Transporto priemonių poreikio modeliavimas krovinių vežimo logistikos grandyje ; Modelling the demand for vehicles in the logistic chain of freight transportation
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Transporto priemonių poreikio modeliavimas krovinių vežimo logistikos grandyje ; Modelling the demand for vehicles in the logistic chain of freight transportation

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Olga LINGAITIEN Ė MODELLING THE DEMAND FOR VEHICLES IN THE LOGISTIC CHAIN OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering (03T) 1321 Vilnius 2006 VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Olga LINGAITIEN Ė MODELLING THE DEMAND FOR VEHICLES IN THE LOGISTIC CHAIN OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering (03T) Vilnius 2006 Doctoral dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 2001 −2006 Scientific Supervisor Prof Dr Habil Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering – 03T) The dissertation is being defended at the Council of Scientific Field of Transport Engineering at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University: Chairman Prof Dr Habil Adolfas BAUBLYS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering – 03T) Members: Prof Dr Habil Alvydas PIK ŪNAS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering – 03T) Prof Dr Habil Jonas SAPRAGONAS (Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering – 03T) Prof Dr Habil Vytautas PAULAUSKAS (Klaip ėda University, TechnolTransport Engineering – 03T) Assoc Prof Dr Olegas PRENTKOVSKIS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical

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Published 01 January 2006
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    Olga LINGAITIENĖ     MODELLING THE DEMAND FOR VEHICLES IN THE LOGISTIC CHAIN OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION     Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering (03T)    
 
Vilnius
2006
1321
 
 
VILNIUS GEDIMINAS TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY         Olga LINGAITIENĖ     MODELLING THE DEMAND FOR VEHICLES IN THE LOGISTIC CHAIN OF FREIGHT TRANSPORTATION     Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering (03T)      
 
Vilnius
2006
 
Doctoral dissertation was prepared at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University in 20012006  Scientific Supervisor Prof Dr Habil Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T)  The dissertation is being defended at the Council of Scientific Field of Transport Engineering at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University:  Chairman Prof Dr Habil Adolfas BAUBLYS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T) Members: Prof Dr Habil Alvydas PIKŪNAS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T) Prof Dr Habil Jonas SAPRAGONAS(Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T) Prof Dr Habil Vytautas PAULAUSKAS(Klaipėda University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T) Assoc Prof Dr Olegas PRENTKOVSKIS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T) Opponents: Assoc Prof Dr ilvinas BAZARAS(Kaunas University of Technology, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T) Assoc Prof Dr Jonas BUTKEVIČIUS(Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Technological Sciences, Transport Engineering  03T)   The dissertation will be defended at the public meeting of the Council of Scientific Field of Transport Engineering in the Senate Hall of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University at 10 a.m. on 27 November 2006. Address: Saulėtekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lithuania Tel.: +370 5 274 4952, +370 5 274 4956; fax +370 5 270 0112; e-mail: doktor@adm.vtu.lt  The summary of the doctoral dissertation was distributed on 27 October 2006. A copy of the doctoral dissertation is available for review at the Library of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Sauletekio al. 14, Vilnius, Lithuania)  ©Olga Lingaitienė, 2006
 
 
 VILNIAUS GEDIMINO TECHNIKOS UNIVERSITETAS        Olga LINGAITIENĖ    TRANSPORTO PRIEMONIŲ POREIKIO MODELIAVIMAS KROVINIŲVEIMO LOGISTIKOS GRANDYJE       Daktaro disertacijos santrauka Technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija (03T)      
Vilnius
2006 
 
 
Disertacija rengta 20012006 metais Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitete.  Mokslinis vadovas prof. habil. dr. Leonas Povilas LINGAITIS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija  03T).  Disertacija ginama Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto Transporto ininerijos mokslo krypties taryboje: Pirmininkas prof. habil. dr. Adolfas BAUBLYS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija  03T). Nariai: prof. habil. dr. Alvydas PIKŪNAS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija  03T), prof. habil. dr. Jonas SAPRAGONAS(Kauno technologijos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija  03T), prof. habil. dr. Vytautas PAULAUSKAS(Klaipėdos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija  03T),  doc. dr. Olegas PRENTKOVSKIS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija  03T). Oponentai: doc. dr. ilvinas BAZARAS(Kauno technologijos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija  03T), doc. dr. Jonas BUTKEVIČIUS(Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas, technologijos mokslai, transporto ininerija  03T).   Disertacija bus ginama vieame Transporto ininerijos mokslo krypties tarybos posėdyje 2006 m. lapkričio 27 d. 10 val. Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto senato posėdiųsalėje. Adresas: Saulėtekio al. 11, LT-10223 Vilnius, Lietuva. Tel.: +370 5 274 4952, +370 5 274 4956; faksas +370 5 270 0112, e-mail: doktor@adm.vtu.lt  Disertacijos santrauka isiuntinėta 2006 m. spalio 27 d. Disertaciją peri galimaūrėti Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto bibliotekoje (Saulėtekio al. 14, Vilnius, Lietuva) VGTU leidyklos Technika 1321 mokslo literatūros knyga                                        ©Olga Lingaitienė, 2006
 
 
GENERAL CHARACTERISTIC OF THE DISSERTATION Topicality of the research Under the conditions of continually growing manufacture and volumes of transportation, the appropriate organization and management of freight carriage becomes a problem of particular importance to suppliers interested in delivering their goods in due time, safely and at the lowest possible cost. To solve this problem effectively, the scientific approaches based on the principles of logistics should be used. One of the main factors significant for the logistic chain of freight transportation is associated with transport facilities. Today, it is hardly possible to transport goods over long distances by only one means of transport. Integration of transport facilities in freight transportation is the key to successful problem solution. The present work focusses on the rational and complex use of land and water transport, depending on the type of goods, technical characteristics of particular transport facilities (speed, capacity, environmental pollution, fuel consumption, etc.) and the particular means of transport (automobiles, rail transport or ships). Scientific problem To optimize the choice of particular transport facilities (road, railroad and water transport), taking into account routes, type of goods, time and cost of delivery. Research object  The choice of transport facilities for freight transportation in a logistic chain. Goals and objectives of the research  To construct a mathematical model to be used in selecting proper means of transport, determining the optimal routes and assessing the dynamics of various economical and physical factors;  the constructed model for optimizing freight transportation.To test  The followingmain problemsshould be solved in the research:  To analyze the tests performed by using various transport facilities for freight carriage;  a comparative analysis of performance of various transportTo make facilities;   the ofTo define functional relationships between the main parameters process analyzed, i.e. cost, time of carriage, safety, ecological characteristics;  To subdivide functional relationships into the efficiency functions, as well as determining the constraints;  To implement the developed model of samples;  To determine the reliability of the models.
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Scientific novelty: A mathematical model, optimizing the whole process of freight transportation and minimizing time and expenses by selecting optimal transport facilities and routes, based on the available roads and terminals, was developed. The mainsopnoropisit defendedin the thesis: A mathematical model for optimal selection of a number of transport facilities to provide multimodal freight transportation. Practical valueof the research. The developed mathematical model allows us: - to minimize transport costs; - to reduce time of transportation; - the most appropriate transport facilities for any particular case fromto select the available alternative means of transport, taking into account their ecological characteristics. Methods of research Methods of statistical analysis, mathematical modelling, theory of probability and forecasting, as well as linear programming were used in the research. Validation of the research results A computer-aided test demonstrating the advantages of the developed mathematical model in selecting the appropriate transport facilities for freight transportation was conducted. The structure and size of the thesis The thesis consists of 4 sections, conclusions and references. It includes 116 pages, 64 figures, 26 tables and 3 appendices. References include 100 items. In Section 1, it was stated that any transport facility has some advantages and disadvantages, therefore none of the considered means of transport can be absolutely dominant. Operational schemes of transport facilities, making a part of a logistic chain, were provided. In Section 2, the peculiarities of Lithuanian network of motorways as well as technical characteristics of vehicles carrying goods and their harmful effect on road pavement ant the environment were studied. The capacities of road, railroad and sea transport and their main advantages and disadvantages were analysed. In Section 3, technical characteristics of the considered means of transport were compared. In Section 4, development and implementation of a mathematical the model are described.  
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THE COMPARISON OF TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MEANS OF TRANSPORT  The comparative analysis of relative power consumption of various means of transport    The average power consumption by road, railroad and sea transport facilities per one thousand tons per year is compared. These mean values are presented in Table 1 and Fig 1.  Table 1.The comparison of power consumption of various means of transport   value Mean2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Road 381,9 385,4 404,2 363,1 382,5 379,6 382,8 Railroad 11,3 11,89 9,47 7,98 7,61 7,04 9,2 Sea 76,6 71,5 71,6 62,1 60,4 59,6 66,9  400382,8
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200
100 66,9 9,2 0 road railroad sea Means of transport  Fig 1.comparison of mean power of various means of transportThe per 1 thous. t per year  As see from Fig 2, the lowest relative power consumption is found for railroad transport (compared to road and sea transport at Klaipėda port). This is another proof of rail transport being the most energy  efficient. However, it should be noted that the average loading of ships in recent years has only reached 5060 %.
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The comparative analysis of relative load capacity of various means of transport  Various transport facilities (road, railroad and sea) were compared on the basis of their load capacity. The obtained mean values are given in Table 2 and Fig 2.  Table 2.Comparison of load capacity of various transport facilities   value2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Mean Road 8,05 8,05 8,07 8,12 8,08 8,13 8,08 Railroad 62,9 63 61,4 61,5 61,6 61,9 62 Sea 8733 8921 8893 9157 9813 9856 9227  100009227
1000
100
108,08
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1 1 automobile 1 wagon 1 ship M eans of transport  Fig 2.The comparison of various transport facilities for average capacity per 1 thous. t per year  The comparison of various means of transport for relative capacity shows that vehicles have the lowest capacity, while ships have the highest capacity. Therefore, in choosing the appropriate means of transport, when all the routes are available, the amount of goods, as well as other transportation conditions should be taken into account.    
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The comparative analysis of the speed of transportation by various means of transport  The average speed of road, railroad and see transport is considered. The mean values obtained in the analysis are presented in Table 3 and Fig 3.   Table 3.The comparison of speed of various means of transport   value2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Mean Road 68,5 70,1 73,6 72,9 74,2 74,8 72,4 Railroad 39,3 40,2 41 41,3 42,6 42,9 41,2 Sea 26,5 28,3 24,3 25,9 22,3 26,2 25,6  8072,4 60 41,2 40 20 0 road railroad sea Means of transport  Fig 3.The comparison of express speed of various means of transport  As seen from Fig 3, freight transportation by vehicles is by 1,8 times faster than carriage by railroad and by 2,8 times faster than carriage by sea transport. Therefore, choosing the appropriate means of transport when time is limited and the delivery is urgent, this consideration should be taken into account. The investigation has shown that the relative cost of road transport is the highest, being by 15,5 times higher than the cost of water transport and by 4,5 times higher than the cost of rail transport. Thus, it follows that carriage by water transport is the cheapest. However, this means of transport cannot be available everywhere and at any time. Moreover, the clients as well as suppliers, are often interested in the time of delivery. This particularly applies to perishable goods and other products. Therefore, due to the requirements of fast transportation the cheapest, means of water transport are often replaced by more expensive road or railroad transport.
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DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL  Functional relationships between the main parameters of transportation The generalized criterion describing the process of transportation embraces the total costs of carriage. The latter include technological costs of transportation, i.e. time expended, consisting of time of carriage, loading and storage as well as insurance costs.     Z=C+T⋅τ +D,(1)  whereZmeans total costs of transportation, EUR;    Cstands for technological costs of transportation, EUR;    Tmeans the total time expenses, EUR; Tis time of transportation, loading and storage, h;     stands for relative expenses in terms of time, EUR/h;  Dmeans insurance expenses, EUR.   Total technological costs of transportation, EUR/tkm, can be calculated by the formula:      C=Ca+Cg+Cj, (2) whereCa denotes technological costs of carriage by road transport;  Cg denotes technological costs of carriage by rail transport;  Cjdenotes technological costs of carriage by sea transport.    The total transportation loading and storage time has two components: transportation time and time of loading and storage at the terminal. It is calculated in the following way:          T=Tt+Ts,(3) whereTtis transportation time, h;    Tsis loading and storage time, h.  The total time can be expressed as:      T=la/Va+lg/Vg+lj/Vj+Ts,  (4)
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