Treatment of arsenic containing artificial wastewater in different laboratory-scale constructed wetlands [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Khaja Zillur Rahman
207 Pages
English

Treatment of arsenic containing artificial wastewater in different laboratory-scale constructed wetlands [Elektronische Ressource] / vorgelegt von Khaja Zillur Rahman

-

Downloading requires you to have access to the YouScribe library
Learn all about the services we offer

Description

Treatment of arsenic containing artificial wastewater in different laboratory-scale constructed wetlands Von der Fakultät Bau- und Umweltingeieurwissenschaften der Universität Stuttgart zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der Ingenieurwissenschaften (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Abhandlung Vorgelegt von Khaja Zillur Rahman aus Bangladesch Hauptberichter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Rott Mitberichter: Prof. Dr. rer.nat. Dr.-Ing. habil. András Bárdossy Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 06. März 2009 Institut für Siedlungswasserbau, Wassergüte- und Abfallwirtschaft der Universität Stuttgart 2009 Khaja Zillur Rahman Treatment of arsenic containing artificial wastewater in different laboratory-scale constructed wetlands Stuttgarter Berichte zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft Band 197 Acknowledgements I would like to express my profound gratitude to Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Rott for supervising this thesis. His guidance and contribution over the course of writing this thesis have been truly invaluable. I would also like to thank Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dr.-Ing. habil. András Bárdossy for providing his expertise as the official co-referee. Special thank goes to Dr. Roland A.

Subjects

Informations

Published by
Published 01 January 2009
Reads 80
Language English
Document size 3 MB

Treatment of arsenic containing artificial
wastewater in different laboratory-scale
constructed wetlands


Von der Fakultät Bau- und Umweltingeieurwissenschaften der
Universität Stuttgart zur Erlangung der Würde eines Doktors der
Ingenieurwissenschaften (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Abhandlung


Vorgelegt von
Khaja Zillur Rahman
aus Bangladesch



Hauptberichter: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Rott
Mitberichter: Prof. Dr. rer.nat. Dr.-Ing. habil. András Bárdossy

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 06. März 2009



Institut für Siedlungswasserbau, Wassergüte- und Abfallwirtschaft der Universität Stuttgart
2009






























Khaja Zillur Rahman

Treatment of arsenic containing artificial
wastewater in different laboratory-scale
constructed wetlands

















Stuttgarter Berichte zur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft
Band 197



























Acknowledgements
I would like to express my profound gratitude to Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Rott for
supervising this thesis. His guidance and contribution over the course of writing this thesis
have been truly invaluable. I would also like to thank Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Dr.-Ing. habil.
András Bárdossy for providing his expertise as the official co-referee.

Special thank goes to Dr. Roland A. Müller, Centre for Environmental Biotechnology
(UbZ), UFZ-Leipzig, for his thoughtful advice and critical remarks time to time. Dr. Peter
Kuschk, Department of Bioremediation, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
(UFZ), Leipzig, deserves enormous thanks for providing me the honor to work in UFZ,
Leipzig. Without them my PhD may not have been possible. Their ceaseless
encouragement, intellectual advice, generous support and profound guidance throughout
the progress and final outcome of this thesis and also for sparing their valuable time for me
in guiding, reading and correcting of my dissertation. I am also thankful to Dr. Arndt
Wießner, Department of Bioremediation, UFZ, Leipzig.

I would like to thank all of them for their never ending patience and endless
encouragement, for improving the quality of the manuscripts and my PhD dissertation by
critically reading and correcting, for sensible comments, personal and scientific support and
understanding, and for many helpful ideas, invaluable suggestions and discussions. I am
also grateful to Dr. Jürgen Mattusch, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ-Leipzig,
especially for the organizing and supporting the facilities of analytical techniques applied
in this work.

I would like to express my heartiest gratitude to the German Federal Ministry of
Education and Research (BMBF) through the International Postgraduate Studies in
Water Technologies (IPSWaT) program that provided financial support during the whole of
my research period. The persons who managed the program within my participation in the
International Doctoral Program Environment Water (ENWAT) of Universität
Stuttgart Dr.-Ing. Sabine Manthey, Dr.-Ing. Gabreile Hartmann, Andrea Bange and
Rainer Enzenhoefer are also gratefully acknowledged.

I am also grateful to Frau Puschendorf and Frau Mäusezahl, Department of
Bioremediation; Frau Volkmann, Frau Penndorf, Herr Jürgen Steffen, Herr Marine,
Frau Dr. Mothes, Department of Analytical Chemistry, UFZ-Leipzig, for their great help
and suggestions concerning the chemical-analytical techniques. My sincere thanks to Herr
Reinhard Schumann, Dr. Uwe Kappelmeyer for their help and technical support in the
experimental set-up and guidance and many wishful thanks to all of my colleagues
especially to Diego Paredes, Jaime Cardona, Anja Offelder, Alvaro Gonzalias.

Finally, I would like to thank my wife Shadia and my parents for all of their love,
enormous encouragement and never-ending support throughout my study. There are no
words to adequately describe the feelings of gratitude for their help and understanding in all
situations.


CONTENTS

Acknowledgement II
List of abbreviation VI
Summary VIII
Zusammenfassung XI
1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Objectives................................................................................................................... 3
1.2 Motivation – arsenic problem worldwide .................................................................. 4
2 Literature Review............................................................................................................ 6
2.1 Arsenic and arsenic species ..................................................................................... 6
2.1.1 Geogenic occurrences........................................................................................6
2.1.2 Sources of and anthropogenic uses ................................................................... 7
2.1.3 Geochemistry of arsenic.................................................................................... 8
2.1.4 Speciation chemistry of arsenic......................................................................... 9
2.1.5 General toxicity of arsenic .............................................................................. 10
2.1.6 Bio-transformation of arsenic species ............................................................. 12
2.1.7 Role of micro-organisms in arsenic transformation and mobility................... 15
2.1.8 Kinetics of arsenic precipitation during bacterial sulphate reduction ............. 18
2.2 Technologies for arsenic removal from the environment................................... 19
2.2.1 Background.....................................................................................................19
2.2.2 Technologies available....................................................................................20
2.2.3 Emergent technologies26
2.2.4 Outlined remarks.............................................................................................32
2.3 Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment ................................................
2.3.1 Wetland definition, classification, design and sizing...................................... 34
2.3.2 Technological aspects/ removal mechanisms.................................................. 38
2.3.3 Role of plant biomass in treatment processes ................................................. 41
2.3.4 Role of microorganisms in treatment process 44
2.3.5 Removal of arsenic and heavy metals ............................................................. 45
2.3.6 Physico-chemical factors effecting performances of constructed wetlands.... 46
2.3.7 Biotic factors effecting arsenic removal in constructed wetlands................... 49
2.3.8 Application of the technology ......................................................................... 55
3 Material and Methods................................................................................................... 56
3.1 Treatment of arsenic in the Planted Fixed Bed Reactor (PFBR)....................... 56
3.1.1 Synthetic wastewater.......................................................................................56
3.1.2 Experimental design: laboratory-scale reactor................................................ 57
3.1.3 Plant biomass59 3.1.4 Experimental conditions..................................................................................60
3.1.5 Sampling..........................................................................................................65
3.2 Treatment in the Laboratory-scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetland ...... 66
3.2.1 Synthetic wastewater.......................................................................................66
3.2.2 Experimental design........................................................................................
3.2.3 Plant biomass...................................................................................................69
3.2.4 Experimental conditions
3.2.5 Maintenance....................................................................................................74
3.2.6 Sampling75
3.3 Analytical methods and calculations .................................................................... 75
3.3.1 Total arsenic75
3.3.2 Arsenic species (inorganic and methylated polar species).............................. 76
3.3.3 Volatile arsenic species ................................................................................... 77
3.3.4 Dissolved sulphide..........................................................................................77
3.3.5 Sulphite and thiosulphate................................................................................77
3.3.6 Elemental sulphur............................................................................................78
3.3.7 Total carbon, total organic carbon and COD ..................................................
3.3.8 Ion chromatography analysis (IC)................................................................... 78
3.3.9 Total arsenic, sulphur, carbon and nitrogen .................................................... 79
3.3.10 Extraction method for total arsenic in plant biomass and sediment................ 79
3.3.11 ethod for arsenic species in plant biomass.................................. 79
3.3.12 Elemental analysis...........................................................................................80
3.4 Other physico-chemical parameters..................................................................... 80
3.4.1 Redox potential (E ) and pH ........................................................................... 80 h
3.4.2 Dissolved oxygen and temperature ................................................................. 81
3.4.3 Dissolved gas (CH , CO ) analysis 81 4 2
3.4.4 Chlorophyll a fluorescence..............................................................................82
3.4.5 Evapo-transpiration and water balance ...........................................................
3.4.6 Shoot density...................................................................................................83
3.4.7 Gravel analysis................................................................................................83
3.4.8 Arsenic adsorptive capacity of gravel .............................................................
3.4.9 Removal efficiency analysis............................................................................ 84
3.4.10 Specific removal rate....................................................................................... 85
4 Results and discussions ................................................................................................. 86
4.1 Treatment of arsenic in the Planted Fixed Bed Reactor (PFBR)....................... 86
4.1.1 Dynamics of arsenic removal .......................................................................... 86
4.1.2 Transformation and dynamics of arsenic species............................................ 92
4.1.3 Dynamics of sulphur and species formation ................................................... 96
IV
4.1.4 Nitrogen removal/species..............................................................................103
4.1.5 Carbon removal.............................................................................................105
4.1.6 Further parameters (shoot density, EVT, Eh and pH)................................... 107
4.1.7 Bioaccumulation of arsenic in plant biomass................................................ 115
4.1.8 Arsenic species accumulation in the plant biomass ...................................... 117
4.1.9 Arsenic in gravel and sludge sediment.......................................................... 119
4.1.10 As-mass balance............................................................................................120
4.1.11 Outcomes and general remarks ..................................................................... 122
4.2 Treatment in subsurface horizontal flow laboratory-scale wetlands .............. 125
4.2.1 Dynamics of As-removal............................................................................... 125
4.2.2 Transformation and dynamics arsenic species .............................................. 130
4.2.3 Sulphur removal133
4.2.4 Nitrogen removal...........................................................................................136
4.2.5 Carbon .............................................................................................138
4.2.6 Further parameters (shoot density, EVT, Eh and pH, CO and CH ) ........... 140 2 4
4.2.7 Bioaccumulation of arsenic in plant biomass................................................ 148
4.2.8 Arsenic in sludge sediment............................................................................ 149
4.2.9 As-mass balance............................................................................................150
4.2.10 Outlined results and principle remarks.......................................................... 152
5 Conclusions .................................................................................................................. 157
5.1 General introduction...............................................................................................157
5.2 Concluding remarks
6 References .................................................................................................................... 159















V
List of Abbreviation
AAS atomic absorption spectrometer/spectrometry
AES atomic emission spectrometry
As arsenic
As(III) arsenite
As(V) arsenate
AVS acid volatile sulphide
BOD biochemical oxygen demand
CW’s constructed wetlands
COD chemical oxygen demand
DO dissolved oxygen
DOC dissolved organic carbon
Eh redox potential
et al. and others, (Latin: et alteri)
Fig. figure
FSW free surface wetland
F fluorescence of photosystem II o
Fm fluorescence following a pulse of saturation light
Fv/Fm photochemical efficiency of photosystem II
HPLC high performance liquid chromatography
HRT hydraulic retention time
IC ion chromatography
ICP inductively coupled plasma
ICP-MS inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry
J. effusus Juncus effusus sp.
MMA monomethyl arsine
MMAA monomethylarsonic acid
PAM 2000 pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer
PFBR planted fixed bed reactor
ppm part per million
sp. species, (Latin: species)
SRB sulphate reducing bacteria
SSW subsurface wetland
TC total carbon
TOC total organic carbon
TMA trimethyl arsine
TMAO trimethylarsine oxide
UASB up flow anaerobic sludge blanket
VI
UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research
WHO World Health Organisation
WW wastewater
WWT treatment
W1 horizontal flow laboratory-scale constructed wetland one
W2 scale constructed wetland two
W3 scale constructed wetland three























VII