Training of social educators as vocational advisers: development of competencies of a vocational adviser ; Profesijos patarėjo kompetencijų ugdymas rengiant socialinius pedagogus
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Training of social educators as vocational advisers: development of competencies of a vocational adviser ; Profesijos patarėjo kompetencijų ugdymas rengiant socialinius pedagogus

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VILNIUS PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITYAsta RailienėTRAINING OF SOCIAL EDUCATORS AS VOCATIONAL ADVISERS: DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCES OF A VOCATIONAL ADVISER Summary of the Doctoral DissertationSocial Sciences, educology (07S)Vilnius, 2010The Doctoral Dissertation was prepared during the period of 2005-2009 in Vilnius Pedagogical University Scientific supervisor: Assoc. Professor, Dr.Loreta Žadeikaitė (Vilnius Pedagogical University, So-cial sciences, Educology – 07S)The dissertation will be defended at the Board of Social Sciences at Vilnius Pedagogical UniversityChairman:Prof. Habil. Dr. Marijona Barkauskaitė (Vilniaus Pedagogical University, So-cial sciences, Educology – 07S)Members:Prof. Habil. Dr. Ona Tijūnėlienė (Klaipėda University, Social sciences, Edu-cology – 07S)Prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Gudonis (Šiauliai University, Social sciences, Psi-chology – 06S)Prof. Habil. Dr. Rimantas Želvys (Vilniaus Pedagogical University, Social sciences, Educology – 07S)Prof. Dr. Irena Zaleskienė (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social sciences, Educology – 07S)Opponents:Prof. Dr. Ona Monkevičienė (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social sciences, Educology – 07S)Prof. Dr. Liudmila Rupšienė (Klaipėda University, Social sciences, Educology – 07S)The doctoral dissertation will be defended in an open sitting of the Board of Social Sciences, at 13 p.m. on 21st of May 2010 at Vilnius Pedagogical Uni-versity.Adress: Studentu str.

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VILNIUS PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Asta Railienė
TRAINING OF SOCIAL EDUCATORS
AS VOCATIONAL ADVISERS:
DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCES
OF A VOCATIONAL ADVISER
Summary of the Doctoral Dissertation
Social Sciences, educology (07S)
Vilnius, 2010
The Doctoral Dissertation was prepared during the period of 2005-2009 in
Vilnius Pedagogical University
Scientific supervisor:
Assoc. Professor, Dr.Loreta Žadeikaitė (Vilnius Pedagogical University, So-
cial sciences, Educology – 07S)
The dissertation will be defended at the Board of Social Sciences at Vilnius
Pedagogical University
Chairman:
Prof. Habil. Dr. Marijona Barkauskaitė (Vilniaus Pedagogical University, So-
cial sciences, Educology – 07S)
Members:
Prof. Habil. Dr. Ona Tijūnėlienė (Klaipėda University, Social sciences, Edu-
cology – 07S)
Prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Gudonis (Šiauliai University, Social sciences, Psi-
chology – 06S)
Prof. Habil. Dr. Rimantas Želvys (Vilniaus Pedagogical University, Social
sciences, Educology – 07S)
Prof. Dr. Irena Zaleskienė (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social sciences,
Educology – 07S)
Opponents:
Prof. Dr. Ona Monkevičienė (Vilnius Pedagogical University, Social sciences,
Educology – 07S)
Prof. Dr. Liudmila Rupšienė (Klaipėda University, Social sciences, Educology – 07S)
The doctoral dissertation will be defended in an open sitting of the Board of
Social Sciences, at 13 p.m. on 21st of May 2010 at Vilnius Pedagogical Uni-
versity.
Adress: Studentu str. 39, LT-08106 Vilnius, Lithuania
thSummary of dissertation was send out on the 19 of April 2010
The dissertation is available for review at Vilnius Pedagogical University li-
brary and Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania.
© Asta Railienė, 2010
© Vilnius pedagogical university, 2010VILNIAUS PEDAGOGINIS UNIVERSITETAS
Asta Railienė
PROFESIJOS PATARĖJO
KOMPETENCIJŲ UGDYMAS
RENGIANT SOCIALINIUS PEDAGOGUS
Daktaro disertacijos santrauka
Socialiniai mokslai, edukologija (07S)
Vilnius, 2010Disertacija rengta 2005–2009 metais Vilniaus pedagoginiame universitete
Mokslinis vadovas:
Doc.dr. Loreta Žadeikaitė (Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai
mokslai, edukologija – 07S)
Disertacija ginama Vilniaus pedagoginiame universiteto Edukologijos moks-
lo krypties taryboje
Pirmininkė
prof. habil. dr. Marijona Barkauskaitė (Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas,
socialiniai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S)
Nariai:
prof. habil. dr. Ona Tijūnėlienė (Klaipėdos universitetas, socialiniai mokslai,
edukologija – 07 S)
prof. habil. dr. Vytautas Gudonis (Šiaulių universitetas, socialiniai mokslai,
psichologija – 06 S)
prof. habil. dr. Rimantas Želvys (Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, sociali-
niai mokslai, edukologija – 07 S)
prof. dr. Irena Zaleskienė (Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai
mokslai, edukologija – 07 S)
Oponentai:
prof. dr. Ona Monkevičienė (Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, socialiniai
mokslai, edukologija – 07 S)
prof. dr. Liudmila Rupšienė (Klaipėdos universitetas, socialiniai mokslai,
edukologija – 07 S)
Disertacija bus ginama viešame Edukologijos mokslo krypties tarybos posė-
dyje 2010 m. gegužės 21 dieną 13.00 val. Vilniaus pedagoginiame universitete
Adresas: Studentų g. 39, LT-08106, Vilnius, Lietuva
Disertacijos santrauka išsiuntinėta 2010 m. balandžio 21 d.
Disertaciją galima peržiūrėti Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto ir Lietuvos
Nacionalinėje Martyno Mažvydo bibliotekose
© Vilniaus pedagoginis universitetas, 2010
© Asta Railienė, 2010INTRODUCTION
Social relevance of the problem. One of the main goals of the
Lithuanian education system is to help an individual and society to
respond to major challenges, and facilitate the use of multiple op-
portunities. In the knowledge society every person should have the
knowledge on how to adapt to market changes and select a perspec-
tive profession complying with individual and public needs.
Pursuant to the Provisions of the National Education Strategy
for 2003–2012 and with a view to ensuring the efficient development
of education, schools are opened to the labour market, including the
development of social and cultural functions and implementation of
the vocational information and counselling system. The prepared and
approved strategic documents – the European Council Resolution on
Life-Long Guidance, the National Lisbon Strategy Implementation
Programme, the Vocational Guidance Strategy and Plan – provide
for the direction of vocational guidance services toward contribu-
tion to life-long development of general learning and career capaci-
ties integrated into the training and study programmes. According
to the Provisions of the National Education Strategy for 2003–2012,
the development of education should take into account the new chal-
lenges and new opportunities for the Lithuanian society, such as the
development of democracy and market economy, the process of glo-
balisation, the vast amount of information, rapid changes and frag-
mentation of the society. Education should help an individual and the
society at large to respond to the challenges and to take advantage of
the new opportunities.
Pursuant to the Law on Higher Education and Research of the Re-
public of Lithuania (2009) a cohesive system of higher education and
research is the foundation of the development of the knowledge society,
the strengthening of knowledge-based economy and the sustainable de-
velopment of the country, a dynamic and competitive life of national
economy, and social and economic well-being; such a system cultivates
a creative, educated, independent and entrepreneurial personality. Ac-
cording to the EU documents (the Bologna Declaration, Berlin and Ber-
gen‘s Communications), one of the key tasks of higher education are: the
revision of the study curricula and methods directed toward the needs
and capacities of students complying with the global business needs.
Orientation of the study programmes toward a competence-based mod-
el is one of the most effective ways of assuring high quality of studies.
Preparation for the vocational activity is an especially important
process of personal development, requiring relevant skills, capacities
and conditions for self-cognition, accumulation of information about
the current labour market and identification of his/her relations with
the market. Significant scientific and technical achievements, rapid
technological, economic, social and political changes followed by
the emergence of new professions and disappearance of the old ones
changed the attitude toward the selection of a profession. Planning
of professional activity is relevant for every person seeking successful
participation in the constantly changing labour market and is a per-
manent and inevitable process. Therefore, high-quality vocational in-
formation, counselling and guidance services are important both for
the education system, labour market and for the interaction between
the two systems. These services are a constituent part of the active
labour market policy and one of the main elements of training and
employment policy at national, regional and local level.
Vocational guidance within the European Union context is
considered as one of the main factors promoting life-long learning,
employment, adaptation of labour force to market conditions, entre-
preneurship and equal opportunities (a Memorandum on Lifelong
Learning, 2000; European Employment Guidelines, 2001). With a
view to increasing effectiveness of education, a new wording of the
Law on Education of the Republic of Lithuania stipulates the assur-
ance of provision and accessibility of assistance (including informa-
tion assistance) to pupils, their parents (guardians, foster-parents),
teachers and educators (Official Gazette, 2003, No 63-2853). In order
to implement the EU priorities in the sphere of education and social
security, at the end of 2003 the Ministry of Education and Science,
together with the Ministry of Social Security and Labour of the Re-
public of Lithuania approved the document regarding the National
Vocational Guidance Strategy (Official Gazette, 2004, No 56-1955).
Pursuant to this document a new environment is being established
for the development of the vocational guidance system in Lithuania.
In order to ensure the accessibility of vocational guidance services
and their compliance with the clients‘ needs, vocational information
workstations have been established in Lithuania. Training of the first
vocational advisers (in order to assure job quality) started at the end
of 2003 (from 2005 – vocational information counsellors). The model
of preparation of counsellors (initiated by the Ministry of Educa-
tion and Science and the Ministry of Social Security and Labour and
implemented through PHARE Project) is directed toward practical
needs of the above specialists.
The necessity of vocational guidance specialists is also stipulated
in the strategic documents of the European Commission highlighting
the need for vocational guidance services (a Memorandum on Life-
long Learning, 2000; EC Communication on the Establishment of the
Common Space for Lifelong Learning, 2001; European Employment
Guidelines, 2001). Training of the above specialists would comply
with the requirements of OECD, ETF, CEDEFOP and the Bologna
Process concerning the changes in the system of higher education of
Lithuania. However, both, labour market and education system still
lack specialists providing vocational guidance services. Therefore
these services are usually rendered to persons who are in active search
for assistance. Meanwhile this assistance is not fully accessible to vari-
ous social groups and pupils of comprehensive schools.
The recent trend toward a competence-based education has be-
come a key factor for changing the education system: the Lithuanian
and EU strategic education documents stipulate the transition from
giving the benefit of knowledge to the development of competences.
The EU documents on education specify competence as a connective
concept, whereas capacities and qualification are composite parts of
this concept. The concept of competence is related to the holistically
perceived potential of an individual and his/her ability to apply vari-
able and purposeful capacities based on knowledge and experience
(Implementation of „Education and training 2010“ work programme.
Analysis of mapping the key competence frameworks, 2004). Pursu-
ant to the provisions of the EU documents on education, new Lithua-
nia’s documents define competence as a system of knowledge, capaci-
ties and attitudes providing for the establishment and pursuance of
significant goals, life-long learning, active citizenship, participation
in public life and search for an adequate job.
Preparation of vocational guidance specialists is an issue of dis-
cussions. However, such specialists are not yet prepared in Lithuania‘s
higher education institutions. In response to social orders, social ped-
agogues are being prepared for work in various education and social
institutions. In regulatory enactments on vocational guidance (The
Description of Provision of Vocational Information and Counsel-
ling Services, 2005; Vocational Guidance Strategy, 2003; Vocational
Information Standard, 2007) these specialists are defined as provid-
ers of vocational guidance services. They would not only improve
the quality of vocational guidance services at general and vocational
training level, but would ensure the provision of high-quality primary
vocational assistance (provision of information, self-cognition, devel-
opment of social skills, problem identification, mediation between the
school-parent-vocational training system and pupils), and, in case of
serious problems, their referral to different specialists.
Scientific relevance of the problem. The problem of select-
ing a profession and professional mission has been widely analysed
in former works of the Lithuanian educologists and psychologists
(Gučas, 1937; Šulcas, 1973; Kontvainas, 1976; Galkytė, 1977; Jovaiša,
1978, 1993, 1999; 2009; Kregždė, 1988, 1998;. Beresnevičienė, 1990;
Jatautaitė, 1991; Žilinskienė, 1994; Petrauskaitė, 1996; Barkauskaitė,
2008; Augienė, 2009). Today Lithuanian scientists continue the above
research by developing the modern vocational career building theory.
D. Garnienė (2003), R. Kučinskienė (2003) and Stanišauskienė (2000)
investigate career problems; Petkevičiūtė (2002, 2006; 2007) and
Kučinskienė (2003) are involved in the career management studies;
K. Pukelis (2003), A. Pundzienė (2004) and J. Ruškus (2008) deal with
the career building process. In their works K. Pukelis (2006), R. Lau-
žackas (2005, 2006), A. Pundzienė (2004) and D. Garnienė (2006)
analyse operational peculiarities of specialists providing vocational
guidance and career planning services, and training problems.
Foreign researchers F. Parsons (1909), D. E. Super (1961, 1962),
B. S. Jr. Tilinghast (1964), J. Holland (1973), V. Harren (1979),
K. B. Hoyt (1979), N. Rubinton (1980) B. Hesketh (1982), Sh. Fuku-
yama (1980,1982, 1984), E. L. Herr and S. H. Cramer (1984), Gulle-
kson (1995), Sikora (1998), Bhaerman (1998), Almazov (2002),
Kožusznik (2004) etc. have also developed various vocational guid-
ance and professional career building theories.
Today Lithuanian researchers focus on the development of vari-
ous research competences of teachers of higher education institutions
(Jucevičienė, Stanikūnienė, 2003; Juodaitytė, Šedžiuvienė, 2005; Šedžiu-
vienė, 2005; Stanikūnienė, 2006; Mažeikis, 2007; Barkauskaite, 2007;
Zaleskienė, 2007; Gudžinskienė, 2007; Žadeikaitė, 2007; Monkevičienė,
2007; Mažeikienė, Loher, 2008 etc..) and students (Pukelis, 1998; Valat-
kaitė-Rimienė, 1998; Teresevičienė, 2000; Baranauskienė, 1999, 2000,
2002; Čepukas, 2001, 2005; Ivanauskienė, Liobikienė, 2005; Mažeikis,
2007; Makarskaitė, Petkevičienė, Žemgulienė, 2006; Barkauskaitė, Pe-
čiuliauskienė, 2007; Martišauskienė, 2007; Bubnys, 2007; Bulajeva, 2007;
Rosinaitė, 2009 etc.), teachers of comprehensive schools (Simonaitienė,
Targamadzė, 2001; Jurašaitė-Harbison, 2004; Tamošiūnas, 2002; Abra-
mauskienė, 2004; Mockevičienė, 2004; Subotkevičienė, 2006; Monkevi-
čienė, 2007; Adaškevičienė, 2007; Čiužas, Šiaučiukėnienė, 2007; Motie-
jūnienė, Žadeikaitė, 2007; Monkevičienė, Stankevičienė, 2008 etc.) and
social pedagogues (Vaitkevičius, 1988, 1995; Bitinas, 2001; Kvieskienė,
2001; 2003, 2005; Leliūgienė, 2001; 2002, 2003; Jonutytė, 2007; Rupšie-
nė, 2006; Giedraitienė, 2006; Alifanovienė, 2003, 2004, 2005; Čepukas,
2001; Kašalynienė, 2003; Majauskienė, 2001, 2003; Baršauskienė, 2003;
Kepalaitė, 2005; Vyšniaukytė-Rimkienė, 2007; Indrašienė, 2007, 2008;
Malinauskas, 1996) and social workers (Jucevičienė, 2001; Bagdonas,
2001; Ivanauskienė, Varžinskienė, 2003; Jurkuvienė, 2003; Kavaliauskie-
nė, 2000; Ivanauskienė, Liobikienė, 2005; Večkienė, Povilaikaitė, 2005;
Dirgėlienė, 2008; Švedaitė, 2005; Gvaldaitė, 2007 etc.).
Irrespective of multiple studies carried out in the sphere of de-
velopment of competences of educators and social pedagogical assist-
ance specialists, there is still lack of research related to the analysis of
competences of vocational guidance service providers, the aspects of
their education or opportunities for integration of such competences
into the study programmes of social sciences (educology).
Object of the research: training of social educators.
Through the analysis of this objective, the main research prob-
lem - training of a social educator as a vocational adviser – is consid-
ered. It consists of the following problem questions:
• What are the main operational characteristics and competences
of a social educator as a vocational adviser?
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