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The universal language of Freemasonry [Elektronische Ressource] : a socio-linguistic study of an in-group's means of communication compared with ritualistic diction and symbolism of profane fraternities, and a survey of its general applicability / Christina L. Voss

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The Universal Language of Freemasonry ii This dissertation is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Fachbereich 23, Angewandte Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft of Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz in Germersheim in the year 2003 CE. iii The Universal Language of Freemasonry. A Socio-Linguistic Study of an In-Group's Means of Communication compared with Ritualistic Diction and Symbolism of "Profane" Fraternities, and a Survey of its General Applicability. Christina L. Voss Düsseldorf 2003 iv © 2003 by Christina Voss Düsseldorf All rights reserved PRINTED IN GERMANY v vi Table of Contents 1. Introduction...............................................................................15 1.1 List of Abbreviations...................................................................22 1.2 Notes on Spelling ........................................................................23 2. Historical Background: The Relevance of .Ritual and Secrecy at Different Times and in various Geographical Areas .........24 2.1 England, the Isle of Club Life ....................................................

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Published 01 January 2003
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The Universal Language of Freemasonry












ii




This dissertation is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Fachbereich 23, Angewandte
Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaft of Johannes Gutenberg-Universität
Mainz in Germersheim in the year 2003 CE.
















iii





The Universal Language of Freemasonry.

A Socio-Linguistic Study of an In-Group's Means of
Communication compared with Ritualistic Diction
and Symbolism of "Profane" Fraternities, and a
Survey of its General Applicability.






Christina L. Voss







Düsseldorf
2003



iv














© 2003 by Christina Voss
Düsseldorf
All rights reserved











PRINTED IN GERMANY










v
























vi
Table of Contents


1. Introduction...............................................................................15
1.1 List of Abbreviations...................................................................22
1.2 Notes on Spelling ........................................................................23

2. Historical Background: The Relevance of .Ritual and Secrecy
at Different Times and in various Geographical Areas .........24
2.1 England, the Isle of Club Life .....................................................46
2.2 Ireland and Scotland....................................................................50
2.3 Masonry and Politics in France and Italy....................................56
2.4 Masonry and Philosophy in Germany .........................................68
2.5 North America: Masonry for the Family.....................................73

3. An Overview of Masonic Rites.................................................78
3.1 Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite vs. York Rite ........................78
3.2 Freemasonry and Women: Adoptive Rites & Co-Masonry ........81
3.3 "Negro Freemasonry" (Prince Hall) in the U.S. ..........................87
3.3.1 The Official History of Prince Hall Masonry..............................92
3.3.2 Black Masonic Historical Tradition ............................................93
3.3.3 Black Masonic Self-Definition....................................................96
3.3.4 Prince Hall Freemasonry and Rivaling ...........................................
Fraternal Organizations...............................................................98
3.3.5 Financial and Job-Related Reasons to Join PHA ......................100
3.3.6 Prestige Reasons........................................................................105
3.3.7 Black Masonic Partisan Politics and ..............................................
the Civil Rights Movement .......................................................107
3.3.8 Problems of Universality...........................................................110

4. Signs & Symbols of the Three Degrees..................................115

4.1 Rooms and Furniture.................................................................117
4.1.1 The Lodge.................................................................................118
4.1.1.2 The Carpet, or Trestle-Board (Tracing Board)..........................125
4.1.2 The Chamber of Reflection, or Anteroom.................................131
4.1.3 The Hall of the Lost Steps.........................................................135
4.1.4 The Middle Chamber & the Winding Stairs..............................136 vii

4.2 Working Tools of the Different Degrees .................................. 141
4.2.1 The Square & the Compass ...................................................... 141
4.2.2 The Gavel or Mallet & the Chisel............................................. 145
4.2.3 The Trowel...............................................................................147
4.2.4 The Plumb Rule & the Level.................................................... 148
4.2.5 The 24-Inch Gauge ................................................................... 150

4.3 Clothing & Equipment.............................................................. 150
4.3.1 The Apron.................................................................................153
4.3.2 Cabletow, Blindfold, Metals..................................................... 157
4.3.3 Naked Knee & Breast, Slipshod ............................................... 160
4.3.4 Jewels and their Explanation .................................................... 163

4.4 Sign Language..........................................................................173
4.4.1 Old Builders' Marks.................................................................. 174
4.4.2 Alphabets & Cipher Writing..................................................... 177

4.5 Light Symbolism......................................................................194
4.5.1 Color Sym198

4.6 Main Masonic Symbols, their Meanings, and ...............................
Metaphorical Use in Language................................................. 204

First Degree
4.6.1 The Lamb..................................................................................208
4.6.2 Jacob's Ladder..........................................................................
4.6.3 The Point within a Circle.......................................................... 210
4.6.4 Personifications: Fortitude, Prudence, Temperance, Justice; .........
Faith, Hope, and Charity........................................................... 211

Second Degree
4.6.5 The Letter G ............................................................................. 213
4.6.6 "Shibboleth" - Emblem of Plenty and Secret Password............ 216

Third Degree
4.6.7 The All-Seeing Eye..................................................................218
4.6.8 The Sun, the Moon, and the Stars............................................. 219
4.6.9 The Three Steps........................................................................ 219
4.6.10 The Bee-Hive and the Pot of Incense ....................................... 220
th4.6.11 The 47 Problem of Euclid....................................................... 223
4.6.12 The Anchor & Ark.................................................................... 225
4.6.13 The Sword & Heart; the Sword & Book of Constitutions ........ 226
4.6.14 The Joined Hands.....................................................................227
4.6.15 The Spade, Coffin, Sprig of Acacia.......................................... 227 viii

General
4.6.16 The Lion....................................................................................230
4.6.17 The 46 Symbols on a Masonic Certificate analyzed .................234
4.6.18 Egyptian & Hebrew Motifs.......................................................239

4.7 Acoustic Signs...........................................................................242
4.7.1 Knocks......................................................................................
4.7.2 Passwords..................................................................................244
4.7.2.1 Spelling & Halving...................................................................245

4.8 Signs of Touch: Grips & Tokens...............................................245
4.9 Steps, Circumambulations, Perambulations, Squarings, ................
Travels,Formations249

5. Technical Terminology ...........................................................261
5.1 Architectural Terms..................................................................261
5.2 Behavior, Custom, Proceedings ................................................273
5.3 Biblical Terms...........................................................................286
5.4 Books........................................................................................288
5.5 Elements and Nature.................................................................292
5.6 Finances....................................................................................300
5.7 Mock Expressions.....................................................................301
5.8 Names of Persons and Institutions ............................................310
5.9 Transcendental Terms...............................................................332

6. Peculiarities of the Masonic Language..................................333
6.1 Abbreviations............................................................................334
6.2 Acclamations.............................................................................339
6.3 Anagrams..................................................................................
6.4 Catch & Test Questions.............................................................340
6.5 Comparisons..............................................................................341
6.6 Complimentary Titles................................................................342
6.7 Drinking & Toasting Habits......................................................344
6.8 Hebrewisms...............................................................................350
6.9 Masonic Age, Hours, & Calendar .............................................351
6.10 Masonic Jurisdiction.................................................................357
6.11 MaManners......................................................................359
6.12 MaSummons....................................................................361
6.13 Metaphors..................................................................................364
6.13.1 God............................................................................................366
6.13.2 Death, Heaven & Last Judgement Day .....................................367
6.14 Numbers....................................................................................368
6.15 Phrases of admission372
6.16 Places, Directions, & Measurement ..........................................373 ix
6.16.1 The Four Points of the Compass............................................... 375
6.16.2 Extent of the Lodge; Open on the Center; Foreign Countries .. 378
6.16.3 Orient, Valley, Zenith, Nadir.................................................... 379
6.17 Sayings.....................................................................................381
6.18 Wordplays.................................................................................
6.18.1 "Two Ball Cane"....................................................................... 383
6.18.2 Masonic "Tom Swifties"........................................................... 384

7. Rituals: Their Purpose and Meaning .........................................
as Embedded in Society.......................................................... 390

7.1 Male Masonic Rituals............................................................... 394
7.1.1 Improvement of the Individual: the Three Degrees .......................
of Craft Masonry ...................................................................... 395
7.1.1.1 First, or Entered Apprentice Degree ......................................... 399
7.1.1.2 Second, or Fellow Craft Degree ............................................... 404
7.1.1.3 Third, or Master Mason Degree................................................ 409
7.1.2 The Keystone lost and found: Mark Ritual............................... 419
7.1.3 Royal Arch Ritual: on the Quest for the Lost Word ................. 433
7.1.4 Abolition of "Cruel Oaths": Emulation Working ..................... 450
7.1.5 The Masonic and Military Order of the Red Cross ........................
of Constantine...........................................................................454

7.2 Fixed Role Conception of the Charity-Receiving and Charity-
Giving Women: Androgynous and Co-Masonry...................... 463
7.2.1 Mysteries of Isis as substitute for "real" Freemasonry: .................
American Masonry of Adoption by Albert Pike....................... 464
7.2.2 Five Heroic Biblical Women - Essence of Co-Masonry? ..............
The Ritual of the Order of the Eastern Star ............................. 491
7.2.3 The Top of the Hill - but still no Role Change of Women: ...........
The Royal and Exalted Degree of the Amaranth ...................... 508
7.2.3 Self-Esteem of African American Women: The "oldest and .........
most perfect of all female degrees" - Heroines of Jericho ........ 524
8.2.5 A Fraternal Christmas Play? The Order of the White Shrine of
Jerusalem .................................................................................. 538

7.2.6 Masonic Youth Orders.............................................................. 545
7.2.6.1 Masonic Boys' Order: "Clean and Manly Youths" Enacting .........
the Trial and Martyrdom of the last Grand Master of the ..............
Knights Templar, Jacques DeMolay......................................... 546
7.2.6.2 Treasure-Hunting for Moral and Patriotic Values: .........................
The Order of the Rainbow for Girls.......................................... 558
7.2.6.3 Job's Daughters: The Trials of Job Symbolizing the Journey
Through Life............................................................................. 569
x
7.3 Imitative, Non-Masonic Rituals ................................................580
7.3.1 Fun and Frolic on "the Master Mason's Playground" with Dantean
Environs: M. O. V. P. E. R., Grotto Forms and Ceremonies.....583
7.3.2 Comparison of Masonry with the International Order of Odd
Fellows......................................................................................588
7.3.2.1 Ritual of the I.O.O.F..................................................................595
7.3.2.1.1 Initiatory Degree and First Three Degrees ................................598
7.3.2.1.2 Symbols of the Three Degrees ..................................................607
7.3.2.1.3 The Three "High Degrees" of Odd Fellowship .........................614
7.3.2.1.4 Symbols of the Third Encampment Degree ..............................621
7.3.3 Comparison of Masonry with Rituals of Fraternal
Insurance Organizations...........................................................623
7.3.3.1 Ritual of Modern Woodmen of America...................................625
7.3.4 Knights of Pythias (K.O.P.) Ritual: Funny Tests and Knightly
Games........................................................................................636

8. Categorization of Fraternal Rituals in Social Context.........649
8.1 Charity.......................................................................................650
8.2 Commercialization and Marketing Strategies ...........................658
8.3 Insurance and Financial Support ...............................................672
8.4 Patriotism and Politics...............................................................682
8.5 Publicity and Sociability ...........................................................689
8.6 Secularization............................................................................702

9. Masonic and Anti-Masonic Literature ..................................707

9.1 Masonry & Theater ...................................................................711
9.1.1 Carl Claudy's Masonic Plays (1934 - 1945): Trespassing
"Masonic Law" in Isolated American Country Lodge ..............714
9.1.1.2 Masonic "Healing" in "Greater Love Hath No Man...".............717
9.1.1.3 Admitting a "Cowan" into Lodge: "The Hearts of the Fathers" 720
9.1.1.4 "A Gift in Secret...": Balloting for a Jew.............................722

9.2 Anti-Masonry............................................................................728
9.2.1 The Vatican...............................................................................731
9.2.2 The Morgan Scandal in America (1826 - 1836)......................734
9.2.3 Fascism vs. Freemasonry ..........................................................740
9.2.3.1 The Ludendorffs' Anti-Masonic Vocabulary: A New Content
applied to Masonic Symbols .....................................................742
9.2.3.2 The New Vocabulary of the "Christliche Orden"......................747

9.3 Masonry in Folk-Art: Jokes, Trivialization, and Satire .............750
9.3.1 Masons Mocking the Knights of Pythias...................................766
9.3.2 "Riding the Goat"......................................................................773
9.3.3 Masonic & Anti-Masonic Comics.............................................788