historical Pieces. Edited with Notes and a Complete LEON ofVocabulary by DELBOS, M.A., King's College, London. Crown 8vo.

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EUGENE'S
FRENCH
GRAMMAR
IWLET1I Mil aLIST,WILLIAMS AND NORGATES
theThe Student's Grammar ofEugene's Comparative
of theFrench with an Historical SketchLanguage,
Schools.Formation of French. For the use of Public
FrenchWith Exercises. G. EUGENE-FASNACHT,By
Westminster School, llthMaster, Edition,thoroughly
5srevised. crown 8vo. clothSquare
3s 2s 6d.Or, Exercises,Grammar, ;
"The of a Grammar like this is in itself a that greatappearance sign
ancientadvance is made in the of modern as well as ofbeing teaching
The rules and classifiedobservations are alllanguages scientifically
and Educational Times.explained."
"
In itself this is in the most Grammar formany ways satisfactory
that we have as seen." Athenaeum.beginners yet
French Method. French Lessons.Eugene's Elementary
Rules and Exercises to theEasy preparatory
"
theStudent's French Grammar."Comparative By
same Author. 7th Edition. Crown 8vo. cloth Is 6d
1 deserves to rank the ofour FrenchbestCertainly among Elementary
"
Exercise-books. Educational Times.
" To as thethose who to French, I bestbegin may recommend,study
'book of the kind with which I am acquainted, Eugene's Elementary
1 "
Lessons in French. Dr. Lecturer the FrenchBreymann, of Language
and Owens Manchester.Literature, College,
The Student's Graduated French for the use ofReader,
Public Schools. I. First Year. Anecdotes, Tales,
Historical Pieces. Edited with Notes and a Complete
LEON ofVocabulary by DELBOS, M.A., King's College,
London. Crown 8vo. cloth 2s
The Student's Second French the same.Reader. By
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Lemaistre French for Lessons
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duction and Notes LEON ofDELBOS, M.A.,by King's
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[4]THE STUDENT'S
COMPAEATIVE GRAMMAR
OF THE
FRENCH LANGUAGE
OF\YITII AN HISTOKICAL SKETCH OF THE FORMATION FRENCH,
FOR THE USE OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
BY
'O*
FASNACHT.G^EUQfiNE
EDITION.TWELFTH
THOROUGHLY REVISED.
&WILLIAMS NORGATE,
COVENTHENRIETTA STREET, GARDEN,14, LONDON;
SOUTH FREDERICKAND STREET, EDINBURGH.20,
1890.-
fiffff*
-JoTO THE FIRST EDITION.PREFACE
Uno nous dcvicndrnit vlvanfelangue plus
si rous associcr a son otii'ljpouvionsencore,
ellocello de 1'idiomo dout derive. A. VINET.
1 Grammar has beenin this new FrenchMy object compiling
to an manual of moderate size drawn 0:1provide elementary up
calculated to stimulate a of the student'sa practical applicationplan
the dead of and thus toofknowledge languages (especially Latin)
his reflective into active exercise.bring powers
It is not intention to enter into a discussion of the meritsmy
of the method of butor demerits languages,comparative studying
ait is firm in the lowest forms, judicious-my opinion that, very
reference to idioms and a careful with them,cognate comparison
from the will invest theso far confusing mind, dry subjectyouthful
most bene-of with an interest which cannot fail togrammar prove
ficial to the student's progress.
The essential in which this Grammar differs from otherspoints
to andwith which, unprejudiced inspec-regard practical utility upon
I its in are these:tion, will, trust, justify appearance print, briefly
reference to 27 the Femi-Constant Latin, 38,(see especially
134nine of Verbs; 151,Adjectives); 9099, Irregular Syntax
of Moods and Tenses Adverbs of
; 243, Negation, etc.)
New of the of Pronouns on thearrangement planparadigms
in Latin of andtheGrammars, bringing lightadopted only way
order into this most difficult of French Accidence.part
In the of the of Verbs theparadigms Conjugation Regular
Tenses of the and stand ta theConditional oppositeSubjunctive
derived. of the Indicative from which arethey respectively
In the treatment of instead of the usualIrregular Verbs,
lists to ofbe mastered sheeralphabetical strength memoryby
without consistthe student even wherein thelearning Irregularities
and how to account for I have introduced an altogetherthem,
new scientificwhich to combineclassification, accuracyattempts
with in boldAll the stand outpractical printutility. irregularities
and are reference to Latin.briefly explained byIV PREFACE.
has been to theIn the a devotedSyntax separate chapter Infinitive
to is orr.iocd, onlywhich, strange say, entirely neglected incidentally
alluded to in even the better now in use. Thegrammars absurdity
easiestof the to write even the of French Prose com-attempt piece
without a fair of the uses of thismood is too obviousposition knowledge
to demonstration (see 152).require especially
With to the vexed of the Place ofregard question Adjectives
before or after a fundamental isthe Substantive, theory presented
i;i 174.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
The clearer of 49 78(arrangement paradigms 64, 79,
the introduction of a Verbal Index and of a187 195), complete
for the of Cases on a similar to thatseparate chapter Syntax plan
in Latin and the careful revision of the textGrammars,adopted
it is bear to thewill, author'sthroughout, hoped, ample testimony
to render this second edition more of the eminentanxiety worthy
Public Schools in which the first edition has been not-introduced,
its defects.withstanding many
I need add that I have consulted the mosthardly again carefully
recent labours in the field of modern and derived invaluablephilology
fromassistance the standard works of MaxLittre, Diez, Maetzner,
and Brachet. To theseMiiller, have beenAmpere obligationsmy
continuous the book.throughout
PREFACE TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION,
I avail of the dem'and for a new edition to make agladly myself
few further alterations in of detail. The of thepoints general plan
book remains unaltered.
thanks are due to several of forMy hearty my colleagues many
valuable suggestions.
November 1887. 0. Eugene-Fasnacht,
Late Assistant St. Peter'sMaster, Westminster.College,CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION:
Historical Sketch of the Formation of the French xi............language
ACCIDENCE.
THE ALPHABET:
1-4. ConsonantsVowels, .................................................................... 1
- 5-7. ................................................ 2Accents, Orthographical Signs
ARTICLES:
8-12. Indefinite .................................................... 4Definite, Partitive,
SUBSTANTIVES :
13-21. and Formation of the PluralDeclension, ............................ 5
22. Plural of Substantives ............................................ 7Compound
- 23. Genders of Substantives ................................................................ 9
24-26. Formation of the Feminine 10
ADJECTIVES :
27-38. Formation of the Feminine . 13........................................ ...........
- 3D-41. and ................................... 10Comparison irregular)(regular
NUMERALS :
42-48. Cardinal, Ordinal, Fractional, Collective, Proportional,
Adverbial 17................................................................................
PRONOUNS :
40-52. A. Personal Dis-Pronouns, Reflective,Conjunctive,
........................................................................... ..... 21junctive
- 53-55. B. Possessive Possessive and Pos- Adjectives
sessive Pronouns .................................................... 23proper
- 5G-G1. C. Demonstrative i Demonstrative \ , PronounsPronouns, \ proper /""
- G2-G4. D. RclatiL-e Pronouns 25............................................................
A- 65-CG. E. Pronouns ........ 26Interrogate
{ ^ffi'cly }
67. 27Periphrastic Interrogation
1S 68-71. Pro- IInWnUe ? &&,
- both andI Substantively |AdjcctivclyVI CONTENTS.
VERBS: PACK
.................... 2972-76. fJtre,Auxiliary Verbs, Avoir, Affirmatively
-- - 32Interrogatively, Negatively
Verbs.Regular
Derivation of Tenses ........ 3177-79.%% Conjugations, Principal Parts,
- of the Four80-83. A. Active Voice. Paradigms Conjugations:
Vcnclrc ........................................ 36Aimer, Finir, Recevoir,
Remarks on Peculiarities ............................................................ 4484.
- Voice 4(385. B. Passive ........................................................................
4786-87. C. Intransitive Verbs ...............................................................
4888. D. Reflective Verbs....................................................................
E. Verbs ................................................................ 5089-90. Impersonal
F. and Anomalous Verbs:Strong
5191. General Remarks ............................................................................
- 5292. FirstConjugation
54SecondConjugation:
- 93. I. Verbs which in the Pros. Indie, contract their endings.
Verbs -which their Stem Consonant in the(A.) drop Sing.
Pros. Ind.
Verbs which do not alter their stem.(B.)
-- alter the Vowel of their Stem.(C.)
st- 94. II. Verbs which follow the 1 Conjugation
In the Present Tense Part.(A.) (Past -ert).
In the Future and Conditional.(B.) Present,
58Third : ........................................................................Conjugation
- 95. I. Verbs the stems of which end in V
- .......II. L96.
- -III. which cannot be classified.97.
. 60Fourth .,...............................................................Conjugation:
- a98. I. Verbs the Stems of which end in Vowel,
Pret.: Past Part.:(A.) s-is, i-t,
- -
(B.) s, i-t,
- u.(C.) us,
- in a Consonant99. II. Verbs the Stems of which end
Past Part. :Inf. : Pres. Part. :ud-rc, gn-ant, -nt,(A.)
- - - -- sou-d-re, lv)-ant, -u,(B.) (1,
- -- - - -u.It-re, iss-ant,(C.)
Defective Verbs 68100-103. ....................................................................
ADVERBS :
104-106. Formation and of Adverbs ............................ 70Comparison
Adverbs of108. Place; Time; Order, Manner, Degree, Quantity;
and ............................................................ 72Affirmation Negation
74109. and .......................................Compound PrepositionsSimple